The Republic Collapses Ancient Rome and Early Christianity
Review Last Class <ul><li>What was the structure of Rome’s republic? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How was it similar/different to...
Growth, Power, Problems <ul><li>Growth and power brought challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Republic grew more and more unstable...
Economic Turmoil <ul><li>Gap between rich and poor grew </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy landowners ran huge estates </li></ul><u...
 
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus <ul><li>2 brothers who tried to help Rome’s poor </li></ul><ul><li>Served as tribunes </li></u...
Military Upheaval <ul><li>Military loyalty decreased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced allies, newly conquered areas to supply ...
Julius Caesar Takes Control <ul><li>60 B.C. - military leader Julius Caesar joined forces with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cras...
 
 
Julius Caesar <ul><li>Served 1 year as consul </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed himself as governor of Gaul </li></ul><ul><li>Fr...
Caesar Takes Control <ul><li>49 B.C. - Caesar marched his army toward Rome  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pompey fled </li></ul></...
Dictatorship
Changes Under Caesar <ul><li>Granted citizenship to people in Rome’s provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the Senate </li>...
Caesar’s Death <ul><li>People feared Caesar had too much power </li></ul><ul><li>44 B.C. Caesar was assassinated by a grou...
 
The Empire Begins <ul><li>Civil war destroyed remains of the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>3 supporters of Caesar rose agains...
 
 
Second Triumvirate Drama <ul><li>Octavian forced Lepidus to retire </li></ul><ul><li>Antony and Octavian became rivals </l...
 
Augustus Caesar <ul><li>Octavian became unchallenged ruler of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted titles of Augustus and Imper...
For Next Class… <ul><li>Choose top three choices for “When in Rome” Project </li></ul><ul><li>Read Chapter 6, Section 2 </...
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Empire Rise

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  • Transcript of "Empire Rise"

    1. 1. The Republic Collapses Ancient Rome and Early Christianity
    2. 2. Review Last Class <ul><li>What was the structure of Rome’s republic? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How was it similar/different to ours? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did Rome expand its power? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politically? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After the Punic Wars, what areas did Rome control? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Growth, Power, Problems <ul><li>Growth and power brought challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Republic grew more and more unstable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing unhappiness among lower classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdown in military order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Led to the end of the republic, and beginning of a new political system </li></ul>
    4. 4. Economic Turmoil <ul><li>Gap between rich and poor grew </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy landowners ran huge estates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thousands of slaves worked on the estates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 100 B.C. - 1/3 of population = slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small farmers couldn’t compete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of former soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold land, became homeless and jobless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became part of urban poor, 1/4 Roman society </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus <ul><li>2 brothers who tried to help Rome’s poor </li></ul><ul><li>Served as tribunes </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested reforms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting size of estates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving land to poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senators - threatened by their ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Murdered - Tiberius 133 B.C. and Gaius 121 B.C. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Military Upheaval <ul><li>Military loyalty decreased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced allies, newly conquered areas to supply soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruited poor, jobless, homeless to be soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promised them land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fought for pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only had to be loyal to their commander </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced citizen-soldiers who were loyal to the republic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generals started to seize power for themselves </li></ul>
    7. 8. Julius Caesar Takes Control <ul><li>60 B.C. - military leader Julius Caesar joined forces with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crassus - wealthy Roman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pompey - popular general </li></ul></ul><ul><li>59 B.C. Caesar elected consul </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled w/ Crassus and Pompey as a “triumvirate” for 10 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triumvirate - a group of three rulers </li></ul></ul>
    8. 11. Julius Caesar <ul><li>Served 1 year as consul </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed himself as governor of Gaul </li></ul><ul><li>From 58-50 B.C. - led legions to conquer Gaul </li></ul><ul><li>Success made him popular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate ordered him to disband his legions & return home </li></ul></ul>
    9. 12. Caesar Takes Control <ul><li>49 B.C. - Caesar marched his army toward Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pompey fled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defeated Pompey’s armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to Rome in 46 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed dictator </li></ul><ul><li>44 B.C. - Caesar named dictator for life </li></ul>
    10. 13. Dictatorship
    11. 14. Changes Under Caesar <ul><li>Granted citizenship to people in Rome’s provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Created jobs for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed new buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Started colonies where people w/o land could own property </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pay for soldiers </li></ul>
    12. 15. Caesar’s Death <ul><li>People feared Caesar had too much power </li></ul><ul><li>44 B.C. Caesar was assassinated by a group of Senators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius </li></ul></ul>
    13. 17. The Empire Begins <ul><li>Civil war destroyed remains of the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>3 supporters of Caesar rose against the assassins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Octavian - Caesar’s adopted son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark Antony - experienced general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lepidus - powerful politician </li></ul></ul><ul><li>43 B.C. ruled Rome as Second Triumvirate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 years </li></ul></ul>
    14. 20. Second Triumvirate Drama <ul><li>Octavian forced Lepidus to retire </li></ul><ul><li>Antony and Octavian became rivals </li></ul><ul><li>Antony fell in love with Cleopatra, followed her to Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian accused Antony of ruling Rome from Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra at battle of Actium in 31 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide </li></ul>
    15. 22. Augustus Caesar <ul><li>Octavian became unchallenged ruler of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted titles of Augustus and Imperator </li></ul><ul><li>Began time of peace in Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pax Romana </li></ul></ul>
    16. 23. For Next Class… <ul><li>Choose top three choices for “When in Rome” Project </li></ul><ul><li>Read Chapter 6, Section 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Blog Post </li></ul>
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