England And France Develop
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England And France Develop

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  • By the early 800’s, small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms covered the former Roman province of Britain. Meanwhile, In Europe, the decline of the Carolingian empire and the threat of invaders left a patchwork of feudal states controlled locally by lords. Gradually, the growth of towns and villages, and the breakdown of the feudal system led to more centralized government and the development of nations. The earliest nations in Europe that developed strong unified governments were England and France.

England And France Develop England And France Develop Presentation Transcript

  • The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500 Part Two: England and France Develop
  • England Absorbs Invaders
    • Many invaders landed from different regions landed in Britain
      • The Angles
      • The Saxons
      • Created Anglo-Saxon culture
      • The Vikings
    • 1016 – Danish King Canute united Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people
    • 1042 – King Edward the Confessor took the throne
      • Died in 1066 w/o an heir
    • A struggle for the throne led to one last invasion
  • The Norman Conquest
    • Invader = William the Conqueror
      • Duke of Normandy
      • Cousin of King Edward
    • William invaded England with a Norman army and claimed English crown
    • Rival = Harold Godwinson
      • Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne
    • Fought against William in the Battle of Hastings
      • Normans were victorious
      • William claimed all England his person property.
      • Kept 1/5 for himself
      • Gave lands to 200 Norman lords
      • Unified control of the land
      • Laid foundation for centralized government
    View slide
  • Goals of the English Kings
    • 1) Hold onto and add to their French lands
    • 2) Strengthen their power over nobles and the Church
    • English king Henry II acquired a French territory, Aquitaine in his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine
      • Added to lands in Normandy
      • Served as a vassal to the French King
    View slide
  • Juries and Common Law
    • Henry II strengthened the royal courts by:
      • Sending royal judges to every part of England at least one/year
        • Collected taxes
        • Settled lawsuits
        • Punished crimes
      • Introduced use of a jury
        • Made up of loyal people
        • Answered judge’s questions about the case
        • Only allowed in king’s courts
    • Common law: a unified body of law created by case by case rulings of England’s royal judges
    • The basis for law in U.S.
  • The Magna Carta
    • ORDER OF MONARCHS: Henry II > Richard the Lionhearted > John Softsword
      • Lost Normandy, lands in northern France
      • Alienated the Church
      • Threatened rights to self-govern
      • Raised taxes to all-time high
    • Nobles revolted and forced John to agree to the Magna Carta (Great Charter) in 1212
      • Guaranteed basic political rights
        • No taxation without representation
        • Right to a jury trial
        • Right to protection under the law
    • Basic legal rights in U.K. and U.S. today!
  • The Model Parliament
    • John Softsword > Edward I
    • 1295 – Edward needed to raise taxes so he called on 2 burgesses from every borough and 2 knights from every county
    • In Nov., knights, burgesses, bishops, lords met together in London as a parliament
    • Legislative group
    • A model for later kings
    • In Parliament – the two groups formed an assembly of their own:
      • House of Commons (knights and burgesses)
      • House of Lords
      • (nobles and bishops)
    • Weakened power of lords
    • Provided a check on royal power, just like the Magna Carta
  • House of Parliament - England
  •  
  • Rise of the Capetian Dynasty
  • The Capetian Dynasty
    • Capet family only controlled a small area of France, but it included Paris
    • Despite being weak rulers, Capets managed to expand their power outward from Paris
    • Most powerful Capetian was Philip II (1180-1223)
    • His goal: weaken the power of English kings in France
    • Seized Normandy from King John in 1204, tripled the lands under his control
    • Established a strong central government
      • Established officials called bailiffs who presided over the king’s courts and collected the king’s taxes
  • Phillip II’s Heirs
    • Louis IX – 1226-1270
      • Created a French appeals court (could overturn the decisions of local courts)
        • Strengthened the monarchy
        • Weakened feudal ties
    • Philip IV – 1285-1314
      • Fought w/ the pope about priests paying taxes to the king
      • Called a meeting to win support against the pope and invited commoners
  • Estates-General
    • Philip IV invited all to participate in a meeting known as the Estates-General
      • Helped to increase royal power against the nobility
      • Did not limit the king’s power
    • In England and France these events were important steps towards increased central government power and democratic rule
  • For Next Class…
    • FINAL PROJECTS DUE!