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1920s Lecture 5   Harlem Renaissance
 

1920s Lecture 5 Harlem Renaissance

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    1920s Lecture 5   Harlem Renaissance 1920s Lecture 5 Harlem Renaissance Presentation Transcript

    • DUE TODAY: N/A
    • THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
    • G – THE GREAT MIGRATION
      • Great Migration – major relocation of African Americans to northern cities from 1910 into the 1920’s
      • Began 1910 – Harlem (New York, NY) – a favorite destination for black Americans migrating from the South
        • Life in the South = difficult
        • Hoping to find freedom, economic opportunity
      • WWI
        • Huge demand for war supplies  Created many jobs  Opportunities for African Americans  Moved North
    • G - THE GREAT MIGRATION
    • G – THE GREAT MIGRATION
      • 1.5 million African Americans from the South headed North into cities like:
        • Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis, Kansas City
      • This massive relocation caused African American populations in these cities to INCREASE
    • G – THE GREAT MIGRATION
    • G – THE GREAT MIGRATION
    • S – RACIAL TENSIONS ERUPT
      • FACTORS:
        • Great Migration – new people in cities
        • African Americans had higher expectations after WWI
    • S – RACIAL TENSIONS ERUPT
      • Moving North didn’t help African Americans escape racism
      • Racial tensions high after WWI – WHY?
      • Racial violence – Summer of 1919
        • Riots in 24+ cities
        • Deadliest in Chicago
          • 38 died, 300 injured
    • S – RACIAL TENSIONS ERUPT
      • African Americans also believed they had earned more freedoms by fighting in WWI
        • Not everyone agreed
        • Some whites wanted to strike back against the new African American attitude
      • What do you think?
    • LET’S REVIEW: WHY DID AFRICAN AMERICANS MOVE NORTH BETWEEN 1900 AND 1920?
    • S, I – LIFE IN HARLEM
      • Early 1920’s – 200,000 African Americans lived in NYC – most in Harlem
        • Harlem became unofficial capital of African American culture and activism in U.S.
        • http://blackdemographics.com/population.html
    • S, I – W.E.B. DUBOIS
      • Leading voice in African American activism
      • Worked to end discrimination and mistreatment of African Americans
      • 1909 – Founded NAACP
        • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    • S, I – DUBOIS  THE CRISIS  THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
      • DuBois was editor of The Crisis
        • The Official magazine of NAACP
      • The Crisis became a major outlet for African American writing, poetry, art
      • Helped promote arts movement known as the HARLEM RENAISSANCE
    • S – MARCUS GARVEY
      • Activist with a different view of African American life
      • Took great pride in his African heritage
        • Encouraged others to do the same
      • Promoted self-reliance
        • African Americans should look out for their own interests, without involvement of whites
    • S, I – MARCUS GARVEY
      • Started UNIA
        • Universal Negro Improvement Association
      • UNIA Slogan:
        • “ Back to Africa” - A day when Africans would return and create a new empire
      • Believed that to achieve that goal African Americans needed economic success
        • Started businesses including Black Star Line
    • S, I – MARCUS GARVEY
    • S, I – MARCUS GARVEY
      • 2 million+ people joined UNIA
        • Mostly poor African Americans
    • S – CLASH OF GARVEY AND DUBOIS
      • Garvey criticized DuBois and NAACP
        • Discouraged African American pride, self-confidence
        • Attempts to break down barrier between blacks and whites threatened racial purity
      • DuBois and NAACP suspicious of Garvey and UNIA
        • The Crisis published an investigation
        • FBI watched UNIA closely
        • 1923 – charged Garvey with mail fraud
        • UNIA collapsed
    • S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
      • First time living outside the South
      • Racial pride and identity
      • Drew black writers, thinkers, artists, musicians
    • S, I - THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
      • A blossoming of African American art and literature that began in the 1920’s
      • WRITERS AND POETS
      • Before 1920’s, little African American literature had been published
      • 1924 – National Urban League sponsored a dinner brining together publishers, editors and up and coming writers
        • Propelled African American writers into the mainstream
      • The Crisis – outlet for African American writers, artists and poets
      I - THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
    • I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - WRITERS
      • Common themes:
        • Black identity
        • Common heritage
        • Exploring a new world
        • Resistance in the face of white prejudice
        • Hope
    • I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - WRITERS
      • James Weldon Johnson
        • “ Lift Every Voice and Sing”
        • Became NAACP Anthem
        • God’s Trombones
      • Claude McKay
        • “ If We Must Die”
      • Langston Hughes
        • The Weary Blues
    • I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - ARTISTS William H. Johnson
    • I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - ARTISTS Into Bondage Aspiration Aaron Douglas
    • I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - ARTISTS Brownstones Tombstones Migration of the Negro Jacob Lawrence
      • New opportunities were created for stage performers during Harlem Renaissance
        • Historically, black actors were not given serious stage roles
      S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - PERFORMERS
    • S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - PERFORMERS
      • Paul Robeson
        • Famous stage, movie performer
        • Cast as lead character in Shakespeare’s Othello
        • Performed in 1921 musical Shuffle Along
          • All black cast
      • Many black performers had huge careers in Europe where black performers were more widely accepted
    • S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ
      • Harlem became the center for jazz
      • Jazz – blended musical forms of the South into new forms
        • Improvisation
        • No clear rules
        • Spirited and creative
    • S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ
      • “ If you have to ask what it is, you’ll never know.”
      • – Louis Armstrong
      • Famous jazz musicians of the 1920’s:
        • Louis Armstrong
        • Cab Calloway
        • Duke Ellington
        • Fats Waller
      • Blues singer
        • Bessie Smith
    • S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ
      • Jazz scene centered around clubs like the Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club
      • Audiences made up of mostly white fans
        • Flocked to Harlem
      • A wide cultural movement across U.S.
    • S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ
    • S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ
    • S – JAZZ
    • FOR NEXT CLASS…
      • Find out more about one thing we talked about today, write a one page paper about it
        • DUE NEXT CLASS
      • Work on GSPRITE’s – due next Wednesday