Decreased lung capacity, cough less effective allowing pooling of fluid in lungs, shortness of breath on exertion, less effective oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange
Heart rate slows, BP may increase, slower recovery after activity, veins enlarged.
Kidney more active at rest, increasing nighttime urination; bladder muscles weaken, causing leaking or inadequate bladder emptying; prostate gland (men) frequently enlarges, causing dribbling, retention, or difficulty urinating.
Reduced strength, endurance, muscle tone, and reaction time. Posture may become poor because of weak muscles, causing back pain and pressure on organs. Joint deterioration results in limited movement, stiffness and pain.
Bones lose minerals, become more brittle, break more easily. The spine is less stable, less flexible, and more easily injured.
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