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  • RTI at both the elementary and the secondary level is an opportunity to create better learning environments for struggling or striving children and adolescents.
  • The Guiding Principles were created from a diverse group of educatorsIncreasing levels of teacher expertise required at each level  greater level of intensity of instruction (intervention). ONE REASON EXPERTISE IS SO CRITICAL IS THAT INSTRUCTION IS NOT A PACKAGED PROGRAM it is a teacher using authentic, motivating texts for the students who are engaged in the learning process.  It is a teacher who uses dynamic, ongoing assessment to inform instruction minute to minute.   EXAMPLES of DIFFERENTIATION: CARLY:   CARLY: Kids were having trouble "determining what is important when reading"--this is especially true for non-fiction texts.  HOW something is FORMED--3 different books for students who have different readability levels.  Skills that were focused on were determining importance, main idea, and synthesizing. Students were placed in groups based on both their reading level as well as strength with the skills. Water Cycle- students that needed a text that was on a lower than fourth grade level. Water Works- students who had a challenge with the skills and needed to focus on one process. Students that needed little reading but were strong on the skill were read with and given assistance in beginning of the sequencing chart. Students that needed more help with the skill than with reading read independently but were given more guidance during the sequencing portion. Mountains- slightly higher text but still on a fourth grade level. This was for students that needed more of an extension with the skill because there were 4 mountains that were being described. I rotated between these two groups to ensure their understanding in the layout of the earth and to summarize the 4 types of mountains. I summarized the key points with all groups. All handouts were similar and assessed the comprehension of students. There was a key vocabulary piece in which students identified and then drew a diagram and labeled important words, a comprehension piece (students with an IEP had page numbers, and a sequencing chain. All students created a billboard piece that assessed the skills stated prior. MEGAN- “Fair is giving each student what they need to be successful, not treating everyone the same.” My students hear this on repeat throughout the beginning of the year, and by now, each student is generally very accepting of the differences in instruction and methods students present work. I have students using timers to help them stay on task, and others simply ignore the beeping of setting them or when they go off. I have students with reduced output or scribe, and while initially ALL second graders would line up to have a teacher write for them, or do “less” work, there is not a single complaint or comparison among classmates. Directions are often color coded for the academic needs/support needed by student, and it’s to the point where students hardly even look at the other colors directions. This does not come easy, but I work to emphasize and celebrate differences, as well as frequently discuss my personal strengths, needs, and areas I’m trying to improve upon. When they see we’re all works in progress, it seems to help the students compare less. (If these comments are off focus, just let me know. I know they are more general, I’m having a hard time thinking of specific examples).
  •   BPL Increasing levels of teacher expertise required at each level  greater level of intensity of instruction (intervention). ONE REASON EXPERTISE IS SO CRITICAL IS THAT INSTRUCTION IS NOT A PACKAGED PROGRAM it is a teacher using authentic, motivating texts for the students who are engaged in the learning process.  It is a teacher who uses dynamic, ongoing assessment to inform instruction minute to minute.   EXAMPLES of DIFFERENTIATION: CARLY:   CARLY: Kids were having trouble "determining what is important when reading"--this is especially true for non-fiction texts.  HOW something is FORMED--3 different books for students who have different readability levels.  Skills that were focused on were determining importance, main idea, and synthesizing. Students were placed in groups based on both their reading level as well as strength with the skills. Water Cycle- students that needed a text that was on a lower than fourth grade level. Water Works- students who had a challenge with the skills and needed to focus on one process. Students that needed little reading but were strong on the skill were read with and given assistance in beginning of the sequencing chart. Students that needed more help with the skill than with reading read independently but were given more guidance during the sequencing portion. Mountains- slightly higher text but still on a fourth grade level. This was for students that needed more of an extension with the skill because there were 4 mountains that were being described. I rotated between these two groups to ensure their understanding in the layout of the earth and to summarize the 4 types of mountains. I summarized the key points with all groups. All handouts were similar and assessed the comprehension of students. There was a key vocabulary piece in which students identified and then drew a diagram and labeled important words, a comprehension piece (students with an IEP had page numbers, and a sequencing chain. All students created a billboard piece that assessed the skills stated prior. MEGAN- “Fair is giving each student what they need to be successful, not treating everyone the same.” My students hear this on repeat throughout the beginning of the year, and by now, each student is generally very accepting of the differences in instruction and methods students present work. I have students using timers to help them stay on task, and others simply ignore the beeping of setting them or when they go off. I have students with reduced output or scribe, and while initially ALL second graders would line up to have a teacher write for them, or do “less” work, there is not a single complaint or comparison among classmates. Directions are often color coded for the academic needs/support needed by student, and it’s to the point where students hardly even look at the other colors directions. This does not come easy, but I work to emphasize and celebrate differences, as well as frequently discuss my personal strengths, needs, and areas I’m trying to improve upon. When they see we’re all works in progress, it seems to help the students compare less. (If these comments are off focus, just let me know. I know they are more general, I’m having a hard time thinking of specific examples).
