Education system in the USAPresentation Transcript
The Education System in the USA
Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 2 There is no national structure, curriculum or governing law; all laws and policies are set and enforced by the 50 state governments and over 14,000 local school districts. The US Department of Education is responsible for federal education programmes of all types and levels. Its role in education is limited by the US Constitution and by federal statutes. It does not function as a governing body, but operates in cooperation with state and local authorities. Ages of compulsory education: 6 – 18
Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 3 Pre-primary education: Types of school: Kindergarten, Nursery School, Preschool Programmes, Child/Day Care Centers Age levels: 4-6
Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 4 Primary education (also called “Elementary”): Usually consists of five or six grades Secondary education: (also called “High School”): Usually runs from grades seventh through twelfth Degree: High School Diploma
Types of institutions: Public Schools: governed by local school districts and their boards. Policies and regulations tend to be uniform across all schools within a district. Private schools: governed by self-appointed boards of trustees and raise their own operating incomes without state or local government support. They may be affiliated with a religious organisation. Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 5
Alternative schools: Charter schools: public schools established by parent groups, communities or organisations to fulfil specific needs, serve special populations or adhere to special curricula or institutional practices. They receive public funding and support but are freed from school district regulations and may enrol students from anywhere in a district. Charter schools operate via a performance agreement, or charter, that sets forth the mission, program, student population, and methods of evaluation and assessment. Charters usually last from 3-5 years and are renewable. Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 6
Magnet schools: are regular public schools that have a special educational theme, mode of instruction, subject emphasis, or other characteristic and are permitted to enrol students from across the entire school district rather than being confined to normal school attendance boundaries. Magnet programs have similar features but are located within regular public schools rather than being separate schools. The legal purpose of magnets is to promote equal access to unique educational opportunities by minority students who would otherwise be confined to regular schools based on residence. Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 7
Home schooling: Over 1 million students receive home schooling annually. It is legally recognized and regulated in all U.S. states. It is usually performed by parents and there is an extensive array of services, materials, and resources to assist homeschooling parents and children. Qualified home school graduates are recognized as school graduates by the states and may be admitted to U.S. higher education institutions.
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Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 9 Higher education (also called “Postsecondary”): Vocational: non-degree Higher education: studies in degree-granting institutions The federal government has no jurisdiction or authority over the recognition of educational institutions, members of the academic professions, programmes or curricula, or degrees or other qualifications. Quality assurance is achieved via the system of voluntary accreditation.
Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 10 University level studies: Degrees: Undergraduate degrees: Associate Degree, Bachelor’s Degree Graduate or Postgraduate degrees: Master’s Degree, Doctorate Degree Admission requirements: High School Diploma, entrance examinations; other requirements
Types of institutions: State universities: founded and subsidized by U.S. state governments to provide low-cost education to residents of that state. They may also be called public universities to distinguish them from private institutions. State universities tend to be very large and generally admit a wider range of students than private universities. State university tuition costs are generally lower than those of private universities. Also, in-state residents pay much lower tuition than out-of-state residents. Private universities: funded by a combination of endowments, tuition fees, research grants, and gifts from their alumni. Tuition fees tend to be higher but there is no distinction made between state and non-state residents. Education System in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 11
Community colleges: provide two-year associate degree programs, as well as excellent technical and vocational programs. They are community-based institutions with close links to secondary schools, community groups, and employers, and many U.S. students live close to campus with their families. Community colleges can be public or private institutions and are sometimes called junior colleges or two-year colleges. Tuition costs are often lower at two-year than at four-year institutions, and many have agreements to allow students on transfer programs to move easily into the third year of a bachelor’s degree at the local state university. Technical or vocational colleges: specialize in preparing students for entry into, or promotion within, the world of work. They offer certificate and other short-term programs that train students in the theory behind a specific vocation or technology, as well as in how to work with the technology. Programs usually last two years or less. They may be private or public institutions. EducationSystem in the USA - Prof. Julia I. Martínez 12
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