Wines of Italy


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Wines of Italy

  1. 1. WINES OF ITALY© 2012 Julia SevenichGerman Wine School
  2. 2. Italy - History•4000 years wine cultivation•Established by Etruscans and Greeks•Important wine trade during the Roman Empire•Local importance in the Middle Ages•Renaissance in the 19th century•Establishment of the DOC/DOCG system 1963
  3. 3. Italy Current Wine Statistics (source Trade Data Analysis 2010)Per Capita Annual Consumption • Wine 42 liters • Beer 31 liters • Bottled Water 177 liters US Americans drink 9 liters and Brits 20 liters per capita annually, but Italy has far less binge drinking and alcohol abuse problems.
  4. 4. Italy Current Wine Statistics (OIV 2009)Per Capita Annual ConsumptionProduction • Total vineyard area 812,000 ha • 47 million hl • 22% world export volume • More than 300 DOC and DOCG zones • More than 2,000 wine types registered
  5. 5. 20 Wine Regions in Italy
  6. 6. Italy
  7. 7. ItalyClassification:Following the French example, the classificationsystem introduced in 1963, which was amended in1992, comprises four levels of quality:• Vini da Tavola (V.d.T.)• Indicazione Geografica Tipica (I.G.T)• Denominazione di Origine Controllata (D.O.C)• Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (74 D.O.C.G. as of 19.10.2011)
  8. 8. Italy - Liguria
  9. 9. Italy - Liguria Geography Steep mountain slopes along coast from French border to Tuscany Climate Moderate Mediterranean climate Soil Limestone soils Main DOC region Cinqueterre
  10. 10. Italy – Liguria The main grape varietiesWhite Red• Vermentino • Rossese• Pigato • Sangiovese• Bosco • Ormeasco (Dolcetto)• Albarola • Granaccia
  11. 11. Italy - Piemonte
  12. 12. Italy - Piedmont Total vineyards ca. 60,000 ha Total production ca. 2,700,000 hl DOC/G production 2,276,353 hl (84%)
  13. 13. Italy - PiedmontGeography•Piedmont, literally in the foothills•bordered by the Alps in the North and in the West•Borders Switzerland and France•Apennines to the south, separating it from Liguria,Climate•Continental – long, cold winters and hot, humid summers•Wine-growing is prolific•Concentrated cultivation in the hills bordering LiguriaSoil•meager•marl and limestone
  14. 14. Italy - Piedmont white wine varietiesMoscato – Fizzy or sparkling and sweet • Moscato d’Asti • Asti SpumanteCortese – Dry, restrained, elegant and mineral • Cortese di Gavi • Gavi di GaviArneis – Dry, soft, fruity
  15. 15. Italy - Piedmont red wine grape varietiesBarbera•Workhorse grape•Traditional style: soft and fruity wines•Modern style: barrique-matured and more tannic•Varietal labelingDolcetto:•Deep colored•Can be tannic and quite rustic•New-style Dolcetto•Varietal labeling
  16. 16. Italy – Piedmont red wine grape varieties Nebbiolo•Noble grape of Piedmont•Among the finest wines of the world•Late-ripening•needs best vineyard locations•Lighter-colored, tannic wines with pronouncedacidity•“tarry” characters•DOCG – Barolo, Barbaresco (South) – Gattinara, Ghemme (North)
  17. 17. Italy – Piedmont Barolo DOCG (red)• 1,100 ha• Core villages – Barolo, La Morra, Monforte, Serralunga• 100% Nebbiolo of the Michet, Lampia and Rosé subvarieties• Minimum barrel storage – 38 months – Riserva, 60 months• Traditionalists/Modernists
  18. 18. Italy – Piedmont Barbaresco DOCG (red)•450 ha•Core villages – Barbaresco, Neive, Treiso•100% Nebbiolo of the Michet, Lampia and Rosésubvarieties•Minimum barrel storage – 24 months – Riserva, 48 months
  19. 19. Italy - Aosta Valley Geography smallest Italian region up to 1,200 m Climate Warm summers and cold winters Soil Fertile, alluvial soils Of special interest Europe’s highest altitude vineyard: Blanc de Morgex DOC
  20. 20. Italy - Lombardy
  21. 21. Italy - Lombardy Geography •Stretches from the alpine foothills to the Po valley Climate •Cool winters •mild summers •warmer in the south Soil •stony loam in the north •sandy loam and clay in the south
