1920s Lecture 5 Harlem Renaissance

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1920s Lecture 5 Harlem Renaissance

  1. 1. DUE TODAY: N/A
  2. 2. THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
  3. 3. G – THE GREAT MIGRATION <ul><li>Great Migration – major relocation of African Americans to northern cities from 1910 into the 1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>Began 1910 – Harlem (New York, NY) – a favorite destination for black Americans migrating from the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life in the South = difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoping to find freedom, economic opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge demand for war supplies  Created many jobs  Opportunities for African Americans  Moved North </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. G - THE GREAT MIGRATION
  5. 5. G – THE GREAT MIGRATION <ul><li>1.5 million African Americans from the South headed North into cities like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis, Kansas City </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This massive relocation caused African American populations in these cities to INCREASE </li></ul>
  6. 6. G – THE GREAT MIGRATION
  7. 7. G – THE GREAT MIGRATION
  8. 8. S – RACIAL TENSIONS ERUPT <ul><li>FACTORS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Migration – new people in cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans had higher expectations after WWI </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. S – RACIAL TENSIONS ERUPT <ul><li>Moving North didn’t help African Americans escape racism </li></ul><ul><li>Racial tensions high after WWI – WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Racial violence – Summer of 1919 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Riots in 24+ cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadliest in Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>38 died, 300 injured </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. S – RACIAL TENSIONS ERUPT <ul><li>African Americans also believed they had earned more freedoms by fighting in WWI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone agreed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some whites wanted to strike back against the new African American attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul>
  11. 11. LET’S REVIEW: WHY DID AFRICAN AMERICANS MOVE NORTH BETWEEN 1900 AND 1920?
  12. 12. S, I – LIFE IN HARLEM <ul><li>Early 1920’s – 200,000 African Americans lived in NYC – most in Harlem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harlem became unofficial capital of African American culture and activism in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://blackdemographics.com/population.html </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. S, I – W.E.B. DUBOIS <ul><li>Leading voice in African American activism </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to end discrimination and mistreatment of African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1909 – Founded NAACP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Association for the Advancement of Colored People </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. S, I – DUBOIS  THE CRISIS  THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE <ul><li>DuBois was editor of The Crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Official magazine of NAACP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Crisis became a major outlet for African American writing, poetry, art </li></ul><ul><li>Helped promote arts movement known as the HARLEM RENAISSANCE </li></ul>
  15. 15. S – MARCUS GARVEY <ul><li>Activist with a different view of African American life </li></ul><ul><li>Took great pride in his African heritage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged others to do the same </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promoted self-reliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans should look out for their own interests, without involvement of whites </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. S, I – MARCUS GARVEY <ul><li>Started UNIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Negro Improvement Association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNIA Slogan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Back to Africa” - A day when Africans would return and create a new empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believed that to achieve that goal African Americans needed economic success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started businesses including Black Star Line </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. S, I – MARCUS GARVEY
  18. 18. S, I – MARCUS GARVEY <ul><li>2 million+ people joined UNIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly poor African Americans </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. S – CLASH OF GARVEY AND DUBOIS <ul><li>Garvey criticized DuBois and NAACP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discouraged African American pride, self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to break down barrier between blacks and whites threatened racial purity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DuBois and NAACP suspicious of Garvey and UNIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Crisis published an investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FBI watched UNIA closely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1923 – charged Garvey with mail fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIA collapsed </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE <ul><li>First time living outside the South </li></ul><ul><li>Racial pride and identity </li></ul><ul><li>Drew black writers, thinkers, artists, musicians </li></ul>
  21. 21. S, I - THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE <ul><li>A blossoming of African American art and literature that began in the 1920’s </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>WRITERS AND POETS </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1920’s, little African American literature had been published </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – National Urban League sponsored a dinner brining together publishers, editors and up and coming writers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propelled African American writers into the mainstream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Crisis – outlet for African American writers, artists and poets </li></ul>I - THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE
  23. 23. I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - WRITERS <ul><li>Common themes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common heritage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring a new world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance in the face of white prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - WRITERS <ul><li>James Weldon Johnson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Lift Every Voice and Sing” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became NAACP Anthem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God’s Trombones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Claude McKay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If We Must Die” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Langston Hughes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Weary Blues </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - ARTISTS William H. Johnson
  26. 26. I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - ARTISTS Into Bondage Aspiration Aaron Douglas
  27. 27. I – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - ARTISTS Brownstones Tombstones Migration of the Negro Jacob Lawrence
  28. 28. <ul><li>New opportunities were created for stage performers during Harlem Renaissance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, black actors were not given serious stage roles </li></ul></ul>S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - PERFORMERS
  29. 29. S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - PERFORMERS <ul><li>Paul Robeson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famous stage, movie performer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cast as lead character in Shakespeare’s Othello </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed in 1921 musical Shuffle Along </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All black cast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many black performers had huge careers in Europe where black performers were more widely accepted </li></ul>
  30. 30. S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ <ul><li>Harlem became the center for jazz </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz – blended musical forms of the South into new forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirited and creative </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ <ul><li>“ If you have to ask what it is, you’ll never know.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Louis Armstrong </li></ul><ul><li>Famous jazz musicians of the 1920’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis Armstrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cab Calloway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duke Ellington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats Waller </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blues singer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bessie Smith </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ <ul><li>Jazz scene centered around clubs like the Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club </li></ul><ul><li>Audiences made up of mostly white fans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flocked to Harlem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A wide cultural movement across U.S. </li></ul>
  33. 33. S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ
  34. 34. S – THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE - JAZZ
  35. 35. S – JAZZ
  36. 36. FOR NEXT CLASS… <ul><li>Find out more about one thing we talked about today, write a one page paper about it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DUE NEXT CLASS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work on GSPRITE’s – due next Wednesday </li></ul>

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