Pericles And Rise Of Democracy

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Slides covering Pericles life and influence upon democracy and other aspects of classical Greece.

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Pericles And Rise Of Democracy

  1. 1. “ Having knowledge but lacking the power to express it clearly is no better than never having any ideas at all.” - Pericles
  2. 2. Pericles and the Rise of Athens The Man Democracy His Impact
  3. 3. State of life in Athens <ul><li>Defeat of the Persians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influx of wealth, power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entered Golden Age 477 - 431 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized the Delian League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included nearly 200 city-states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athens became the center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A man named Pericles became leader </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pericles <ul><li>Born in 495 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>From powerful, political family </li></ul><ul><li>Fought Persians at Salamis </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent, an inspiring speaker, and skilled politician </li></ul><ul><li>Soon became a great leader of Athens </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pericles <ul><li>Came to power after Cimon ostracized from Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cimon favored Oligarchic ideals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elected strategos - in charge of military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Built walls between Athens and Piraeus </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pericles and Democracy <ul><li>Increased number of salaried public officials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct democracy evolved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct democracy: a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Democracy in Athens
  8. 8. The Assembly - Ekklesia <ul><li>Assembly involvement based on attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Open to every 18+ male citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making executive announcements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electing some officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some legislating (making and passing laws) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held some trials (this role shifted to courts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ten fixed meetings per year </li></ul><ul><li>Voting process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeches addressing both sides of an issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote by hand count, majority rule </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Assembly
  10. 10. The Council (of Five Hundred) <ul><li>500 members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 different geographic groups “prytanies” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 members from each </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The presidency of the boule rotated monthly between geographic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boule = month, 10 months in their calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epitastes - selected to run the council meeting, assembly for one single day </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Council (of Five Hundred) <ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Execute wishes of the assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration of the State: key to treasury, worked with foreign ambassadors, key to city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as an executive committee for the assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversaw activity of magistrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated activities of various boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected members for its own boards: issues ranging from religious to naval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Little ability to pursue own initiatives </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Courts - Dikasteria of Heliaia <ul><li>Centered around jury courts, “dikastes” = juror </li></ul><ul><li>Jurors must be 30+ and full citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Large juries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected from a panel of 600 from each tribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6,000 total possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of suits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dike -smaller, private suit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum jury size was 201 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphe - large public suit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum jury size was 501 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Really important public suits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased in increments of 500 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could have thousands of jurors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Courts <ul><li>Jurors under oath </li></ul><ul><li>Must represent the word of the people </li></ul><ul><li>People represented themselves in court </li></ul><ul><li>Cases lasted no more than a day </li></ul><ul><li>Could not appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Some crimes had instant punishment </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Impact of Pericles <ul><li>Very proud of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Around 444 B.C. became main ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated the Delian League </li></ul><ul><li>His goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Athens a naval power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Athens beautiful </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pericles Builds Naval Power <ul><li>Used money from Delian League </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of strong Navy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used power to acquire provinces </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pericles Beautifies Athens <ul><li>Sought truth and beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Used Delian League money for gold, ivory, marble </li></ul><ul><li>Contracted artists, architects, workers </li></ul>
  17. 17. For next class… <ul><li>Quote identification essays </li></ul><ul><li>Be working on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dionysian Theater Project </li></ul></ul>

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