Wines of France

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Wines of France

  1. 1. WINES OF FRANCE © 2012 Julia Sevenich German Wine School
  2. 2. France - History•600 BC colonization by Greek settlers•Romans spread Christianity and viticulture•1789-1899 French revolution•Mildew and phylloxera last half of the 1800’s•Two World Wars
  3. 3. France Current Wine StatisticsPer Capita Annual Consumption • Wine 50 liters (OIV 2008) • Beer 35 liters • Bottled Water 135 litersUS Americans drink 9 liters and Brits 20 litersper capita annually, but France has far lessbinge drinking and alcohol abuse problems.
  4. 4. France Current Wine StatisticsProduction • Total area 858,000 ha (OIV 2008) • 43 million hl (OIV 2008) • 17% world export volume (OIV 2008) • More than 300 Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC)
  5. 5. France
  6. 6. Example France – new laws as of Aug. 2010Old classification New classificationVin de Table Vignobles de France (variety, vintage, modern techniques)Vin de Pays IGP (Indication Geogra- phique Protegée)AOC AOP (Appellation d‘Origine ProtegéeAOP is a protection granted at the European level to a wide range of consumable products; it reforms some of the barriers formerly imposed by AOC, without replacing it. A producer who is unable to get an AOP will lose its AOC, but it is possible to be both AOC and AOP
  7. 7. Quality pyramid I Table wines (since 2010) AOP resp. AOC or VDQS Quality wine IGP/VdP de zone e.g. CathareTable wine IGP/VdP de départemant e.g. l‘Aude IGP/VdP de région e.g. Oc Vin de Table francais 7
  8. 8. Quality pyramid II Quality wines (since 2010) AOP/AOC Grand Cru In Burgundy, e.g.CortonQuality wine AOP/AOC Communale / 1er Cru e.g. Pauillac, Aloxe-Corton / Aloxe- Corton „Les Chaillots“ (1er Cru) AOP/AOC Sous-Régionale e.g. Médoc AOP/AOC Régionale e.g. Bordeaux, Bourgogne Table wine 8
  9. 9. France Classification of French Wine Table Wine and Land Wine• Vignobles de France• Indication Geographique Protegee or IGP – All grape varieties – Sourced from two or more different regions – Varietal labelling
  10. 10. FranceClassification of French wine Quality wines • AOC/P Regional – A. Bordeaux C. – A. Bourgogne C. • AOC/P Sub-region – A. Haut-Medoc C. – A. Cote de Nuits-Villages C. • AOC/P Communal – A. Pauillac C. – A. Vosne-Romanée C. • AOC/P Top Level – 1er Cru • Ch. Margaux/Medoc – Grand Cru • Clos de Vougeot/Burgundy
  11. 11. France - Champagne © 2010 Julia Sevenich
  12. 12. Champagne Climate •influenced by maritime and continental factors –Winters are mild –Summers can be dry –Overall a very cool grape growing area Soil •predominantly chalky subsoil –very good water retention –adds to mineral character
  13. 13. Champagne
  14. 14. France – ChampagneDistricts• Montagne de Reims – 56% PN, 28% CH, 16% PM• Vallée de la Marne – 63% PM, 27% PN, 10% CH• Côte des Blancs – 96% CH, 3% PN, 1% PM• Aube – 83% PN, 8% CH, 7% PM• Côte de Sézanne – 70% CH, 21% PN, 9% PM
  15. 15. France - ChampagneAppellations•17 Grand Cru locations –Bouzy –Ay –Verdun –Mailly•38 1er Cru villages•No Cru designation
  16. 16. France - ChampagneThe Grape Price System•Basic price negotiated annually•2011 average Grand Cru price € 5.85 per kg –Grand Cru 100 % –1er Cru 90 - 99 % –No Cru level 80 - 89 %
  17. 17. CHAMPAGNE Grape varietiesWhite Red• Chardonnay • Pinor Noir –28% – 39% • Pinot Meunier – 33%
  18. 18. France - Champagne Méthode Champenoise• Traditional basket press• Ferment dry to ca. 9% alcohol in casks/vats• Assemblage• 2nd fermentation in bottle• Poignetage, Remuage and Yeast Autolysis• Disgorgement• Liqueur d’Expédition• Corking
