Memory, Teaching, and Learning EDCI 500-Educational Psychology Chapter 7: Cognitive Views of Learning Julie Moring October...
Memory <ul><li>More than one type of memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory memory: processes environmental stimuli to sense...
Memory <ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where new information is held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary...
Memory <ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds information that is well learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca...
Memory <ul><li>Contents (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words/Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information stored verba...
How is memory affected? <ul><li>By learning and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Significant interference from events/experien...
What can teachers do to help students? <ul><li>Help students develop metacognitive skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach lear...
Developing Declarative Knowledge <ul><li>Make lessons meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Link current knowledge to new informati...
Keys to effective learning <ul><li>Attention to learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get and maintain students attention </li></...
References <ul><li>Video: Remembering and Forgetting from Learner.org </li></ul><ul><li>Woolfolk, A.(2007). Educational Ps...
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Moring Memory, Teaching, And Learning Edci 500 Wk 7

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Moring Memory, Teaching, And Learning Edci 500 Wk 7

  1. 1. Memory, Teaching, and Learning EDCI 500-Educational Psychology Chapter 7: Cognitive Views of Learning Julie Moring October 20, 2008
  2. 2. Memory <ul><li>More than one type of memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory memory: processes environmental stimuli to senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception-environmental stimuli combined with prior knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up processing-stimuli arranged into patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down processing-recognition of patterns/parts already known </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large capacity, short duration (1-3 seconds) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Memory <ul><li>Working Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where new information is held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary, combined with long-term memory knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier and quicker to retrieve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Executive-controls attention/other mental resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological Loop-holds verbal/acoustical information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visuospatial Sketchpad-visual/spatial information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 to 20 seconds, unless rehearsed, practiced </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Memory <ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds information that is well learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity is unlimited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Info remains permanently, but requires time/effort to retrieve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declarative knowledge- “knowing that” something is the case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural knowledge- “knowing how” to do something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditional knowledge- “knowing when/why” to apply type of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be either general or domain-specific knowledge </li></ul>
  5. 5. Memory <ul><li>Contents (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words/Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information stored verbally/visually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to learn if stored both ways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of long-term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit Memory (for meaning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic-not connected to events/experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic-connected to events/experiences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural Memory-how to do things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priming-using info by unconscious process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Also, classical conditioning; 1 st type of implicit memory) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. How is memory affected? <ul><li>By learning and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Significant interference from events/experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Wishes, fears, fantasies </li></ul><ul><li>Physical state </li></ul><ul><li>Biological condition </li></ul>
  7. 7. What can teachers do to help students? <ul><li>Help students develop metacognitive skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach learning strategies to assist learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. : “DEFENDS” writing strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ LINCS” vocabulary strategy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive skills enable students to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose best approach to learning task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change strategies if necessary </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Developing Declarative Knowledge <ul><li>Make lessons meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Link current knowledge to new information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual images-graphic organizers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mnemonics-loci method, acronyms, keyword method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part learning, distributed practice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Keys to effective learning <ul><li>Attention to learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get and maintain students attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation to learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach self-motivation; role model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link current knowledge to new information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find out what they know first; establish relationship between past/new knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make lessons meaningful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employ various learning strategies/methods of teaching </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. References <ul><li>Video: Remembering and Forgetting from Learner.org </li></ul><ul><li>Woolfolk, A.(2007). Educational Psychology. (10 th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon </li></ul>

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