Psy kilmer

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Psy kilmer

  1. 1. Helping Readers Soar with Reciprocal Teaching Presented by Jennifer Kilmer 3 rd grade: South Western School District
  2. 2. What’s already in your head? <ul><li>What do good readers do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wordle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grade level sort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary, intermediate, middle school, high school? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bystander, walker, jogger, or runner? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is RT? <ul><li>A scaffolded discussion technique built on four strategies that good readers use to comprehend text: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>predict, clarify question, and summarize (Palincsar & Brown) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeared in literacy journals in the 1980’s, but is more recently becoming more used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What’s hot” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What are the Goals of RT? <ul><li>To improve students’ reading comprehension using four comprehension strategies: predict, clarify, question, summarize </li></ul><ul><li>To scaffold the four strategies by modeling, guiding, and applying the strategies while reading </li></ul><ul><li>To guide students to become metacognitive and reflective in their strategy use </li></ul><ul><li>To help students monitor their reading comprehension using the four strategies </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are the Goals of RT? (continued) <ul><li>To use the social nature of learning to improve and scaffold reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen instruction in a variety of classroom settings-whole group, guided reading groups, literature circles, intervention </li></ul><ul><li>To be a part of the broader framework of comprehension strategies that comprises previewing, self-questioning, making connections, visualizing, knowing how work, monitoring, summarizing, and evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Harvey & Goudvis, 2007; Keene & Zimmermann, 2007; McLaughlin & Allen, 2002; Oczkus, 2004, 2010; Pearson, Roehler, Dole, and Duffy, 1992) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What does the research say about RT? <ul><li>Creators of RT – Palincsar and Brown (1986) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used RT with a group of students for 15-20 days, students’ reading on a comprehension assessment increased from 30% to 70-80% (Oczkus, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study by Palincsar and Klenk (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students comprehension not only improved immediately, but students also maintained their improved comprehension skills when tested a year later </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Originally designed for small-group instruction with struggling middle school students </li></ul><ul><li>Proven to produce consistent positive results when implemented across all grade-levels and groupings (small group, whole group, teacher led groups, etc.) </li></ul>
  7. 7. What does the research say about RT? <ul><li>Rosenshine and Meister (1994) reviewed 16 studies of RT and concluded that reciprocal teaching is a technique that improves reading comprehension (Oczkus, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Lubliner (2001) stated that, “RT is an effective teaching technique that improves on the kind of reading comprehension that is necessary not only for improved test scores, but also for life in the information age.” (Oczkus, 2010). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Minute Social!! <ul><li>Please take the next 2 minutes to get up out of your seat and share with colleagues what you have heard so far, and what you are wondering about when it comes to RT. Be sure to look at the materials I use to teach RT. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How do I implement RT in my classroom? <ul><li>Use at any grade level and in all genres (fiction, nonfiction, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce each strategy individually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two lessons on each strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher modeling scaffolding, think-alouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I do, we do, you do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Use of props, gestures, etc. (optional) </li></ul>
  10. 10. How do I Implement RT in my classroom? <ul><li>Introduce each strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Model each strategy individually through a think-aloud. </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffold instruction through interactive, shared, and guided reading </li></ul><ul><li>Use in whole group, buddy, or cooperative group </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive assessment (based on strategy of focus) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Predict Lori D. Oczkus, 2010 <ul><li>Predicting with fiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview cover, title, and illustrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview text structure looking for clues using story structure: setting, characters, problem, resolution, events, and a theme or lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the frame: I think this is about…because… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predicting with nonfiction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview headings, illustrations, and text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for clues to predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview text structure and decide if it is compare-contrast, sequence, main idea and details, cause-effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the frame: I think I will learn…because… </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Clarify <ul><li>“ Keeping track of one’s comprehension of the text and knowing fix-up strategies to maintain meaning during reading.” Lori D. Oczkus, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying Strategies: to clarify an idea </li></ul><ul><li>I reread the parts that I don’t understand. </li></ul><ul><li>I read on to look for clues </li></ul><ul><li>I think about what I know </li></ul><ul><li>I talk to a friend </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying Strategies: to clarify a word </li></ul><ul><li>I reread </li></ul><ul><li>I look for word parts I know </li></ul><ul><li>I try to blend the sounds together </li></ul><ul><li>I think of another word that looks like this word. </li></ul><ul><li>I read on to find clues. </li></ul><ul><li>I try another word that makes sense. </li></ul>