  • What does this mean to you? Quick share with a partner
  • Articulation between tiers, between departments, between classroom teachers and other professionals are all the focus of RTI. No more silos!
  •   Comprehensive & systemic  approach requires all teachers to collaborate in multi-dimensional ways.   Reduce fragmentation. To increase alignment of curriculum. CARLY—Collaborating with Dawn….
  • READ THIS SLIDE. We are going to learn a strategy that you might be able to take back to your classrooms. After we learn the strategy together, we will practice collaborating with a colleague to consider how to best use this strategy in a classroom.
  • Developed for students who have poor comprehension, language delays, hyperlexia, or autism, this activity builds background knowledge, conceptual knowledge, vocabulary, and connected language. Visualizing and Verbalizing is based on Dual Coding Theory (Paivio, 1971; Sadoski, 2006) in that it focuses on how crucial images are to cognition and comprehension; there is a relationship between non-verbal and verbal stimuli. It is based on some research that students who struggle have to understand and picture the WHOLE. It develops the imagery to verbal connection. This activity can be used with preschool students through high school and adults. Teacher prepares a series of visual images. It is helpful if they are laminated so that they can be used repeatedly. In a relaxed atmosphere, children examine the pictures. The teacher directs what students should focus on by using 14 structure words. The structure words are what size color number shape where movement mood background perspective when sound . SMELL TOUCH These words, then, are used by the children to verbalize what it is that they are seeing in the image. Students gain most when this activity is practiced frequently. Many teachers of students who need extra help, use Visualizing and Verbalizing everyday. I model with this picture: What? Size/Age? How many? When? Background? Mood? THEN WE WILL DO ONE TOGETHER. Then, you will have a chance to practice one on your own. I-WE-You model of teaching-learning/Gradual release of responsibility.
  • This one we are going to do TOGETHER. What do you see? What size? What number? Where is this? What movement? Can you make an INFERENCE about the mood displayed in this picture? Tell about the background Who do you think is holding the camera? Can you draw any conclusions about when this picture takes place (contemporary; middle of the day) Do you think a sound is associated with this scene?
  • Turn to your neighbor and spend 1-2 minutes discussing what you see (VISUALIZE) and what you can SAY (VERBALIZE) about this picture?
  • In a minute we are going to look more closely at the roles of these school-based professionals. Right now, though let’s talk about communication
  • Brainstorm Ideas: What terms come to mind when you think of RTI?Work Toward Shared Understanding: What terms might get in the way of our collaborating?  Terms What is the understanding of each collaborator regarding the meaning of this term?  What is our agreed upon meaning?*   
  • Fig the Pig? Bottom Up vs. Top Down models. Automaticity Reading Model. Braunger & Lewis (2006) explain how automaticity is the ability to quickly decode words. But, it is more complex than just simply decoding words. Because, it is strongly connected to fluency which is the ability to read aloud words of connected text smoothly and accurately. Fluency allows the reader to direct all of their attention toward the meaning of the text, which leads to improved reading comprehension. As Chall (1996) mentions students need to have the ability to “unglue from print” (as cited in Braunger & Lewis, 2006, p.136), so they have time to process the new information communicated in the text. Braunger & Lewis (2006) explain that fluency improves with frequent practice.