  22. 22. Italy – Lombardy Wine production and wine production stylesNorth: Valtellina – high-altitude red wines from the Nebbiolo grape – 500 ha Superiore • incl. Grumello, Inferno, Sassela, ValgellaCentral: Franciacorta – hills around Erbusco – high-quality Champagne-style sparkling wines – dry reds from international varietiesSouth: Oltrepo Pavese – dry red blend of Barbera, Croatina and Uva Rara
  23. 23. Italy – Lombardy The main grape varietiesWhite Red• Trebbiano di Lugana • Chiavennasca• Pinot Bianco (Nebbiolo)• Chardonnay • Pinot Nero
  24. 24. Italy - Alto Adige & Trentino Geography •Adige river valley in the Alps •Trentino is further south, towards lake Garda Climate •Cool, but sheltered area Soil •Alluvial, sandy and gravelly soils
  25. 25. Italy – Alto Adige & Trentino Wine production and wine production stylesAlto Adige•356,420 hl•Fresh, cool-climate white wines from internationalvarieties•Fresh and light red wines from indigenous grapes•Kalterer See, St. Magdalener, LagreinTrentino•864,975 hl•60% white, mainly from Chardonnay•Reds from indigenous varieties
  26. 26. Italy – Alto Adige & Trentino The main grape varieties:White Red•Pinot Bianco • Vernatsch•Pinot Grigio • Lagrein•Riesling • Pinot Nero•Sauvignon Blanc • Merlot•Gewürztraminer • Cabernet Sauvignon•Chardonnay • Teroldego
  27. 27. Italy – Alto Adige & Trentino The main DOC regionsAlto Adige•Alto Adige + varietal name (white or red)•St. Magdalener (Vernatsch)•Kalterer See (Vernatsch)Trentino•Teroldego Rotaliano•Trentino + varietal name (white or red)
  28. 28. Italy – Veneto(c) 2010 Julia Sevenich
  29. 29. Italy - Veneto Geography •Stretches from the foothills of the Alps from Lake Garda to the northwestern coast of the Adriatic Sea Climate •Maritime influence •interior: hot summers, harsh foggy winters Soil •Hills: basalt and limestone •Po Valley: fertile alluvial soils
  30. 30. Italy – Veneto The main grape varietiesWhite Red• Garganega • Corvina• Prosecco • Molinara• Trebbiano di Soave • Rondinella
  31. 31. Italy - Veneto Most important wines• Prosecco (white sparkling) – DOCG: Colli Asolani, Asolo, Conegliano, Valdobbiadene• Soave Superiore (white)• Valpolicella (red) – Many styles: – Superiore, Ripasso, Amarone, Recioto, Recioto Spumante
  32. 32. Italy - Veneto• Recioto – Distinctive category of wine made from dried grapes – red (Valpolicello) or white (Soave) – Traditional old style – Botrytis and intentionally oxidative – Modern style – excludes Botrytis, sometimes oaked
  33. 33. Italy – Veneto ValpolicellaValpolicella blend• Corvina veronese, 40-70%• Rondinella, 20-40%• Molinara, 5-25%• Barbera, up to 15%• Negrara trentina and/or Rossignola and/or Sangiovese, 15%• other local red varieties, up to 5%.
  34. 34. Italy – Veneto Valpolicella• Valpolicella DOC • Recioto della Valpolicella• Valpolicella Superiore DOC DOCG – dry, red – Sweet, red – 12 months maturation – grapes partially dried – min. 14% alcohol• Valpolicella Ripasso DOC• Amarone della Valpolicella • Recioto della Valpolicella DOCG Spumante DOCG – Sweet, red – dry, red – Sparkling – grapes partially dried – Min. 14% alcohol – min. 14% alcohol – 24 months maturation
  35. 35. ItalyFriuli - Venezia Giulia Geography •Northeast •borders Austria and Slovenia •Protected by mountains to the North and Northeast Climate •moderate Mediterranean climate Soil •Grave del Friuli – gravel and pebbles from decomposed rock •Colli Orientali and of the Collio – porous soils - sandstone, marl, loam and maritime chalk
  36. 36. Italy Friuli – Venezia Giulia Wine production and wine production styles•Known for fresh and fruity varietal white wines•Crisp, cool-climate reds•Picolit – Dessert wine – Poor pollination at flowering – No botrytis
  37. 37. Italy Friuli - Venezia Giulia The main grape varietiesWhite Red• Tocai Friulano • Tazzelenghe• Ribolla • Refosco• Malvasia d’Istria • Schiopettino• Verduzzo • Merlot• Picolit • Cabernet Franc• Chardonnay • Cabernet Sauvignon• Pinot Bianco• Pinot Grigio• Sauvignon Blanc
