C M H Alexander And Hellenism

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  • 1.  
  • 2. The Macedonians
    • North of Greece
    • Greeks considered them foreigners
    • Macedonian King Phillip II saw Greek city-states weakness
    • Began raising army
    • Conquered northern territories
  • 3. The Greeks
    • Demosthenes warned the Greeks
    • Couldn’t agree on a way to defend themselves
    • 338 B.C. Macedonians defeated the Greeks at Chaeronea
    • Greece now ruled by King Phillip II
    • Planned to attack Persians next
  • 4. Alexander the Great
    • King Phillip II was murdered
    • His son, Alexander took over
      • Just turned 20
      • Student of Aristotle
      • Love sport, especially riding
        • Bucephalus
    • Inherited Macedonia and all of Greece
      • Greeks thought they could regain their freedom
  • 5. The Conquests of Alexander
    • Worked w/ Greeks to attack Persia
      • Greeks willing to fight for him
    • Marched on to Persia
      • Dominated first Persian army at the Granicus River
  • 6. The Conquests of Alexander
    • King Darius (Persia) tried to negotiate
      • Alexander didn’t
      • Planned to conquer all of Persian empire
    • Headed to conquer Egypt
      • Accepted Alexander as a liberator
      • Named him Pharaoh
      • Founded Alexandria
    • Moved east - to King Darius at Gaugamela
      • Attacked King Darius and his huge army
  • 7. The Conquests of Alexander
    • Conquered Babylon, Susa, Persepolis
    • Now ruled Greece, Egypt, Phoenicia, Palestine, Babylonia, Assyria, Asia Minor and Persia
  • 8. Conquests of Alexander
    • Left Persia, rode to India
    • King Porus (India) heard he was coming
      • Waited on far side of river
    • Alexander’s troops crossed the river and defeated the army
  • 9. End of Alexander’s Campaign
    • Troops got tired, wanted to go home
    • Alexander agreed to turn back
    • Spring 323 B.C. they had reached Babylon
      • Alexander planned to unify his empire
    • Died from a fever weeks later
  • 10. Conquests of Alexander
  • 11. Dividing Alexander’s Kingdom
    • Antigonus
    • King of Macedonia
    • Control of Greek city-states
    • Ptolemy
    • Egypt
    • Became Pharaoh
    • Seleucus
    • Persian empire
    • Known as Seleucid Kingdom
  • 12.  
  • 13. Hellenism
    • B/c of Alexander, Greek culture spread and blended with Egyptian, Persian, Indian culture
    • Influenced: language, trade, development, science, technology, math, philosophy, art
  • 14. Hellenism - Language
    • Language:
      • “ Koine” - common
      • Influenced by Greek
      • Sharing language = sharing ideas
  • 15. Hellenism - Trade
    • Alexandria became trading capital
      • Population 1/2 million
    • Access to the seas
    • Commerce helped city grow, prosper
    • Increased cultural mixing
  • 16. Hellenism - Development
    • Broad streets lined with statues
    • Tomb for Alexander
    • Museum
      • Art galleries
      • Zoo
      • Botanical gardens
      • Dining hall
      • Institute for study
    • Alexandrian Library
      • Produced brilliant scholars
    • Pharos - lighthouse overlooking harbor
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Hellenism - Astronomy
    • Aristarchus
      • Estimated the sun larger than Earth
      • Proposed that the Earth and planets revolve around the sun
      • Put planets in proper order
    • Eratosthenes
      • Used geometry to compute Earth’s circumference
      • Invented leap day
      • Created map of the world
  • 20.  
  • 21. Hellenism - Math and Physics
    • Euclid
      • Wrote Elements
      • Work is the basis for geometry
    • Archimedes
      • Estimated value of ∏
      • Explained the laws of levers
      • Archimedes screw
      • Compound pulley
  • 22.  
  • 23. Hellenism - Archimedes
    • Archimedes screw
    • Law of Levers
  • 24. Hellenism - Philosophy
    • Focused on how people should live their lives
    • Stoicism:
      • Founded by Zeno
      • Live life in harmony with will of god(s)
      • Desires were distractions
      • Promoted social unity
      • Focus on what can be controlled
    • Epicureanism:
      • Founded by Epicurus
      • Gods ruled the universe, had no interest in humans
      • Reality (truth) is what could be perceived by the senses
      • Greatest good is virtuous behavior, absence of pain
      • Harmony of body, mind
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28. Hellenism - Art
    • Moved away from idealized forms
    • Realism
      • New subjects
      • More natural
      • Used bronze, metals
    • Sculpture flourished
      • Colossus of Rhodes
        • Over 100 feet high
      • Nike - winged victory
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. For next class…
    • Distribute Review Sheets
    • Review for Academic Olympiad next class
    • TEST – 3/5 EVEN, 3/6 ODD
    • G-SPRITE – Due 3/5 EVEN, 3/6 ODD
    • Term Corrections - Due 3/5 EVEN, 3/6 ODD