  19. 19. ChampagneStyles of ChampagneNon-vintage whiteBlanc de BlancsBlanc de NoirsRoséVintagePrestige Cuvées
  20. 20. France – Loire Valley
  21. 21. France - Loire
  22. 22. France - LoireGeography•Numerous Loire vineyards follow the river from the CentralMassif to the Atlantic OceanClimate•Central area –continental climate (hot summers, cold winters)•Western area –maritime (moderate) climatesSoil•Pays Nantais –granite, sandstone and mica slate•Anjou and Touraine –pebbles, slate and limestone•Pouilly-sur-Loire –clay limestone
  23. 23. France -Loire 4 Districts TourainePays Nantais • Chinon •Muscadet • Bourgeoil •Muscadet de Sèvre et Maine • VouvrayAnjou Pouilly-Sur-Loire •Savenniéres • Sancerre •Couteau de Layon • Pouilly Fumé •Saumur • Quincy •Champigny • Ruilly
  24. 24. Loire Grape varieties• White • Red – Chenin blanc – Cabernet franc (Pineau de la Loire) – Gamay – Pinot Noir – Sauvignon blanc – Muscadet (Melon de Bourgogne) – Chardonnay
  25. 25. France - Alsace
  26. 26. AlsaceGeography•Narrow strip on theeastern foothills of theVosges mountains, to thewest of the Rhine valleyClimate•Continental, cold wintersand warm summersSoils•Geologic activity of theRhine Valley has created apatchwork of volcanic rock,granite, gneiss, slate,limestone, sandstone, clayand loess.
  27. 27. France - Alsace
  28. 28. France - Alsace Appellations•Alsace Grand Cru (GC): since 1983 –four permitted grape varieties (variety does not have to be on label since 2005) •Muscat •Riesling •Gewürztraminer •Pinot Gris –Renowned Grand Cru locations •Kaefferkopf •Schlossberg
  29. 29. France – Alsace Grape varietiesWhite Rot• Gewürztraminer • Pinot Noir• Riesling• Sylvaner• Pinot blanc• Pinot Gris (Tokay)• Muscat• Chasselas• Auxerrois
  30. 30. France – Alsace Styles•Alsace AOC and Alsace Grand Cru –dry to off-dry wines –Gewürztraminer and Pinot Gris sometimes medium dry•Vendange tardive –late harvest style –medium dry to medium sweet•Selection des grains nobles –botrytised grapes –very sweet, dessert wine.
  31. 31. France - Burgundy
  32. 32. BurgundyClimate•Continental •cold winters and warm but variable summers •very cold winters in Chablis •Cotes d’Or mostly sheltered from western rains•Rainfall 30 inches•Humidity 65%•1,831 hours sunlight•41% daylight hours
  33. 33. Burgundy -Geology• Topography: Alpine upheaval, Saône rift• Warm shallow sea deposited limestone and marl• Beaujolais granites and schists brought to surface by tertiary upheaval
  34. 34. France - Burgundy• Chablis Chardonnay• Cote d’Or – Cote de Nuits Pinot Noir – Cote de Beaune Chardonnay or Pinot Noir• Chalonnais Chardonnay or Pinot Noir• Macon Chardonnay or Pinot Noir• Beaujolais Gamay
  35. 35. France - BurgundyAppellation System(Quality Pyramid)•Grand Cru•1er Cru•Commune/village•District•Regional –Bourgogne Ordinaires –Bourgogne AOC
  36. 36. Burgundy - Grand Crus
  37. 37. Burgundy – Côtes de Nuits
  38. 38. Burgundy – Côtes du Beaune
  39. 39. Burgundy -Côtes Chalonnaise
  40. 40. Burgundy Grand Cru label
  41. 41. Label Premier Cru
  42. 42. Label Villages
  43. 43. Chablis - slopes
  44. 44. France - BurgundyChablis appellations•Petit Chablis•Chablis•Chablis Premier Cru•Chablis Grand CruBeaujolais appellations•Beaujolais•Beaujolais Villages•Beaujolais Supérieur•Beaujolais Cru (10 designated) –Brouilly, Côtes de Brouilly, Morgon, Chiroubles, Fleurie, Juliénas, Moulin-a-vent, Chenas, Saint-Amour and Régnié.