  • The socio-cultural model will ask: Can you read these (Hebrew) numbers? The Automaticity model will have you practice until you are fluent in reading these digits. The Critical Literacy model might ask: What is the importance of me/others reading these numbers? Will this enhance my power in society? (If you don't know anything about a subject, then pouring words of text into your mind is like pouring water into your open hand. You can’t retain much.) Do a Quick Share with a neighbor: Come up with 3-5 ways that teachers can provide mental structures for students to have successful comprehending experiences. What do teachers do that facilitates linking of new ideas to extant ideas/knowledge? My gardening experience with roses is an example: I had to have many positive experiences with other sprouts before I could try my hand at growing roses or orchids. They are more specialized. Ideas: Graphic Organizers help us chunk information…
  • This is “declarative knowledge” Now let’s turn to our growing “procedural knowledge”—how we can collaborate with other professionals to make this literacy instruction happen for all students.
  • One aspect of our growing expertise Collaboration should increase, not reduce, the coherence of the instructional offerings experienced by struggling readers. There must be congruence between core language and literacy instruction and interventions. This requires a shared vision and common goals for language and literacy instruction and assessment, adequate time for communication and coordinated planning among general educator and specialist teachers, and integrated professional development.
  • Beyond Cooperation: Collaboration
  • The first step in professional collaboration is to recognize that traditionally held notions about who works with whom, and toward what end, no longer apply. For example, in many schools across the country, it is assumed that general educators teach students within a certain range of academic performance, while special educators teach students within a different range of performance. General educators teach students who may struggle at times, but whose struggles are viewed as within the general educator’s realm of expertise to address. Special educators, on the other hand, teach students who are viewed as unable to benefit from the expertise of the general educator and, instead, require a different set of skills and underlying knowledge, possessed by the special educator. When these assumptions are made, general educators are expected to be able to differentiate instruction but not necessarily use interventions and they may or may not be expected to monitor progress in ways that special educators would. On the other hand, special educators may be expected to use interventions that may or may not closely linked to the general education curriculum and may be accustomed to monitoring progress with data that general educators do not understand or value. In some settings, the general educator is viewed as the content expert and the special educator is viewed as the adaptation and behavioral expert or interventionist. These are just a few examples of the ways in which general and special educators may assume very different roles in a school and, of course, every school is different. Take a moment and consider the roles that general and special educators take in your school. Which students are instructed by which teachers? When both a general and a special educator are in the same classroom, are they co-teaching, parallel teaching, or is one acting as “the teacher” and one as “the assistant?” How and when do general and special educators share information about students? What is the purpose of this sharing?Ideally, RTI is carried out within a context of true collaboration and shared expertise. In this sense, RTI is, for many schools, a very different way of conceptualizing general and special education, and the link between the two, as well as the role of other teaching specialists. Whereas general and special educators may be used to working independently of one another, or in separate silos, RTI calls for deliberate, intentional, ongoing, collaboration. Not to be confused with cooperation, which can involve working together without a shared purpose, we define collaboration as the joining of forces, the pooling of resources, and the sharing of expertise in order to meet shared goals for instruction and assessment. Ideally, this collaboration is supported at the district, state, and national level and reflected in the establishment of common ground between professional associations.The key players in this collaborative effort are all of those who have expertise and impact on about this students---who he/she is and how he/she learns. This would include, but not necessarily be limited to:
  • Activity: Examining three cases from different roles
  • ACTIVITY IN SMALL GROUPS
  • ONE REASON EXPERTISE IS SO CRITICAL IS THAT INSTRUCTION IS NOT A PACKAGED PROGRAM it is a teacher using authentic, motivating texts for the students who are engaged in the learning process.  It is a teacher who uses dynamic, ongoing assessment to inform instruction minute to minute. ONE REASON EXPERTISE IS SO CRITICAL IS THAT INSTRUCTION IS NOT A PACKAGED PROGRAM it is a teacher using authentic, motivating texts for the students who are engaged in the learning process.  It is a teacher who uses dynamic, ongoing assessment to inform instruction minute to minute.
  • It’s an issue of building capacity; teacher knowledge and expertise   We hope to have given you a sense of what the RTI Commission sees as vitally important, as well as some related resources, and that this information is useful as you think about your own context and how to move forward with RTI, from wherever you are right now.   Now, we will address some of the questions that were raised by you.

Psy laster Psy laster Presentation Transcript

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  • Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Ehren, Ehren & Proly (2009) Alternative Three-Tiered Version
  • Beware: Isolated tiers or isolated school-based professionals can work against collaboration for RTI.
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  • General Educator Special Educator Reading Specialist SLP School Psychologist Parent/Older Student Administrator
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