  38. 38. Italy - Emilia Romagna Geography • plains along the river Po • some hilly areas in the Romagna Climate • mild • cool air from the North Soil • fertile sandy soils and loam in the plains • rocky limestone in the Romagna area
  39. 39. Italy - Emilia-Romagna Wine production and wine production styles•Mainly simple, basic wines produced•Wine styles are light and fresh, due to coolclimate•Home of Lambrusco –most Lambrusco are frothy, semi-sweet and low in alcohol –Most made in industrial quantities –Tank fermented or carbonated –Sometimes pasteurized –Red, rosé and white
  40. 40. Central Italy and Sangiovese
  41. 41. Italy - Umbria
  42. 42. Italy - Umbria Geography •Umbria is situated in the center of the boot •mountainous and hilly •no sea access Climate •Moderate Mediterranean •Lago di Trasimeno regulates humidity and temperature Soil •variable
  43. 43. Italy - Umbria Most important wines•Orvieto - simple, dry, white•Sangiovese – easy drinking reds•Merlot - international styled in oak•Montefalco Sagrantino DOCG (red)•Torgiano Riserva DOCG (red)•Vin Santo (sweet, usually white)
  44. 44. Italy – The Marches
  45. 45. Italy - The Marches Geography •Adriatic Sea •Mountainous terrain Climate •Apennine mountains as rain shelter •cool north-west winds •Large temperature differences Soil •Limestone •Loam
  46. 46. Italy - Abruzzi Geography •Adriatic Sea •Mountainous terrain Climate •Apennine mountains as rain shelter •cool north-west winds •Large temperature differences Soil •Limestone •Loam
  47. 47. Italy - Molise Geography •Adriatic Sea •Mountainous terrain Climate •Apennine mountains as rain shelter •cool north-west winds •Large temperature differences Soil •Limestone •Loam
  48. 48. Italy – Marches, Abruzzi, Molise Wine production and wine production styles• 8% of Italian production• Mainly dry white and red wines• Cool climate gives scope for innovative wine-making• Most important wines – Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOCG(white) – Montepulciano d’Abruzzo Colline Teramane (red)
  49. 49. Italy Marches, Abruzzi, Molise The main grape varietiesWhite Red• Verdicchio • Sangiovese• Trebbiano • Montepulciano• Vernaccia • Lacrima di Morro• Maceratino• Biancame
  50. 50. Tuscany
  51. 51. Italy - Tuscany Total vineyards ca. 66,000 ha Total production ca. 2,800,000 hl DOC/G production 1,749,601 hl (62%)
  52. 52. Italy - TuscanyGeography•Central Italy•HillsClimate•Moderate – Mediterranean influences – Continental influencesSoil•Sand, clay, and marl on plains and in river valleys•Calcareous topsoil over limestone rock and graveldominates hills
  53. 53. Italy – Tuscany Most important wines all based on Sangiovese!•Chianti DOCG (red)•Chianti Classico DOCG (red)•Brunello di Montalcino DOCG (red)•Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG (red)
  54. 54. Italy-Tuscany Chianti DOCG (red)• Sangiovese 75-100% •Chianti Sub-regions• Canaiolo nero <10% •Colli Aretini• Trebbiano toscano and/or •Colli Fiorentini Malvasia <10% •Colli Senesi• other local red varieties •Colline Pisane <15% •Montalbano• Superiore – higher % alc. •Montespertoli• Riserva – matured 24 •Rufina months
  55. 55. Italy – Tuscany•Chianti Classico DOCG (red) –Sangiovese 80-100%; other local red varieties <20% –Hilly –wines fine and long-lived –between Florence and Siena –Riserva - matured 24 months
  56. 56. Italy - TuscanyBrunello di Montalcino DOCG (red)• 1888 first bottling under this name by Biondi-Santi• 100% Sangiovese• From south of Siena, warmer climate than Chianti• Traditionally matured in large casks• Aged 50 months• Riserva aged 60 monthsRosso di Montalcino DOC• Brunello’s “little brother”• released after 12 months
  57. 57. Italy - TuscanyVino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG (red)• Sangiovese (Prugnolo gentile) 70% minimum• Canaiolo nero <10%• other local non-aromatic varieties <20% – (white varieties, up to 10%)• Aged 26 months• Riserva aged 36 monthsRosso di Montepulciano DOC• Vino Nobile’s “little brother”