  45. 45. France - Burgundy Grape varietiesWhite RedChardonnay Pinot NoirAligoté Gamay
  46. 46. France - Burgundy Styles•Dry red and white wines –Chablis •steely, mineral, flinty Chardonnay •little or no oak influence. –Cote d’Or •basic to world-class Chardonnay and Pinot Noir •top whites more oak than Chablis –Macon/Chalonnais •basic to good white and red wines •lighter in style than Cote d’Or –Beaujolais •soft and fruity red wines (Gamay) •Cru wines have some character
  47. 47. Northern Rhône
  48. 48. Southern Rhône
  49. 49. RhôneGeography –Vineyards north to south along the Rhône RiverClimate –North: warm continental climate –South: hot Mediterranean (maritime) climate Soil –North: steep terraces, slate, gneiss and granite –South: gentle slopes, gravel, sand and sandstone
  50. 50. RHONE Appellations•Côtes du Rhône•Côtes du Rhône Villages•Renowned communities in the North –Condrieu –Château Grillet –Côte Rotie –Hermitage•Renowned communities in the South –Châteauneuf-du-Pape –Gigondas –Vacqueyras
  51. 51. France - Northern Rhone
  52. 52. France - Northern Rhone
  53. 53. France – Rhône Grape varietiesWhite Red• North • North –Marsanne – Syrah –Viognier • South• South – Carignan –Clairette – Cinsault –Marsanne – Mouvédre –Muscat à petits grains – Grenache Noir –Roussanne – Syrah
  54. 54. France - Rhône Styles•North –big and spicy whites from Condrieu –more mineral character in white Hermitage –red wines spicy and tannic –top-quality terroirs from Cote-Rotie and Hermitage need many years to develop•South –mainly red wines –fruity and elegant rosé wines from Tavel –soft and fruity reds –high alcohol levels –drinkable earlier than wines from North
  55. 55. France – Jura & SavoieClimate•harsh and continental –hot summers, cold winters and usually sunny fallsJura•Area 1.500 ha•Appellations –Arbois, Chateau Chalon•Famous (historical) –Vin Jaune (“yellow wine”)Savoie•Area 1.500 ha•Appellations only of regional importance
  56. 56. France - Provence
  57. 57. France – Provence & Corsica Grape varietiesWhite Red• Clairette • Carignon• Ugni blanc • Cinsault• Rolle (Vermentino) • Grenache Noir• Vermentino • Mourvedre • Tibouren • Syrah • Cabernet Sauvignon
  58. 58. BordeauxTotal vineyard area: ca.124,000 ha Production: ca. 6,500,000 hl
  59. 59. Bordeaux
  60. 60. France - BordeauxClimate•maritime climate –Gulf stream influence –Mediterranean climate•Garonne and Dordogne rivers provide ground water•Pine forest of the Landes form a barrier against AtlanticwindsTopography•A western plateau which slopes gradually toward theAtlantic coast•An eastern plateau with low, hilly terrain
  61. 61. Bordeaux •Left Bank •Left bank of the Garonne River •Médoc, Graves and Sauternes •Predominantly gravel with sand and pebbles •Efficient drainage •Red and white blends •Cabernet Sauvignon dominates reds •Sémillon dominates whites
  62. 62. Bordeaux •Right Bank •Right bank of the Dordogne River •St. Emilion, Pomerol and the Libournais, Bourgeais and Blayais •Clay, chalk, sand and some gravel •Merlot dominated
  63. 63. Bordeaux• Entre-deux-Mers – Region between the Garonne and the Dordogne River – Clay and limestone – Merlot dominates reds – Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc dominate whites
  64. 64. Bordeaux The 1855 Classification of the MédocPremiers Crus• Château Latour • Deuxièmes Crus (14)• Château Lafite-Rothschild • Troisièmes Crus (14)• Château Margaux • Quartièmes Crus (10)• Château Haut-Brion • Cinquièmes Crus (18)• Châteaz Mouton- Rothschild (added in 1973) – The classified châteaux comprise 24% of total Médoc production.
