Russell writenow ch04


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Russell writenow ch04

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill 4The CriticalThinking, Reading, andWriting Connection
  2. 2. 4-24-2 McGraw-Hill Learning Outcomes The student will learn techniques for: • Interpreting written texts. • Participating in class discussions about readings. • Interpreting visual texts, including photographs, graphs, advertisements, and Web sites. • Identifying logical fallacies.
  3. 3. 4-34-3 McGraw-Hill Pre-read and Anticipate (LO 4.1) Prior to reading… • Publication information: Determine where and when the article was originally published. • Biographical information: Establish the author’s background and qualifications; decide if bias may be possible. • Title: Think about the title of the piece and what expectations it creates.
  4. 4. 4-44-4 McGraw-Hill Pre-read and Anticipate (contd.) Prior to reading… • Overview: Skim through the text, paying close attention to headings and visual images; read introductory paragraphs and topic sentences. • Predictions: Based on your pre-reading, establish what you already know and predict what you expect to learn.
  5. 5. 4-54-5 McGraw-Hill Read and Analyze(LO 4.1) Take your time • Main idea: Determine the thesis; is the point clear? • Supporting points: Identify specific details and examples used to prove the thesis • Rhetorical star: Establish the five points of the rhetorical star
  6. 6. 4-64-6 McGraw-Hill Re-read and Annotate (LO 4.1) Read a second time while taking notes. • Define: List words that are unfamiliar. • Summarize: List the main points and supporting details. • Visualize: Create a visual organizer of the material. • Synthesize: Make connections with the readings. • Question and Evaluate: Ask a variety of questions.
  7. 7. 4-74-7 McGraw-Hill Discussions about Readings (LO 4.2) • Read carefully and have notes on the material handy. • Skim the questions at the end of the selection. • Listen to the discussion with an open mind.
  8. 8. 4-84-8 McGraw-Hill Discussions about Readings (contd.) • Share your opinions even if they are different; be considerate of others’ opinions. • Ask questions about the text if you feel confused. • Take notes during the discussion.
  9. 9. 4-94-9 McGraw-Hill Interpreting Visual Texts (LO 4.3) • Determine the focus of the image. • Look for the conveyed purpose or message. • Establish the target audience. • Compare any written text with the visual representation. • Decide if the image is logical or misleading. • Determine if the image is effective.
  10. 10. 4-104-10 McGraw-Hill Interpreting Visual Texts (contd.) • Establish the author’s credibility. • Check for the posting date. • Verify the information. • Look for reference citations. • Use previous strategies to evaluate visual images. • Check if the hyperlinks work and are appropriate. • Determine if the material is effective and accurate.
  11. 11. 4-114-11 McGraw-Hill Logical Fallacies (4.4) • Band wagon: implying that an idea must be accurate if it is popular • Card stacking: providing evidence for only one side of a case, deliberately omitting essential information that could change the reader’s opinion • Character attack or ad hominem: attacking the speaker rather than the issue
  12. 12. 4-124-12 McGraw-Hill Logical Fallacies (contd.) • Circular reasoning or begging the question: attempting to support a position by simply restating it in a different way • Either/or reasoning: suggesting there are only two possible solutions to a problem when, in reality, there could be many potential options to resolving the issue
  13. 13. 4-134-13 McGraw-Hill Logical Fallacies (contd.) • False analogy: comparing things that differ in the most important respects • False authority or testimonial: using an authority or celebrity figure to support a point • False cause or post hoc: suggesting that, because one thing happened after another, the first event caused the second one
  14. 14. 4-144-14 McGraw-Hill Logical Fallacies (contd.) • Hasty generalization: drawing a conclusion without having sufficient evidence • Non sequitur: the conclusion does not logically follow the evidence that is provided • Red herring: diverting the reader’s attention away from the main issue by introducing something irrelevant
  15. 15. 4-154-15 McGraw-Hill Logical Fallacies (contd.) • Glittering generality: using emotionally charged words to gain audience approval • Slippery slope: suggesting that if one change occurs, then other unwanted changes will follow
  16. 16. 4-164-16 McGraw-Hill Logical Fallacies (contd.) • Stereotyping: attaching a trait to members of a particular religious, ethnic, racial, age, or other group • Tradition: assuming that because something has always been done a certain way, it must be the correct way
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