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1920s Lecture 4   The Roaring 20s

1920s Lecture 4 The Roaring 20s






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    1920s Lecture 4   The Roaring 20s 1920s Lecture 4 The Roaring 20s Presentation Transcript

    • The Roaring 20’s After today you should know: How women’s roles changed What major population shifts occurred How population shifts led to conflicts of values in America How fundamentalism influenced America
    • S - New Roles for Women
      • Voting
      • 19 th Amendment ratified in 1920 – gave women right to vote
        • Women soon elected to local and state offices
          • Nellie Tayloe Ross – WY
          • Miriam Ferguson – TX
      • Women generally voted the same as the men in their lives
        • Didn’t bring the change people had suspected
    • S & E – New Roles for Women
      • Jobs
      • Many women resumed jobs during economic boom of the 1920’s
        • Mostly low paying professions
          • Nursing
          • Teaching
          • Domestic servants
          • Secretaries
      • College
      • Women also started attending college in record numbers
        • Especially those in middle and upper class
    • The Flapper
    • S - The Flapper
      • Changing opportunities for women brought about changing attitudes
        • Including: basic rules defining proper behavior for women
      • The Flapper
        • Defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior
            • Cut hair
            • Wore makeup
            • Smoked cigarettes
            • Drank alcohol
            • Went out dancing all night
        • Became a new mode of popular dress
    • S – The Flapper
      • Also became a popular image reflecting the changes affecting women
        • Suggested freedom and independence
      • But some women didn’t approve, especially
        • Women in rural areas
          • Only seen pictures in magazines
          • Conflicted with conservative values
        • Older supporters of women’s rights
          • Thought flappers disgraced the work that had been done to advance the cause of women
    • S – New Roles for Women
      • But a woman’s major role was to care for children and the home
      • Still depended on men for financial support
      • Did seek greater equality in their relationships with men
    • G, S, R, I, E – Urbanization
      • Farmers experiencing hard times flocked to cities for new jobs
      • 1920 census showed for the first time that more Americans lived in urban areas than rural areas
        • http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/files/table-4.pdf
        • In 2008 – 79.2% urban, 20.8% rural
        • 75% of Americans worked somewhere other than a farm
      • Access to cars shrunk the distance between the country and the city
        • Rural people less isolated, changed outlook
    • S, I – Education
      • The shift to the cities provided access to education
      • States passed laws requiring young people to go to school
        • Got children out of factories
        • Opened up new jobs
      • School attendance, college enrollment increased
    • S – Intolerance
      • Urban and rural values clashed in the 20’s
      • Rural dwellers disapproved of many parts of urban life
      • Ku Klux Klan grew because of the differences in values
        • Drew lots of members from rural America
          • Believed they could preserve their place in society
        • Targeted African-Americans, Catholics, Jews
        • Membership peaked in 1920’s
          • In the millions
    • How do people feel in times of change?
    • S, R – Fundamentalism
      • Changes of the time attracted many people to religion
      • FUNDAMENTALISM became very popular
        • Form of Christianity based on a literal interpretation of the Bible
        • Condemned radicals and criticized the changing attitudes of women
      • Prominent fundamentalist preachers
        • Billy Sunday
          • Former baseball player
        • Aimee Semple McPherson
          • Well known for healing the sick through prayer
    • S, I, P – Fundamentalism vs. Evolution
      • Fundamentalism conflicted with modern science
        • Especially Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
      • Fundamentalists believed evolution undermined religious faith
      • Tried to prevent teaching evolution in schools
      • Several states passed laws outlawing teaching evolution
      • Law passed in Tennessee in 1925 made it illegal to teach evolution
    • S, I, P – Scopes Trial
      • Tennessee teacher John Scopes arrested for teaching evolution
      • People all over the country followed his court case
      • Guilt was never in question
      • Two important lawyers faced off:
        • Clarence Darrow defended John Scopes
          • Famous criminal lawyer
          • Argued that teaching evolution was a matter of free speech
        • William Jennings Bryan –
          • 3 time candidate for president
          • Fundamentalist
          • Believer in rural values
          • Argued that the ideas competed with Christianity
    • S, I, P – Scopes Trial
      • Scopes was convicted
      • 5 days later William Jennings Bryan died
        • Considered a hero
      • Law remained in place until 1960
    • The Scopes Trial
    • S, P - Prohibition
      • Through history many groups tried to outlaw alcohol
        • Thought it was a source of unhappiness, hurt families, promoted crime
      • In 1900’s the Progressives tried to outlaw it
      • WWI led to support for the ban
        • Wartime called for discipline
        • Need for grain
    • S, P – Prohibition
      • Bias against immigrants, city life supported argument
        • People said immigrants and urban dwellers were abusers of alcohol
      • By 1917 over 50% of states passed some form of restriction on alcohol use
        • Encouraged by Fundamentalists
        • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVuwREbGh3w&feature=related
    • S, P – Prohibition
      • 1917 – Congress proposed constitutional amendment making it illegal to manufacture, transport or sell alcohol
      • 1919 – Amendment ratified
      • 1920 – Volstead Act passed to enforce the amendment
        • Prohibition became the law of the land
    • Prohibition
    • S, P – Prohibition
      • Virtually impossible to enforce
      • Making, transporting, selling alcohol illegal, but drinking it was NOT
      • Gave rise to huge smuggling operations
        • 2 nd biggest industry in Detroit in 1920’s
        • Smugglers - BOOTLEGGERS
        • Illegal bars that served alcohol – SPEAKEASIES
    • S, P – Prohibition
      • 1925 – only 5% of liquor entering country had been stopped
      • Illegal liquor business – foundation for great criminal empires
        • Al Capone – Chicago
      • Federal government couldn’t compete with criminals
      • Prohibition continued through the 1920’s without success
        • Damaged government prestige
    • Prohibition http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJp3lnu-V-M&feature=PlayList&p=DFD79F9A222C8A9E&playnext=1&index=21
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OiYqFXmVAFg&feature=related
      • http://video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?p=prohibition&ei=UTF-8&fr=b2ie7&fr2=tab-web&tnr=21&vid=000165489586