HOW DOES STRESS
By GROUP 16
Jullian De Leon
Jessica D. Mitchell
Julia Lauren Taylor
STRESS : Deﬁnitions
A normal physical response to events that make you
feel threatened or upset your balance in some way
The body’s way of protecting you (Smith, 2009).
A physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes
bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease
causation.(Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2009).
A state resulting from a stress; especially: one of bodily
or mental tension resulting from factors that tend to
alter an existent equilibrium (Merriam-Webster Online
•Stress considered a precursor of health problems, becoming
increasingly common of modern life ( Statistics Canada 1994 – 2001)
•Adults who suffered high stress in 1994/95 had higher odds of
developing a number of chronic conditions by 2000/01.
Of the various sources of stress ( 34 were considered in the analysis),
chronic strains, continuing problems with crowded schedules, ﬁnances
and relationships – appeared to be the most potent (Statistics Canada
1994 – 2001).
Each additional stressor reported in 1994/95 led to 6% increase in the
odds of reporting a chronic condition six years later for men, and an 8%
increase for women (Statistics Canada 1994 – 2001).
WHAT ARE THE FEELINGS OF
A heavy load on ones May lead to -
Feeling of Uneasiness, Lonely
Stage 1 - Mobilizing Energy
Release of adrenaline, increased heart rate, and you start to breathe
Stage 2 - Consuming Energy Stores
If the stress persists, your body begins to release stored substances.
You may experience anxiety, memory loss, decreased immune
Stage 3 - Draining Energy Stores
If stress persists further, the body's need for energy will become
greater than its ability to produce it. You may experience insomnia,
errors in judgement, and personality changes.
The Stress Trigger
Every disturbance of the body, either real or imagined, evokes a
1. Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system.
3. Glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal cortex.
5. Two types of corticosteroid receptors:
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) integrates hormonal signalling and
activates the expression of aldosterone target genes, which control various
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind
to. GR is expressed in almost every cell in the body and regulates genes
controlling the development, metabolism, and immune response.
External : challenges of physical
daily routines and environment
Major life changes
Relationship and family
Internal : response to external
factors – how you handle
stress and maintain well-being
Lack of conﬁdence/assertiveness
SHORT TERM STRESS
-Adrenaline release is a response to short
-This happens when your body is
responding to what is perceived to be a
-When the body encounters a threat it it
gets geared up for a "ﬁght of ﬂight"
SHORT TERM STRESS
Physical Symptoms related to short term
Breathing rapidly / Increase Heart Rate
Cold hands and feet / Excessive sweating
Nausea / Gastrointestinal Irritability
Tension / Headaches
LONG TERM STRESS
-Prolonged exposure to
-Negative health outcomes
-Severe stress can lead to many
illnesses and health problems.
PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS RELATED
TO LONG TERM STRESS
Body aches and pains
Chest pain and irregular heartbeat
Immune system suppression
High blood pressure
Increase or decrease in weight
Physical – occurs when body suffers as
a result of a stressful situation.
Symptoms vary in seriousness
Physical stressors are harmful because
they force body systems to continuously
compensate for conditions that are
outside the normal range
(Stress Hazards, n.d.).
Emotional – stress affecting the
-over-reaction to everyday problems
-memory loss & a lack of concentration
for any task
Psychological – long-term stress can
cause psychological problems
Symptoms: withdrawal from society,
phobias, compulsive behaviours, eating
disorders, and night terrors
May be evolved from a real past event
causing an emotional disturbance
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Inability to concentrate
Anxious or racing thoughts
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Irritability or short temper
Agitation, inability to relax
Sense of loneliness and isolation
Depression or general unhappiness
WHAT IS PTSD?
“Post Traumatic Stress Disorder”
PTSD: an anxiety disorder or condition that can
occur after you have been through a traumatic
event (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2009).
“The symptoms may disrupt your life, making it nard to
continue with your daily activities” (Department of
Veterans Affairs, 2009).
Causes Of PTSD
Caused by a traumatizing event
Triggers: “stressors” that can come from anywhere that
usually remind the person of the event or of the aftermath causing
them to experience symptoms of PTSD
(Canadian Mental Health Association, 2009) .
Developing PTSD is dependant on: intensity of
the trauma or its duration, deaths resulting as a result of the
trauma, proximity to the event, immediate reaction to the event, level
of perceived control of the event, level of support post-event
(Department of Veterans Affairs, 2009).
Symptoms of PTSD
SYMPTOMS :“usually begin within three months of the event.
However, sometimes they surface many years later.”
(Canadian Mental Health Association, 2009)
4 widely accepted types of symptoms associated with PTSD:
reliving the event
(Canadian Mental Health Association, 2009).
RELATED ILLNESSES TO PTSD/TREATMENT
Alcohol or drug dependance
Immune system issues
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or group therapy
HOW DO YOU RESPOND TO
Foot on the gas
Foot on the brake.
Foot on both
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