  13. 13. LGPS <ul><li>L ocal Context Clues (sentences: same, before, after) </li></ul><ul><li>G lobal Context Clues (pictures, captions, headings) </li></ul><ul><li>P rior Knowledge (What do I already know?) </li></ul><ul><li>S tructural Analysis (What do I see?) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Give one, Get one <ul><li>Using notes you have recorded in your graphic organizer, let’s share what we have learned! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Question <ul><li>Good readers ask wonder questions before and during reading. </li></ul><ul><li>During reading good readers ask “quiz” questions that can be answered or inferred from the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Question stems, questions cans/bags </li></ul><ul><li>In the book/In my head </li></ul>
  16. 16. Summarize <ul><li>Researched-based way to improve reading comprehension (Duke & Pearson, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize during and after reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization depends on type of text. (Lipson, 1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative-characters, setting, problem/solution, events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expository-important points/ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make it exciting!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 word summary, human paragraph, pass a summary, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Let’s practice!
  18. 18. Where do the other reading strategies/skills fit in with RT? <ul><li>Predict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genre, text elements, author’s purpose, main idea and details, vocabulary, reader’s aids, text features, text structure, inference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phonics, vocabulary (multiple meaning, antonyms, synonyms), decoding (prefixes, suffixes, compound words, inference, fluency, connections, figurative language, self-monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>question answer relationships, locating important information, self-questioning, reading for a purpose, skim/scan, text structure signal words, text connections, question stems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>main idea/details, generalization, paraphrase, conclusions, themes, author’s purpose, text structure, graphic organizers, visualizing, note taking, synthesize, monitoring comprehension </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Two Minute Social!! <ul><li>Please take the next 2 minutes to get up out of your seat and share with colleagues what you have heard so far, and what you are wondering about when it comes to RT. Be sure to look at the materials I use to teach RT. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How does RT connect with RTI? <ul><li>RTI is “a process of implementing high-quality, scientifically validated instructional practices based on learner needs, monitoring student progress, and adjusting instruction based on student’s response to the intervention.” </li></ul><ul><li>RT works as an intervention on all 3 tiers of RTI </li></ul>
  21. 21. How does RT connect with RTI? <ul><li>Tier 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach all 4 strategies as a package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use tools to monitor RT strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use in a variety of groupings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide targeted instruction through mini-lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use RT with read-aloud, shared reading, small groups, partner reading, and independent reading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tier 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet with target students and provide small group instruction using all 4 RT strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach quick mini-lessons based on students needs with the strategies (P,C,Q,S) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide extra word work and support in phonics and phonemic awareness after reading text using the Fab Four </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tier 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide more direct instruction in books at student’s instruction level using all 4 RT strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to provide specific word work needed based on observations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide mini-lessons on each of the strategies when needed. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. 3-2-1 Summarizer <ul><li>3 Things you learned… </li></ul><ul><li>2 Things you want to try… </li></ul><ul><li>1 thing you are still wondering… </li></ul>
  23. 23. Resources <ul><li>Lori D. Oczkus. Reciprocal Teaching at Work K-12: Powerful Strategies and Lessons for Improving Reading Comprehension . International Reading Association, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>ISBN: 978-0-87207-507-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Julie B. Wise: Powerful Prescription (RT training session) </li></ul>Questions/Comments Email: jen_kilmer@swsd.k12.pa.us
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