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frogs in nature, how to identify

frogs in nature, how to identify

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Leopold frogs wi Leopold frogs wi Presentation Transcript

  • Frogs of Leopold WetlandFrogs of Leopold Wetland Management DistrictManagement District
  • Amphibian FactsAmphibian Facts  AmphibianAmphibian means “both life forms”means “both life forms” (aquatic and terrestrial)(aquatic and terrestrial)  Frogs, toads, newts and salamandersFrogs, toads, newts and salamanders  ““cold bloodedcold blooded” – body temp reflects its” – body temp reflects its surroundingssurroundings  Thin skin that must remain moistThin skin that must remain moist  Many species nocturnal (easier to keepMany species nocturnal (easier to keep moist and cool)moist and cool)
  • Froggie FactsFroggie Facts  Twelve speciesTwelve species of frogs in Wisconsinof frogs in Wisconsin  Most frogs capable of changing color –Most frogs capable of changing color – brighter colors when warmerbrighter colors when warmer  Life spanLife span (cricket frog – 1yr., bullfrog 5-10(cricket frog – 1yr., bullfrog 5-10 yrs.)yrs.)  Spring rains and water tempsSpring rains and water temps of 50of 50 degrees Fahrenheit trigger emergencedegrees Fahrenheit trigger emergence from the mud and uplands for breedingfrom the mud and uplands for breeding
  • Froggie FactsFroggie Facts  Temporary wetlands (which dry up) are best forTemporary wetlands (which dry up) are best for laying eggs – lack fish and other predatorslaying eggs – lack fish and other predators  Undergo metamorphosisUndergo metamorphosis – eggs, tadpole, adult– eggs, tadpole, adult  Tadpoles feed on vegetation, adults carnivorousTadpoles feed on vegetation, adults carnivorous – flies and other insects– flies and other insects  Cryptic camoCryptic camo is a good defenseis a good defense
  • Froggie FactsFroggie Facts  Overwintering strategiesOverwintering strategies::  Freeze solid – spring peepers, wood frogs – inFreeze solid – spring peepers, wood frogs – in late fall body temps drop to 32 deg F and theylate fall body temps drop to 32 deg F and they produce a “anti-freeze” substance – bodiesproduce a “anti-freeze” substance – bodies freeze and cells do not – cease breathing anfreeze and cells do not – cease breathing an shut down until “thaw out” in springshut down until “thaw out” in spring  Others burrow into ground or under the iceOthers burrow into ground or under the ice
  • Love is in the air……Love is in the air……  Call withCall with vocal pouchesvocal pouches – inflate like– inflate like balloonballoon  ““Advertisement callsAdvertisement calls” – I’m available..” – I’m available..  Attract femalesAttract females  Also attract other males (larger groups ofAlso attract other males (larger groups of males better at attracting females)males better at attracting females)  Territorial callsTerritorial calls – bullfrogs– bullfrogs
  • Life Cycle - MetamorphosisLife Cycle - Metamorphosis  EggsEggs  Tadpole (polliwog)Tadpole (polliwog)  AdultAdult
  • Post BreedingPost Breeding  After breeding season, non-aquaticAfter breeding season, non-aquatic species leave the wetland breeding areasspecies leave the wetland breeding areas for their terrestrial habitats and cease tofor their terrestrial habitats and cease to callcall  Rain callsRain calls – call after or during warm rain– call after or during warm rain  Alarm callsAlarm calls – squeak to alert of predators– squeak to alert of predators
  • Why monitor frogs?Why monitor frogs?  Indicator speciesIndicator species – very sensitive to– very sensitive to pollutionpollution  Value of frogsValue of frogs – important in the food– important in the food chain as food for many birds, mammals,chain as food for many birds, mammals, fish and reptilesfish and reptiles
  • Monitoring in WIMonitoring in WI  Wisconsin – conducted annual frog/toadWisconsin – conducted annual frog/toad survey since 1984 (oldest program insurvey since 1984 (oldest program in nation)nation)
  • Monitoring ProceduresMonitoring Procedures  Two types of surveys:Two types of surveys:  ListeningListening  CapturingCapturing
  • Monitoring ProceduresMonitoring Procedures  3 survey periods:3 survey periods:  Early spring (April 8-30)Early spring (April 8-30)  Late spring (May 20 - June 5)Late spring (May 20 - June 5)  Summer (July 1-15)Summer (July 1-15)  Surveys begin 30 minutes after sunsetSurveys begin 30 minutes after sunset  Wind conditions should be lowWind conditions should be low  Damp or foggy nights good (humidity)Damp or foggy nights good (humidity)  Within minimum air and water tempsWithin minimum air and water temps
  • Monitoring ProceduresMonitoring Procedures  Approach quietlyApproach quietly  Record location, date, route, weather, andRecord location, date, route, weather, and air and water temps on data sheetair and water temps on data sheet  Listen for 5 – 10 minutesListen for 5 – 10 minutes  Record species and numbers found (1,2,3Record species and numbers found (1,2,3 – call index)– call index)  Move to next location and repeatMove to next location and repeat
  • Western Chorus FrogWestern Chorus Frog
  • Western Chorus FrogWestern Chorus Frog  How to Identify:How to Identify: 3/4-1 1/2 in. greenish-gray to brown; 3 dark3/4-1 1/2 in. greenish-gray to brown; 3 dark stripes down the back; white lipstripes down the back; white lip  Habitat:Habitat: In or near shallow temporary bodies ofIn or near shallow temporary bodies of water.water.  Breeding:Breeding: March - MayMarch - May  Voice:Voice: A "crreek", lasting 1 or 2 seconds;A "crreek", lasting 1 or 2 seconds; similar to the sound of a fingernail runningsimilar to the sound of a fingernail running along the teeth of a fine-toothed comb.along the teeth of a fine-toothed comb.
