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Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
Final Group#2 Project - Kenya
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Final Group#2 Project - Kenya


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    • 1. KenyaAn Exploration of the Culture
      Presented by: Frank Downard, Courteney Duncan, Bethany Foster, Brittney Gesbeck and Julie Hagen
      CMST 101
      May 2011
    • 2. Abstract
      The following is an analysis of various aspects of Kenyan culture as it relates to interpersonal communication. The cultural topics covered will be:
      • nonverbal communication
      • 3. verbal communication
      • 4. gender roles
      • 5. communicative properties of formal and informal clothing
      These will be discussed in the context of various communication principles and concepts, including:
      Through analysis, a better understanding of the culture of Kenya will be encouraged, and through understanding strategies will be developed to facilitate effective communication with the people of Kenya.
    • 10. KENYA: At a Glance
      Located on the east coast of Africa.
      About twice the size of Nevada.
      Name: Republic of Kenya
      Gained independence from European countries in 1963 (British East Africa).
      Official languages: English, Swahili.
      Population: approximately 41 million (2011).
      Nearly half the population is under the age of 15, and the average age is 19.
      Approx. 40 ethnic groups live in Kenya. The major subsets are Kikuyu (22%), Luhya (14%), Luo (13%), Kalenjin (12%), and Kamba (11%).
      Europeans, Arabs and Asians make up only about 1% of the population.
      Nearly half the population is Christian, though pre-Christian beliefs are still common, and Islam is growing.
      (“World Factbook,” 2011)
      Image: The World Factbook (2011)
      Image: The World Factbook (2011)
    • 11. Nonverbal Communication: Cues to Watch for
      The First Impression—Appearance
      Starting with “hello”—Kinesics and Eye Contact
      Continued Interaction—Proxemics, Vocalics, and Dominance
      Do’s and Don'ts—Things to Keep in Mind.
    • 12. Nonverbal Communication: The First Impression
      In urban areas, most business is conducted in formal business attire.
      Men are expected to wear a suit and tie.
      Professional women may also wear suits or dresses. If a skirt is worn, it will be of at least knee-length.
      (“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d.).
      In rural areas, the clothing is much less formal:
      Informal dress will vary depending on the ethnicity prominent in the area visited.
      Clothing may be more revealing in rural areas than urban.
      Some ethnicities use emblems, such as hair styles or jewelry, to indicate certain social statuses: marriage, children, etc.
      Muslim areas, generally along the coast, will often sport traditional Muslim garb
      (“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d.)
      Students and urban youth can be very westernized.
      They will often wear jeans, t-shirts and hip-hop influenced clothing.
      Even among youth, revealing clothing is generally frowned upon.
      (“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d.)
      Image: (2009)
      Image: Sassoon (n.d.)
    • 13. Nonverbal Communication: Starting with “hello”
      Handshakes are expected at greetings between men.
      All men shake hands when greeting one another.
      A younger or subordinate man is often expected to lower his eyes during the greeting.
      Clasping the right hand with the left is also a sign of respect for an elder or superior.
      (“Kenya,” n.d.).
      Greetings for women:
      May include a limp handshake.
      More often consists of a hug and a kiss on the cheek.
      Muslim women often will not exchange greetings with men, and by some doctrines are prohibited from interacting with them at all.
      (“Kenya,” n.d.).
      Image: Hockstein (2008)
    • 14. Nonverbal Communication: Continued Interaction
      After the greeting, business is conducted at arms length.
      Touching is rarely done while conducting business, except between very good friends
      Like many African and Middle Eastern countries, men often hold hands in public in a non-sexual manner.
      Proxemic norms are more relaxed in rural areas, and may include more touching and less personal space than is experienced in the cities or during formal business.
      (“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d; United Nations Office at Nairobi, n.d.).
      It is considered rude to raise one’s voice at any time, even in praise.
      (United Nations Office at Nairobi, n.d.).
      Men are normally greeted and served before women.
      (“Kenya,” n.d.).
      Image: (2009)
    • 15. Nonverbal Communication: Do’s and Don'ts
      Don’tuse your left hand. It is generally reserved for hygiene and sanitation.
      Don’t signal people with your left hand, point, or beckon with your palm facing upward. These actions are considered offensive. Kenyans often use their chin to point, rather than their hand.
      Don’t take pictures of people without their permission—especially the President. This is even more important in rural areas, where superstitions regarding cameras may still linger.