  65. 65. Bordeaux The 1855 Classification of Sauternes26 Château:• Premier Grand Cru (1= Château d‘Yquem)• Premier Crus (11)• Deuxiémes Crus (14 – 8 from Barsac)
  66. 66. France - Bordeaux ClassificationsGraves classification of 1959• Cru Classé 13 reds• Cru Classé 8 whitesCru Bourgeois - classification of 1932• Cru Bourgeois Exceptionnel• Cru Bourgeois Superieur• Cru BourgeoisSt. Emilion classification of 1955(revised every 10 years)• 1er Grands Crus Classés A• 1er Grands Crus Classés B• Grands Cru Classés
  67. 67. France – Bordeaux Grape varietiesWhite (25 %) Red (75%)• Muscadelle • Cabernet Sauvignon• Sauvignon blanc • Cabernet Franc• Sémillon • Merlot • Malbec • Petit Verdot • Carmenére
  68. 68. Climate and soil•South of Bordeaux•Maritime climate•Limestone, clay andsandstone•Some gravel along the riverbanks
  69. 69. France – Sud-Ouest Appellations• Bergerac • Béarn –Same white and red varieties as • Côtes de Bergerac Bordeaux • Buzet, Côtes de Duras• Cahors • Cotes du Frontonnais –Reds only • Côtes du Marmadais –Malbec (Cot) is dominant variety –Lean but well-structured • Gaillac• Madiran • Irouléguy –Tannat predominates • Marcillac –Other reds are Cabernet-based • Monbazillac –Deep structure with some • Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh astringency • Pécharmant• Jurancon • Rosette –Sweet white from Petit Manseng • Saussignac –Dry wine from Gros Manseng
  70. 70. France – Sud-Ouest Grape varietiesWhite Red• Colombard • Cabernet Franc• Semillon • Cot• Petit Manseng • Merlot• Gros Manseng • Tannat• Sauvignon Blanc• Muscadelle
  71. 71. France -Languedoc Roussillon
  72. 72. France -Languedoc Roussillon
  73. 73. France – Languedoc RoussillonGeography•foothills of the Cevennes and the PyreneesClimate•Mediterranean climate•danger of summer droughtSoil•Herault and Gard –alluvial soils predominate•Corbières and Roussilion –Limestone –Gravelly soils on the high-altitude slopes
  74. 74. France – Languedoc Roussillon Grape varietiesWhite Red• Bourboulenc • Carignan• Picpoul • Cinsault• Clairette • Grenache Noir• Grenache blanc • Mouvèdre• Macabeu • Syrah• Muscat à petits grains• Malvoisie• Marsanne
  75. 75. France – Languedoc RoussillonStylesGenerally speaking, dry red,white and rosé wines, from lightto medium-bodied, with warm climate chracteristics. Somesweet dessert wines, including red ones. In recent years,this area has been the source of an increasing number ofpremium « garagiste » wines.
  76. 76. France The End© 2012 Julia SevenichGerman Wine School

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