  • Wood FrogWood Frog
  • Wood FrogWood Frog  How to identify:How to identify: brown or bronze color, small –brown or bronze color, small – under 2.5 inchesunder 2.5 inches  After mating – “raccoon mask”After mating – “raccoon mask”  Habitat:Habitat: In or near moist wooded areasIn or near moist wooded areas  Breeding:Breeding: March - AprilMarch - April  Voice:Voice: Hoarse, subtle quackingHoarse, subtle quacking
  • Northern Spring PeeperNorthern Spring Peeper
  • Northern Spring PeeperNorthern Spring Peeper  How to identify:How to identify: Under 1.5 inches, “X” on back,Under 1.5 inches, “X” on back, gray or brown, sticky toe pads – tree froggray or brown, sticky toe pads – tree frog  Habitat:Habitat: Wooded areas with temporary or semi-Wooded areas with temporary or semi- permanent ponds or swamps or marshes.permanent ponds or swamps or marshes.  Breeding:Breeding: March through MayMarch through May  Voice:Voice: A high ascending "peep," sometimes withA high ascending "peep," sometimes with a short trill – slower when colda short trill – slower when cold
  • American ToadAmerican Toad
  • American ToadAmerican Toad  How to identify:How to identify: 2 - 3”, tan, brown, gray – can2 - 3”, tan, brown, gray – can change color, large parotid glands and warts –change color, large parotid glands and warts – terrestrial, only toad in WIterrestrial, only toad in WI  Habitat:Habitat: shallow waters – don’t swimshallow waters – don’t swim  Breeding:Breeding: April through JuneApril through June  Voice:Voice: A musical trill lasting up to 30 seconds,A musical trill lasting up to 30 seconds, with considerable individual variation in the tonewith considerable individual variation in the tone
  • Northern Leopard FrogNorthern Leopard Frog
  • Northern Leopard FrogNorthern Leopard Frog  How to identify:How to identify: 2 - 3.5”, rounded leopard spots,2 - 3.5”, rounded leopard spots, green or browngreen or brown  Habitat:Habitat: Lakes, streams, rivers, ponds; often farLakes, streams, rivers, ponds; often far from standing water. (This is why it's sometimesfrom standing water. (This is why it's sometimes called the meadow frog.)called the meadow frog.)  Breeding:Breeding: April through mid-June.April through mid-June.  Voice:Voice: A deep, rattling snore interspersed withA deep, rattling snore interspersed with "chuckling" or the sound of a thumb rubbing"chuckling" or the sound of a thumb rubbing against a balloon; similar to pickerel frog.against a balloon; similar to pickerel frog.