      Don’t decline food or drink if it is offered.
      Do clasp your left hand around the other person’s when shaking hands with an elder. This is an exception to the rule above.
      Do grasp a person’s elbow in greeting instead of their hand if your hands are dirty, and expect them to do the same.
      Do wait for a woman to initiate interaction, if you are a man. Many women are prohibited from interaction with men outside of their family.
      Do offer a tip for taking someone’s picture, especially in rural areas.
      (“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d; United Nations Office at Nairobi, n.d; “Kenya,” n.d.).
      Image: (2009)
    • 16. Verbal Communication
      Image: Wainscoat (n.d.)
      Image: Stanley (n.d.)
    • 17. Verbal Communication: Language
      Kenya is a multilingual country
      Swahili and English are the official languages
      There are 62 other languages spoken in the country
      These consist of African tribal languages
      Most African languages come from three different language families
      Bantu languages
      Nilotic languages
      Cushitic languages
      (“Kenya: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette” (n.d.).
    • 18. Verbal Communication:Kenya Tribes and Linguistic Groups
      The Bantu
      Bantu people live mainly in the coastal, central, and western regions of the country
      They occupy less than 30 percent of Kenya's land base but form more than 70 percent of the population.
      The most notable among the Bantu are the Kikuyu, Luhya, and Kamba tribes
      The Nilotic
      Nilotic people reside in Kenya's broad Rift-Valley region, around Lake Victoria
      The Maasai, Turkana, Samburu, Luo, and Kalenjin are the most significant Nilotic tribes
      The Cushitic
      Cushitic people live in the arid and semi-arid eastern and northeastern parts of Kenya
      Somali are the largest Cushitic ethnic group in Kenya
      Kenyan Asians (mostly Indians)
      Kenyan Arabs (from Yemeni, Omani, and Persian
      Kenyan Europeans (from British origin)
      (“The Kenyan People” (n.d.).
      Images: (n.d.)
    • 19. Verbal Communication:Communicating Through Culture
      Kenya culture is a way of life that is a blend of thousands of years of tradition with modern influences
      Music and Dance
      Traditional music and dance is part of Kenyans' lives and forms an important part of Kenya culture
      Harmonious beats and rhythm are central parts of dance, which is traditionally backed by drums and guitar instruments
      Theatre and Literature
      Kenya has a strong oral tradition
      Stories are passed on throughout the generations, often in the form on song
      The Kenya National Theatre is a performing art center for cultural music, dance, and plays written by Kenyan authors
      Art and Artifacts
      Most arts and artifacts are crafted manually from local materials
      Beautifully carved wood sculptures are produced in large quantities and sold to tourists
      Other popular Kenya artifacts include colorful hand-woven sisal baskets, beaded jewelry, gold and silver jewelry, musical instruments, tribal masks, figurines, paintings, prints, and beautiful traditional Kikoys (African sarongs)
      (“Kenya Culture” (n.d.).
      Image: (n.d.)
      Image: (2009)
    • 20. Gender Roles
      The differences between men and women in Kenya
    • 21. Kenyan Men Centuries of Tradition
      Regulator of Life
      Make all decisions
      Own all property
      Primary Family
      Women become property of family
      Women are forced to marry other male members within family
      Image: intrepid travel (2009)
      Image: (2010)
    • 22. Women of Kenya struggling to be heard
      Second Class Citizens, Voices not heard
      Man is head of household
      Little to no influence regarding decisions and their own lives
      Not able to own property or land worked
      Forced into marriage
      If widowed, women are “inherited” by brother or close relative
      Changes are possible
      Article 27(8) – Government & Legislature to implement principles of no more then 2/3 of the members shall be the same gender
      Article 81 – adopt same principle as above
      Article 91 – Political parties respect & promote equality
      MEGEN – Men for Gender Equality Now
      Recognizes need for men to participate in the fight for gender equality
      Image: (2009)
      Image: (2010)
    • 23. Times, they are changing…
      Tribal life
      Older Women
      Hold important roles in tribal life
      Command Respect
      Different Types of attitudes in men
      Resistance to change
      Mzalendo, Eye on Kenyan Parliament
      Women and Top Political Office
      21 out of 222 parliamentarians are women
      7 out of 44 women are permanent secretaries
