Analyzing New Deal


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  • Analyzing New Deal

    1. 1. Life During the New Deal 1933-1940
    2. 2. Results of the New Deal <ul><li>RELIEF: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided aid to millions of Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up lasting programs like Social Security and unemployment insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RECOVERY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment decreased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downturn in 1937 wiped out early gains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REFORM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FDIC helped restore confidence in banks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEC helped regain faith in stock market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructed thousands of roads, bridges, dams, public buildings </li></ul>
    3. 3. Changing Relationship Between Government and the People <ul><li>Changed view that business was the best way to achieve progress </li></ul><ul><li>BIGGER GOVERNMENT - government involved in peoples lives </li></ul><ul><li>Americans regularly started to look to government for help </li></ul><ul><li>Love/hate </li></ul>
    4. 4. Limits to the New Deal <ul><li>4.7 million people did not receive assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Help was only temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Pay was VERY low </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance varied by state - some got more than others </li></ul><ul><li>Programs sometimes permitted discrimination b/c of local standards </li></ul>
    5. 5. End of the New Deal <ul><li>Court-packing episode and 1937 economic downturn ended the New Deal era </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-New Deal senators called for tax cuts, a balanced budget, and more power to states </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt also hurt his reputation more with a proposal to reorganize the executive branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused of trying to give himself too much power </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Last New Deal Act <ul><li>Fair Labor Standards Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established minimum wage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set maximum hours for work week at 44 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set overtime pay rate at “time-and-a-half” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major victory for millions of workers </li></ul>
    7. 7. Election of 1938 <ul><li>Handpicked Democratic candidates for Congress that would help his cause </li></ul><ul><li>Traveled to the South to campaign for them </li></ul><ul><li>His plan backfired - every candidate he supported lost to the incumbent </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans gained back spots in Congress </li></ul>
    8. 8. After the New Deal <ul><li>By 1938 - opposition to New Deal programs was too strong </li></ul><ul><li>Attention turned away from the Depression to problems in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another war seemed likely </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans began to gear up for battle </li></ul><ul><li>1939-1940 - international conflict put an end to the Depression </li></ul>
    9. 9. Changes for Women <ul><li>Eleanor connected women to the president </li></ul><ul><li>Frances Perkins - Secretary of Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First woman to head an executive department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed for Social Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ruth Bryan Owen - minister to Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders of New Deal agencies </li></ul>
    10. 10. Challenges for Women <ul><li>Paid less than men </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility towards working women </li></ul>
    11. 11. Changes for African Americans <ul><li>Roosevelt broke ground in appointing African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>William Hastie - first black federal judge </li></ul><ul><li>Black Cabinet - government officials who acted as unofficial advisers to president </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Mary McLeod Bethune </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eleanor took bold positions on civil rights </li></ul>
    12. 12. Challenges for African Americans <ul><li>New Deal programs didn’t address discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Many were sharecroppers and tenant farmers - did not benefit from New Deal </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt hesitated to support African Americans because of disapproval from supporters in Congress </li></ul>
    13. 13. Telling the Story of the Depression <ul><li>Dorothea Lange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked for Farm Security Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographed sharecroppers and tenant farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised awareness of poorest Americans </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Movies <ul><li>Even during Depression, 80 of America’s 127 million Americans attended a movie each week </li></ul><ul><li>Way for people to escape hard times </li></ul><ul><li>Glamorous musicals - Ginger Rogers & Fred Astaire </li></ul><ul><li>Comedy - Marx Brothers, Chaplin </li></ul><ul><li>Triumph of the “little guy” - Frank Capra’s “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington” </li></ul><ul><li>Animated movies - Snow White and the Seven Dwarves </li></ul><ul><li>Color films - Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind </li></ul>
    15. 16. Radio <ul><li>Fireside chats and Coughlin’s rants </li></ul><ul><li>Family entertainment - action shows, comedies </li></ul><ul><li>Orson Wells - The War of the Worlds - 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Spread jazz movement across the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swing - highly orchestrated jazz became popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine for the times </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Sports <ul><li>Babe Ruth - baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Joe DiMaggio - baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Babe Didrickson Zaharias - multi-sport </li></ul><ul><li>Joe Lewis - heavyweight fighter </li></ul>
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