1920s Lecture 4   The Roaring 20s
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1920s Lecture 4 The Roaring 20s






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1920s Lecture 4   The Roaring 20s 1920s Lecture 4 The Roaring 20s Presentation Transcript

  • The Roaring 20’s After today you should know: How women’s roles changed What major population shifts occurred How population shifts led to conflicts of values in America How fundamentalism influenced America
  • S - New Roles for Women
    • Voting
    • 19 th Amendment ratified in 1920 – gave women right to vote
      • Women soon elected to local and state offices
        • Nellie Tayloe Ross – WY
        • Miriam Ferguson – TX
    • Women generally voted the same as the men in their lives
      • Didn’t bring the change people had suspected
  • S & E – New Roles for Women
    • Jobs
    • Many women resumed jobs during economic boom of the 1920’s
      • Mostly low paying professions
        • Nursing
        • Teaching
        • Domestic servants
        • Secretaries
    • College
    • Women also started attending college in record numbers
      • Especially those in middle and upper class
  • The Flapper
  • S - The Flapper
    • Changing opportunities for women brought about changing attitudes
      • Including: basic rules defining proper behavior for women
    • The Flapper
      • Defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior
          • Cut hair
          • Wore makeup
          • Smoked cigarettes
          • Drank alcohol
          • Went out dancing all night
      • Became a new mode of popular dress
  • S – The Flapper
    • Also became a popular image reflecting the changes affecting women
      • Suggested freedom and independence
    • But some women didn’t approve, especially
      • Women in rural areas
        • Only seen pictures in magazines
        • Conflicted with conservative values
      • Older supporters of women’s rights
        • Thought flappers disgraced the work that had been done to advance the cause of women
  • S – New Roles for Women
    • But a woman’s major role was to care for children and the home
    • Still depended on men for financial support
    • Did seek greater equality in their relationships with men
  • G, S, R, I, E – Urbanization
    • Farmers experiencing hard times flocked to cities for new jobs
    • 1920 census showed for the first time that more Americans lived in urban areas than rural areas
      • http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/files/table-4.pdf
      • In 2008 – 79.2% urban, 20.8% rural
      • 75% of Americans worked somewhere other than a farm
    • Access to cars shrunk the distance between the country and the city
      • Rural people less isolated, changed outlook
  • S, I – Education
    • The shift to the cities provided access to education
    • States passed laws requiring young people to go to school
      • Got children out of factories
      • Opened up new jobs
    • School attendance, college enrollment increased
  • S – Intolerance
    • Urban and rural values clashed in the 20’s
    • Rural dwellers disapproved of many parts of urban life
    • Ku Klux Klan grew because of the differences in values
      • Drew lots of members from rural America
        • Believed they could preserve their place in society
      • Targeted African-Americans, Catholics, Jews
      • Membership peaked in 1920’s
        • In the millions
  • How do people feel in times of change?
  • S, R – Fundamentalism
    • Changes of the time attracted many people to religion
    • FUNDAMENTALISM became very popular
      • Form of Christianity based on a literal interpretation of the Bible
      • Condemned radicals and criticized the changing attitudes of women
    • Prominent fundamentalist preachers
      • Billy Sunday
        • Former baseball player
      • Aimee Semple McPherson
        • Well known for healing the sick through prayer
  • S, I, P – Fundamentalism vs. Evolution
    • Fundamentalism conflicted with modern science
      • Especially Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
    • Fundamentalists believed evolution undermined religious faith
    • Tried to prevent teaching evolution in schools
    • Several states passed laws outlawing teaching evolution
    • Law passed in Tennessee in 1925 made it illegal to teach evolution
  • S, I, P – Scopes Trial
    • Tennessee teacher John Scopes arrested for teaching evolution
    • People all over the country followed his court case
    • Guilt was never in question
    • Two important lawyers faced off:
      • Clarence Darrow defended John Scopes
        • Famous criminal lawyer
        • Argued that teaching evolution was a matter of free speech
      • William Jennings Bryan –
        • 3 time candidate for president
        • Fundamentalist
        • Believer in rural values
        • Argued that the ideas competed with Christianity
  • S, I, P – Scopes Trial
    • Scopes was convicted
    • 5 days later William Jennings Bryan died
      • Considered a hero
    • Law remained in place until 1960
  • The Scopes Trial
  • S, P - Prohibition
    • Through history many groups tried to outlaw alcohol
      • Thought it was a source of unhappiness, hurt families, promoted crime
    • In 1900’s the Progressives tried to outlaw it
    • WWI led to support for the ban
      • Wartime called for discipline
      • Need for grain
  • S, P – Prohibition
    • Bias against immigrants, city life supported argument
      • People said immigrants and urban dwellers were abusers of alcohol
    • By 1917 over 50% of states passed some form of restriction on alcohol use
      • Encouraged by Fundamentalists
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVuwREbGh3w&feature=related
  • S, P – Prohibition
    • 1917 – Congress proposed constitutional amendment making it illegal to manufacture, transport or sell alcohol
    • 1919 – Amendment ratified
    • 1920 – Volstead Act passed to enforce the amendment
      • Prohibition became the law of the land
  • Prohibition
  • S, P – Prohibition
    • Virtually impossible to enforce
    • Making, transporting, selling alcohol illegal, but drinking it was NOT
    • Gave rise to huge smuggling operations
      • 2 nd biggest industry in Detroit in 1920’s
      • Smugglers - BOOTLEGGERS
      • Illegal bars that served alcohol – SPEAKEASIES
  • S, P – Prohibition
    • 1925 – only 5% of liquor entering country had been stopped
    • Illegal liquor business – foundation for great criminal empires
      • Al Capone – Chicago
    • Federal government couldn’t compete with criminals
    • Prohibition continued through the 1920’s without success
      • Damaged government prestige
  • Prohibition http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJp3lnu-V-M&feature=PlayList&p=DFD79F9A222C8A9E&playnext=1&index=21
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OiYqFXmVAFg&feature=related
    • http://video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?p=prohibition&ei=UTF-8&fr=b2ie7&fr2=tab-web&tnr=21&vid=000165489586