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Unit III Postmodernism
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Unit III Postmodernism Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Unit III: THE POSTMODERN AGE
    Literature in English II
    Prof. Julia I. Martínez
  • 2. MODERNITY
    Epochal term (refers to a historical period)
    From the Renaissance (reason)/ Enlightenment (18th c.) till today
  • 3. MODERN AGE
    Historical age
    From the end of the 15th c. (discovery of America) to 1789 (the French Revolution). Then, the Contemporary Age begins
  • 4. MODERNISM
    One of the cultural manifestations of Modernity.
    A category that means change / rupture / beginning / a moment of crisis
    It began in 1922 with Eliot’s “The Wasteland” and Joyce’s “Ulysses,” and finished (?) around 1960
  • 5. MateiCalinescu: The Five Faces of Modernity (1987)
    Postmodernism is one other face of the extraordinary phenomenon that came to be known as modernism
    It is another expression of the modernist ethos since there are “two conflicting and interdependent modernities -one socially progressive, rationalistic, competitive, technological; the other culturally critical and self-critical, bent on demystifying the basic values of the first...” (p. 265).
  • 6. POSTMODERNISM
    A period in Western history beginning in the 1960s (Postmodernity)
    A style in culture (Postmodernism)
    A style of thought / an intellectual atmosphere (Postmodern theory)
  • 7. Ihab Hassan & Brian McHale:
    POST – MODERN – ISM
    movement, poetics
    modernism
    Anti: reaction against Modernism
    After:  logical consequence of modernism
     temporal posteriority
    successor of Modernism
  • 8. Brian McHale (1987):
    In order to differentiate modernist from postmodernist fiction, we should talk about the dominant of each
    taken from Jackobson (the focusing component or the principle of sistematicity)
  • 9. Brian McHale:
  • 10. Socio-cultural context of Postmodernism
    End of the 1960s
    Counter culture: Hippie and feminist movements
    Strikes (students’ strikes in particular)
  • 11. Postmodern Theory (Steven Best)
    Origin: France, 1960s / 1970s
    Rapid modernisation process (1960s)
    changes in lifestyle (anxiety
    Post-structuralist philosophers (1970s): Derrida, Kristeva, Foucault, Lancan
    instability of meaning
    Rupture with traditions
    Change in thought strikes (1960s)
  • 12. Leslie Fiedler
    “The End of the Novel” (1967)
    Writers turned to experimental writing because they didn’t know what to write about
  • 13. John Barth
    “The Literature of Exhaustion” (1967)
    “The Literature of Replenishment” (1980)
    He reacted against Fiedler
    In his view, it is true that some forms are exhausted, but this “experimentation” may lead to a new form.
    If there are no more topics to write about, we should use the past to recreate new fiction.
    Literature is inexhaustible
  • 14. Effects:
    Writers abandoned classical fiction
    Writers turned to experimental fiction
    Reality can’t be apprehended
    If we can’t tell what reality is, how can we represent reality? By constructing new realities
    Phenomenology (Husserl)
  • 15. Main concerns of Postmodernism
    Deconstruction of:
    Truth
    Language
    History
    Reality
    Meaning
    Identity
    Power
    Space
  • 16. Main characteristics
  • 17.
  • 18. Metafiction - Definition
    A tendency within fiction
    Patricia Waugh (1984): “Fictional writing that systematically / self-consciously draws attention to its status as an artifact” (p. 2)
    It poses questions about the relationship between fact and fiction (existential questioning) (p. 2)
    Examines the fundamental structures of narrative fiction (experimental writing)
  • 19. Metafiction - Themes
    Relationship / boundaries / juxtaposition of fact and reality and fiction and fantasy
    Reality as a linguistic and discursive construct
    Role of the person who writes fiction (fiction maker); critical reflections about writing fiction
  • 20. Metafiction - Devices
    Critical discussions of the story within story
    Visible inventing narrator (obtrusive narrator)
    Explicit dramatisation of the reader
    Construction / deconstruction of worlds
    Intertextuality
    Narrative self-erasure
  • 21. Metafiction - Devices
    Multiple endings
    Chinese-box structures
    Lexical exhibitionism, catalogues
    Heteroglossia (polyphony of voices)
    Breakdown of spatial and temporal organisation of the narrative (playful)
    Parody
    Historical revisionism
    Pastiche
  • 22. HistoriographicMetafiction
    Linda Hutcheon (1988): “In the 19th century (…) literature and history were considered branches of the same tree of learning. (…) Then came the separation that resulted in the distinct disciplines of literary and historical studies today. (…) However, it is this very separation of the literary and the historical that is now being challenged in postmodern theory and art” (p. 105)
  • 23. HistoriographicMetafiction
    Hutcheon: “they are both identified as linguistic constructs, highly conventionalized in their narrative forms, and not at all transparent either in terms of language or structure; and they appear to be equally intertextual, deploying the texts of the past within their own complex textuality” (p. 105)
  • 24. HistoriographicMetafiction
    Hutcheon: “this kind of novel asks us to recall that history and fiction are themselves historical terms and that their definitions and interrelations are historically determined and vary with time” (105)
    “Historiographic metafiction suggests that truth and falsity may indeed not be the right terms in which to discuss fiction” (109)
  • 25. HistoriographicMetafiction
    Hutcheon: “Postmodern fiction suggests that to re-write or to re-present the past in fiction and in history is, in both cases, to open it up to the present, to prevent it from being conclusive and teleological” (p. 110)
    Historiographic metafictions “both install and then blur the line between fiction and history” (p. 113)
  • 26. HistoriographicMetafiction
    Hutcheon: “Postmodern novels raise a number of specific issues regarding the interaction of historiography and fiction that deserve more detailed study: issues surrounding the nature of identity and subjectivity; the question of reference and representation; the intertextual nature of the past; and the ideological implications of writing about history” (p. 117)