Crusades And Changes In Medieval Society


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Crusades And Changes In Medieval Society

  1. 1. Part One: The Crusades The Formation of Western Europe
  2. 2. The Crusades The Beginning Goals of the Crusades • The Age of Faith inspired • Regain control of the Holy wars of conquest Land (Palestine) • 1093 - Byzantine emperor • Get rid of quarreling knights sent letter asking for help who threatened peace defend Constantinople • Younger sons hoped to earn against the Muslim Turks land or win glory • Pope Urban II read it, issued • Later, merchants got involved a call for a Crusade - “holy for profit and to gain trade war” routes
  3. 3. The First Crusade • Pope assured those who died a place in heaven • Early 1097 - 3 armies gathered at Constantinople – People of all classes – Unprepared, couldn’t agree on a leader • 1099 - 12,000 Crusaders captured Constantinople
  4. 4. The Crusades continued… • Crusaders captured 650 miles of land and divided it into 4 feudal Crusader states • 1144 - Muslims take back Edessa; could not be regained in the Second Crusade • 1187 - Jerusalem fell to Muslim leader, Kurdish warrior Saladin
  5. 5. Third Crusade • Third Crusade led by three powerful rulers • Philip II - France • Frederick I - German emperor • Richard the Lion-Hearted - king of England • Phillip II abandons Crusade after arguing with Richard and Frederick I drowned • 1192 - Richard and Saladin make peace after many battles • Saladin kept Jerusalem but allowed Christian pilgrims to visit the city
  6. 6. Crusading Spirit Dwindles • Fourth Crusade: Crusaders • Most of Spain controlled by loot Constantinople in 1204 Moors, a Muslim people • Two more Crusades strike • During the Reconquista - Egypt, but fail to weaken Christians drove Muslims Muslims from Spain, 1100 to 1492 • 1212 - thousands of children • Spanish monarchs, set out on a “Children’s Ferdinand and Isabella used Crusade” to conquer the Inquisition to unify the Jerusalem country under Christianity • Most died or were enslaved • Court to suppress heresy; • Non-Christians were expelled, tortured, killed
  7. 7. Effects of the Crusades • Crusades showed the power of Church in convincing thousands to fight • Women who stayed home manage the estate and business affairs • Merchants expand trade between Europe and SW Asia • Failure of later crusades weakens pope and nobles, strengthens kings • Crusades create lasting bitterness between Muslims and Christians
  8. 8. Part Two: Changes in Medieval Society The Formation of Western Europe 800-1500
  9. 9. Economic Change #1: A Growing Food Supply 1. Warming temperatures = more usable land 2. Harnessed horses replace oxen in pulling plows and wagons • Horses plow 3X more each day 3. Around 800, starting using a three-field system • Two fields would be planted, let one rest • All led to increased food supply which = an population increase
  10. 10. Economic Change #2: The Development of Guilds • Guilds developed • Organization of people in the same occupation working together to improve economic and social conditions of its members • Merchant guilds begin first • Controlled number of goods to keep prices up • Skilled artisans formed craft guilds (men and women) • Set standards for quality, prices, wages, working conditions • Guilds supervise training of new members of their craft • Apprentice, Journeyman, Master • Guilds made more, better products available to everyone • Influenced government and economy
  11. 11. Commercial Revolution • Expansion of agriculture, business and trade known as the Commercial Revolution • Trade fairs were held several times a year in town – People came from all around – Shift from everything being produced on a manor • Trade routes expanded to Asia, N. Africa, Byzantium • Increased business made merchants more willing to take chances – Bills of exchange helped w/ different coinage systems – Letters of credit to avoid need for carrying cash – The Church forbid lending money at interest - usury
  12. 12. For Next Class… • Terms • Final Project