Wines of North America

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Wines of North America

  1. 1. Wines from North America©2012Julia Sevenich, WSET Diploma Austrian Wine Academy 1
  2. 2. USA 2
  3. 3. USA Volume Trends 30000 25000 200001000 hl 15000 Produktion Konsum Export Import 10000 5000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Jahr
  4. 4. USA• 3 Tier System • Importer • Distributor • Retailer• 50 States • different laws • different taxes• TTB – Alcohol and Tobacco Trade and Tax Bureau 4
  5. 5. American Viticultural Area (AVA)• Geographic wine grape-growing region in the United States demarcated by the TTB and vintners• American Viticultural Area designations do not limit the type of grapes grown, the method of vinification, or the crop yield.• Wines labelled with an AVA must be made with a minimum of 85% of grapes from that AVA• One vineyard can belong to more than one AVA 5
  6. 6. The Big 5 sell 60% of all wine in USA (Case Sales 2011)• E&J Gallo Winery 75 Mil. – purchased Barefoot Cellars• The Wine Group 62 Mil.• Constellation Wines 47 Mil. – purchased Robert Mondavi Winery – purchased Phillips-Hogue• Treasury Wine Estates 18 Mil. – purchased Beringer Blass• Trinchero Family Estates 16,5 Mil. 6
  7. 7. California 7
  8. 8. California Statistics 2010• 90% USA wine production in California• 4th largest wine producer after France, Italy and Spain• $ 1.14 billion in exports – 90% US wine exports from California – + 25% value since 2009 – +117% value since 2001 – 47 million cases exported to125 countries – + 40% volume since 2001 8
  9. 9. California Statistics 2010• 3,400 wine producers – + 321% from 807 wine producers in 1990 – nearly all family-owned companies• 4,600 wine grape growers 9
  10. 10. California Statistics 2010• Wine sales in the USA: 199 million cases (12x0,75l)• Retail value in the USA $18.5 billion• 61% volume market share in USA 10
  11. 11. Climate in California5 climate zones according to Winkler• Hot climate (Central Valley)• Atlantic influence – fog banks• Cool ocean currents from Alaska• Cool east-west valleys 11
  12. 12. CaliforniaPhylloxera• 1980s to beginning 1990s• AxR1 rootstocks• Chances and new orientation 12
  13. 13. CaliforniaPierce„s Disease/• First invasion 19th century• Labrusca is resistant• Glassy-winged sharpshooter• Temecula hard hit 13
  14. 14. California• Feeding by larvae of European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, results in contamination of bunches with webbing, frass, an d fungal infections. 14
  15. 15. Chardonnay• New vinification philosophy• Many styles• Carneros• Santa Barbara• Sonoma County 15
  16. 16. Zinfandel• 10% CA vineyard area• Crljenak Kaštelanski, Primitivo• Bob Trinchero, Sutter Home Winery – White Zinfandel 1975 – 10% US wine consumption – off-dry to semi-sweet – low alcohol 16
  17. 17. Vineyard & CellarViticulture and Oenology Consultants• David Abreu, John Wetlaufer• Helen Turley, Heidi Peterson Barett, Mia Klein 17
  18. 18. California 5 Regions• North Coast• Central Coast• Southern California• Sierra Nevada• Central Valley 18
  19. 19. North Coast: Mendocino and Lake County• Anderson Valley sparkling wine (Roederer)• Organic viticulture (Fetzer, Bonterra) 19
  20. 20. North Coast: Sonoma• Terroir diversity – Sonoma Valley – Sonoma Coast• Style diversity – Chardonnay – Old Vine Zin – Cabernet – Pinot Noir 20
  21. 21. North Coast: Carneros• Direct influence from San Pablo Bay• Sparkling wine• Chardonnay und PN 21
  22. 22. North Coast: Napa Valley• 4% California vineyard area• North hotter, south cooler• Cabernet is king!!!• Micro-AVAs (Howell Mountain, Mount Veeder …)• benchland vs. mountain• Meritage• Charity auctions 22
  23. 23. Napa Valley• Parker effect• Cult wines• Wine tourism significant! 23
  24. 24. Central Coast: Santa BarbaraSanta Maria ValleySanta Ynez ValleySanta Rita Hills• Pinot Noir• Highest grape prices PN 24
  25. 25. Central Valley = San Joaquin Valley• AVA Lodi – Old vine Zinfandel – Bay influence• Over 50% Californian wine production volume• Gallo in Modesto• Mondavi Woodbridge in Lodi 25
  26. 26. Cal-Italia• Randall Graham„s Ca„ del Solo range from Bonny Doon• Antinori Antica in Atlas Peak• Pinot Grigio• Sangiovese 26
  27. 27. Rhône Rangers• Randall Graham, Bonny Doon (Le Cigare Volant, Old Telegram)• Tablas Creek, Ojai• Qupé• Alban• Syrah, Grenache,• Mouvedre, Cinsault 27
  28. 28. Oregon 28
  29. 29. Oregon 29
  30. 30. Oregon• Similar climate to Burgundy• Red loam and clay• 50% Pinot Noir• + Chardonnay, PG, PB• Coastal Range• Willamette Valley• Bergström, Domaine Drouhin, Eyrie 30
  31. 31. Washington 31
  32. 32. Washington AVAs 32
  33. 33. Washington• 10.000 ha• Over 100 wine producers• extreme continental → frost danger• Ungrafted vines• irrigation• Metropole Seattle• Columbia Valley• Château Ste. Michelle• Andrew Will, Quilceda Creek, Cayuse 33
  34. 34. New York• Vitis Labrusca and hybrids• Finger Lakes with Riesling• Long Island with classic and cool climate varieties 34
  35. 35. Canada 35
  36. 36. Canada 36
  37. 37. Canada• 3 important events occurred in 1988: – free trade with the United States – establishment of the Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA) standard – major grape vine replacement & upgrading program 37
  38. 38. Canada• Canadian wines <50% of Canadian wine market• since late 1990s wine has increased its market share from 21% to 28%• since 2007 wine sales have increased by 9.5% to $5 billion 38
  39. 39. Canada• Vincor International (Constellation) and Andres Wines dominate market• Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO)• “cellared in Canada” dispute 39
  40. 40. Canada• Ice wine – min. 35 Brix (29.4 KMW) – min. −8 C (17 F) – No cryoextraction• Cool climate hybrids: – Seyval Blanc, Vidal, Maréchal Foch – Baco Noir 40
  41. 41. Mexico 41
  42. 42. Mexico• Baja California – 90% Mexican wine production – Granite soils – Maritime climate with cool nights – Cabernet Sauvignon, Ruby Cabernet, Zinfandel Grenache and Mission – Chenin Blanc, Palomino, Riesling, S auvignon Blanc, Sémillon
  43. 43. Mexico• Average per capita wine consumption is 2 glasses a year• Wine tax 40%• hard to compete with beer and tequila• Wine imports in 2005 4 x higher than in 1995
  44. 44. Mexico• wine tourism with “Ruta del Vino” (Wine Route) connecting over 50 wineries. 44

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