The Second Red Scare

   The Cold War Begins
       1945-1953
Growing Fear of Communism

 Soviet Atomic Weapons                   Communist China
• In September 1949 Truman          • ...
Fighting Communism at Home
• House Un-American Activities Committee
  investigated radical groups in the United States
  –...
Newspaper 1952
Fighting Communism at Home
• President Truman felt he
  had to take action b/c of
  pressure from Republicans
• Created a ...
Fighting Communism at Home
          The Smith Act                      The McCarran Act
• Passed in 1940                 ...
Fighting Communism at Home
• Spy cases fueled fear
  of communism
• Alger Hiss - accused
  of being part of
  1930’s plot ...
Fighting Communism at Home
        Klaus Fuchs               Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
• Manhattan Project scientist   • ...
Senator Joseph McCarthy
• McCarthy claimed that there were 205 known
  Communists working for the U.S. Department
  of Sta...
Election of 1950
• McCarthy made special effort to bring about the
  defeat of Senator Millard Tydings
   – Investigated M...
McCarthy’s Fall
• Became even more wild
  with his charges
• Attacked fellow
  Republicans, the U.S.
  Army
• Public came ...
For next class…
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Second Red Scare - Cold War II

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Second Red Scare - Cold War II

  1. 1. The Second Red Scare The Cold War Begins 1945-1953
  2. 2. Growing Fear of Communism Soviet Atomic Weapons Communist China • In September 1949 Truman • Communists in China had announced that the Soviet gained nearly full control of Union had detonated an the country. atomic bomb. • The Nationalist government • This was a shock to the (supported by U.S.) of Chiang nation. Kai-shek fled to Taiwan • Truman began to strengthen • China now controlled by the nation’s military against a Communist Party under the possible Soviet nuclear leadership of Mao Zedong. threat. • Americans worried that China increased the Communist threat to the U.S.
  3. 3. Fighting Communism at Home • House Un-American Activities Committee investigated radical groups in the United States – Focused on battling communism – Created in the 1930’s – Most famous investigation • HUAC collected names of 10 Hollywood writers and directors thought to have radical political views • The “Hollywood Ten” refused to answer questions and were arrested for contempt
  4. 4. Newspaper 1952
  5. 5. Fighting Communism at Home • President Truman felt he had to take action b/c of pressure from Republicans • Created a plan to investigate all federal employees and bar those were found to be disloyal from federal employment. – 3 million people investigated – 200 found to be disloyal
  6. 6. Fighting Communism at Home The Smith Act The McCarran Act • Passed in 1940 • Passed in 1950 • Made it a crime to call for • Required communist the overthrow of the U.S. organizations to register government or belong to an with the U.S. government organization that did so • Established a board to • Upheld by court in 1951 investigate Communist Dennis vs. U.S. involvement – Justified limits on free speech • Prevented communists and • Communist officials radicals from entering U.S. convicted
  7. 7. Fighting Communism at Home • Spy cases fueled fear of communism • Alger Hiss - accused of being part of 1930’s plot to place Communists inside the government • Couldn’t be charged with spying • Later convicted for lying under oath
  8. 8. Fighting Communism at Home Klaus Fuchs Ethel and Julius Rosenberg • Manhattan Project scientist • Accused leading a spy ring who gave atomic bomb • Convicted of conspiracy and information to the Soviets executed in 1953
  9. 9. Senator Joseph McCarthy • McCarthy claimed that there were 205 known Communists working for the U.S. Department of State • Though evidence proved otherwise, his accusations stirred fear in many Americans • Became famous for “fighting” Communism • His tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges became known as “McCarthyism”
  10. 10. Election of 1950 • McCarthy made special effort to bring about the defeat of Senator Millard Tydings – Investigated McCarthy’s first claims – Huge supporter of President Truman • McCarthy produced fake photos of Tydings talking to the head of the American Communist Party • Tydings lost the election • McCarthyism spread to universities, labor unions, businesses – no one wanted to appear too “soft on communism”
  11. 11. McCarthy’s Fall • Became even more wild with his charges • Attacked fellow Republicans, the U.S. Army • Public came to view his tactics as unfair
  12. 12. For next class…
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