  58. 58. Italy - TuscanyBolgheri DOC• Bianco – Trebbiano toscano, 10-70%; Vermentino, 10-70%; Sauvignon, 10-70%; other local white varieties, up to 30%• Rosso and Rosato – Cabernet Sauvignon, 10-80%; Merlot, up to 80%; Sangiovese, up to 70%; other local red varieties, up to 30%• Varietals – variety indicated in the name 85%; other similar varieties 15%• Sassicaia – Cabernet Sauvignon, 80%; other local red varieties, up to 20%
  59. 59. Italy - TuscanyWhite wines• Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG – Dry, light and fresh wine produced around town of San Gimignano from Vernaccia• Vin Santo – Dessert wine produced from dried Trebbiano and Malvasia grapes – Passito
  60. 60. Italy - Lazio Geography •Hills and plains •Tyrrhenian Sea •Appenine mountains Climate •Mild •maritime Soil •fertile sand and loam •some volcanic rock
  61. 61. Italy - Lazio Wine production and wine production styles•Large production volume•85% white wine•Most important wines – Frascati Cannellino (white) – Frascati Superiore (white)
  62. 62. Italy - Campania Geography •South-western Italy, with its capital Naples Climate •moderate Mediterranean climate at the coast •hot continental climate in the interior Soil •volcanic soils •sandy tuff •limestone
  63. 63. Italy - Campania Wine production and wine production styles•Predominantly Vino da Tavola•Emerging as high quality region of southern ItalyMost important wines – Fiano di Avalino DOCG (white) – Greco di Tufo DOCG (white) – Taurasi DOCG (red) – Aglianico del Taburno DOCG (red)
  64. 64. Italy - Calabria Geography •South-western tip of the Italian boot Climate •Mediterranean, strong winter rains Soil •Fertile alluvial soils, terrain mainly hilly
  65. 65. Italy - Calabria Wine production and wine production styles•Predominantly Vino da Tavola•Most important wines – Cirò Classico • oldest traditional region • red (Galliopo) or white (Greco di Bianco) – Cirò Superiore • > 13,5 % alcohol, red (Galliopo) – Cirò Riserva • matured for min, 2 years, red – Greco di Bianco • sweet white dessert wine, passito method
  66. 66. Italy - Apulia Geography •Mainly hilly region, some fertile plains Climate •Hot and very dry Soil •Limestone and volcanic rock
  67. 67. Italy - Basilicata Geography •Mainly hilly region, some fertile plains Climate •Hot and very dry Soil •Limestone and volcanic rock
  68. 68. Italy - Apulia & Basilicata Wine production and wine production styles•Predominantly Vino da Tavola•80% of production is red wine•Most important wines – Apulia: • Primitivo de Manduria DOCG (red) • Salice Salentino DOC (red) – Basilicata • Aglianico del Vulture DOCG (red)
  69. 69. Italy - Apulia & Basilicata The main grape varietiesWhite Red• Trebbiano • Montepulciano • Bombino Nero• Bombino Bianco • Aglianico del Vulture • Primitivo (Zinfandel)• Bianco d’Alessano • Uva di Troia • Negroamaro • Malvasia Nera
  70. 70. Italy - Sicily
  71. 71. Italy - Sicily Geography •Largest Mediterranean island, long coastline •85% mountains and hilly, rest plains Climate •Mediterranean, hot and dry, strong winds Soil •Fertile soils, loam and sand, volcanic rock
  72. 72. Italy - SicilyWine production and wine production styles•Home of table wines•Cooperatives•Marsala is Italian equivalent to Sherry•Local wines just developing•Popularity of international grape varietiesMost important wines – Marsala – Nero d’Avola – Internationally styled varietal wines
  73. 73. Italy- Sicily The main grape varieties:White Red• Inzolia • Nero d’Avola (Calabrese)• Cataratto Bianco • Nerello• Grecanico • Perticone• Grillo • Cabernet Sauvignon• Malvasia • Merlot• Zibibbo (Moscato clone)• Chardonnay• Sauvignon Blanc
  74. 74. SardiniaGeography• 200 km west of the coastClimate• Maritime• Wet and mild winters• Hot summersSoil• Fertile soils, sand and loam
  75. 75. Italy – Sardinia 1 DOCG: Vermentino di Gallura (white) Sardinia’s main grape varietiesWhite Red• Vermentino • Bovale (Bobal)•Malvasia Sarda • Cannonau• Torbato (Garnacha)• Vernaccia di Oristan • Carignano• Nuragus • Girò • Monica
  76. 76. Italy The End©2012 Julia Sevenich,