  • Pickerel FrogPickerel Frog
  • Pickerel FrogPickerel Frog  How to identify:How to identify: 2 - 3”, green or brown, two rows2 - 3”, green or brown, two rows of square brown/black spotsof square brown/black spots  Habitat:Habitat: Cool, clear waters of springfed lakesCool, clear waters of springfed lakes and streams – found on banks after breeding,and streams – found on banks after breeding, much less common than leopard frogmuch less common than leopard frog  Breeding:Breeding: April through mid-JuneApril through mid-June  Voice:Voice: A steady, low-pitched snore with littleA steady, low-pitched snore with little carrying power; similar to leopard frog – see tocarrying power; similar to leopard frog – see to IDID
  • Eastern Gray TreefrogEastern Gray Treefrog
  • Eastern Gray TreefrogEastern Gray Treefrog  How to identify:How to identify: 1.5 – 2.5”, gray but may turn1.5 – 2.5”, gray but may turn slightly green, largest tree frog in WIslightly green, largest tree frog in WI  Habitat:Habitat: Trees or shrubs growing in or nearTrees or shrubs growing in or near waterwater  Breeding:Breeding: May through mid-JulyMay through mid-July  Voice:Voice: A short, loud trill lasting up to 30 seconds;A short, loud trill lasting up to 30 seconds; slower and more melodic than Cope's grayslower and more melodic than Cope's gray treefrogtreefrog
  • Cope’s Gray TreefrogCope’s Gray Treefrog
  • Cope’s Gray TreefrogCope’s Gray Treefrog  How to identify:How to identify: 1.25 – 2”, smaller than Eastern1.25 – 2”, smaller than Eastern gray,gray,  Habitat:Habitat: Trees or shrubs growing in or nearTrees or shrubs growing in or near waterwater  Breeding:Breeding: May through mid-JulyMay through mid-July  Voice:Voice: A short, loud trill lasting up to 30 seconds;A short, loud trill lasting up to 30 seconds; faster and harsher than Eastern Treefrog. Afaster and harsher than Eastern Treefrog. A nasally "wa-a-a-a-a."nasally "wa-a-a-a-a."
  • Mink FrogMink Frog
  • Mink FrogMink Frog  How to identify:How to identify: 2 - 3”, green with mottled black,2 - 3”, green with mottled black, skin produces a musky, mink-like odor whenskin produces a musky, mink-like odor when rubbedrubbed  Habitat:Habitat: Cool, permanent water whereCool, permanent water where vegetation is abundant (including bogs)vegetation is abundant (including bogs)  Breeding:Breeding: June through JulyJune through July  Voice:Voice: Like the sound of horses' hooves trottingLike the sound of horses' hooves trotting over a cobblestone streetover a cobblestone street
  • Green FrogGreen Frog
  • Green FrogGreen Frog  How to identify:How to identify: 2 – 4”, olive green, folds along2 – 4”, olive green, folds along backback  Habitat:Habitat: All types of permanent bodies of waterAll types of permanent bodies of water  Breeding:Breeding: June through JulyJune through July  Voice:Voice: Similar to the twang of a loose banjoSimilar to the twang of a loose banjo string, usually given as a single notestring, usually given as a single note
  • BullfrogBullfrog
  • BullfrogBullfrog  How to identify:How to identify: 3 – 8”, largest frog in North3 – 8”, largest frog in North America, green, yellow-green or brown, no foldsAmerica, green, yellow-green or brown, no folds on backon back  Habitat:Habitat: Permanent bodies of water, may takePermanent bodies of water, may take over as a predatorover as a predator  Breeding:Breeding: June through JulyJune through July  Voice:Voice: Deep bass notes similar to a foghorn;Deep bass notes similar to a foghorn; "jug-o-rum" or like drawing a bow across a bass"jug-o-rum" or like drawing a bow across a bass fiddlefiddle
  • Blanchard’s Cricket Frog*Blanchard’s Cricket Frog*
  • Blanchard’s Cricket Frog*Blanchard’s Cricket Frog*  How to identify:How to identify: Under 1.5”, brown, olive, gray,Under 1.5”, brown, olive, gray, dark triangle between the eyes on backdark triangle between the eyes on back  Habitat:Habitat: In or near permanent bodies of shallowIn or near permanent bodies of shallow water with submerged plants – WI endangeredwater with submerged plants – WI endangered  Breeding:Breeding: May through JulyMay through July  Voice:Voice: Like the clicking of pebbles in rapidLike the clicking of pebbles in rapid succession, or like clicking two "steelie" marblessuccession, or like clicking two "steelie" marbles in your handin your hand
  • What happened to the frogs?What happened to the frogs?  Habitat lossHabitat loss – loss of wetland acres– loss of wetland acres  DeformitiesDeformities – due to pollution– due to pollution
  • Way to help froggie friends:Way to help froggie friends:  Stop or minimize use of lawnStop or minimize use of lawn chemicals/fertilizerschemicals/fertilizers  Plant native grasses, shrubs, and trees – morePlant native grasses, shrubs, and trees – more resistant to pestsresistant to pests  If you own wetlands – protect them with a “bufferIf you own wetlands – protect them with a “buffer strip” (trees and grasses)strip” (trees and grasses)  Wetland restorationsWetland restorations  Educate friends and neighborsEducate friends and neighbors
  • SourcesSources  http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/critthttp://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/critt  Wisconsin Frogs (Northeastern WisconsinWisconsin Frogs (Northeastern Wisconsin Audubon Society, 2001)Audubon Society, 2001)