By the early 800’s, small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms covered the former Roman province of Britain. Meanwhile, In Europe, the decline of the Carolingian empire and the threat of invaders left a patchwork of feudal states controlled locally by lords. Gradually, the growth of towns and villages, and the breakdown of the feudal system led to more centralized government and the development of nations. The earliest nations in Europe that developed strong unified governments were England and France.
The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500 Part Two: England and France Develop