      7 out of 425 ministers are women
      Image: (2011)
      Image: Wall Street Journal (2010)
    • 24. Kenyan Diverse Styles of Dress
      Formal and Informal
    • 25. Diversity of Kenya Formal Dress
      Kikuyu Tribe
      Western society influence
      Large, square pieces of red & blue cloth
      Fling over their bodies & tie around their neck/shoulders
      Masai Maria Tribe
      Vast plate-like bead necklaces
      Colorful wraps
      Red checkered blanket
      Red indicates power
      Carry a distinctive ball-ended club
      Kikuyu Tribe typical woman in formal dress; Shuka is proudly shown
      Men of the Masai Maria Tribe in typical formal dress
    • 26. Diversity of Kenya Formal Dress
      Western Culture Inspired
      Kalenjin Tribe
      Suit jacket
      Sport coat
      Akamba Tribe
      Leather short kilts
      Made from animal skins or tree bark
      Woman of Kalenjin Tribe
      Women member of the Akamba Tribe
    • 27. Diversity of Kenya Formal Dress
      Luhya Tribe
      Traditional clothing
      Worn on specific occasions
      Worn only by certain people
      Cultural Dancing
      Wear feathered hats
      Skirts made of sisal strands
      Circumcision Rites
      Wear clothing made of skins
      Paint themselves with red ochre (a pigment) or ash
      Turkana Tribe
      Sheepskins/goatskins dyed red or black
      Create Mohawks, adorned with beads
      Wear wrap as tunics
      Women of the Luhya Tribe
      Members of the Turkana Tribe, with the adorned Mohawk
    • 28. Kenyan Informal Dress
      Western style clothing
      Rich cultural heritage
      Kanga Tribe with colorful cloth used as shirts, shawls, and skirts
    • 29. Kenyan Informal Dress
      Turkana Dress
      Both men and women wear brightly colored objects around their necks
      Wrist knives
      Walking sticks
      Wear oblios
      Necklaces that Turkana women wear upon reaching the appropriate age to marry
      Masai Dress
      Dress according to the traditional nomadic ways as herders
      Bead necklaces
      Red-checkered blankets, shukas
      Coastal Regions
      Long robes
      Traditional hat
      Kikois and Kikoys
      Brightly colored cloth which can be worn many ways
      Tribal members with Kofias, traditional hat
      Tribal men wearing Kikoys, brightly colored cloth
    • 30. Questions
      What is the significance of eye contact during a greeting, and how would you use this knowledge to your advantage?
      Does it matter when greeting the same/different gender? If so, how do you compensate?
      As Kenya’s society progresses into a more democratic state, will women of prominence be accepted more easily?
      If women of Kenya are to initiate contact, and they are not as respected as much as men, how effective is a woman’s communication if she is so restricted by the cultural standards imposed upon her?
    • 31. REFERENCES
      Hockstein, E. (Photographer). (2008). [Photograph of Kibaki, Odinga, and Annan]. Retrieved from
      Kenya: language, culture, customs and etiquette (n.d.). Retrieved from
      Kenya (n.d.). Retrieved from
      Sassoon, S. (Photographer).(n.d.). [Untitled Photograph of Masai Women and Children], retrieved May 20, 2011 from
      United Nations Office Nairobi (n.d.). Cultural do’s and dont’s. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Hillary Clinton in Nairobi]. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from
      World Factbook, The. (2011). Retrieved from
      Kenya Culture (n.d.). Retrieved from
      Kenya: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette (n.d.). Retrieved from
      Marrow, E. (2009). [Untitled Photograph of Kenyan People Dancing]. Retrieved from
      Stanley, S. (Photographer). (n.d.). [Untitled Photograph of Two Warriors from Samburu Tribe]. Retrieved from
      The Kenyan People (n.d.). Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Ethnic Groups in Kenya]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Kenya Art]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photographs of Nilotic Women and Cushitic Woman]. Retrieved from
      Wainscoat, R. (Photographer). (n.d.). [Untitled Photograph of Masai People]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Prostitution Refugees in Kenya]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Women in Kenya]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Fashion in Kenya]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Women of Africa]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Men of Kenya]. Retrieved from
      [Untitled Photograph of Women of Change]. Retrieved from
      Discrimination against women in Kenya (n.d.). Retrieved on May 21, 2011, from
      Gender Equality and Social Institutions. (n.d.). Retrieved on May 21, 2011, from