Problem Gambling Prevention - University of Oregon

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SAPP 407 - A/D Prevention - Fall 2013
Guest lecture. Julie Hynes, MA, CPS
www.preventionlane.org

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Problem Gambling Prevention - University of Oregon

  1. 1. GAMBLING Julie Hynes | Lane County Public Health SAPP 407 | University of Oregon November 13, 2013
  2. 2. This evening’s outline
  3. 3. DEFINITION: ______ something of value RISKING in the hopes of obtaining _________________ something of greater value. Source: American Psychiatric Association - DSM-5 (2013).
  4. 4. What are the 2 states that DON’T have legalized gambling?
  5. 5. AVAILABILITY OF LEGAL GAMBLING IN U.S., 2010
  6. 6. Image sources: Oregon Lottery, Hynes
  7. 7. Image sources: Oregon Lottery, Hynes
  8. 8. ELECTRONIC GAMBLING: “Video Poker/Slots/Line Games” 7 $ out of every $10 lottery dollars Photo source: Daniel Berman. Source: Oregon Health Authority (2012; ibid)
  9. 9. Photo: Hynes
  10. 10. Photo: Daniel Berman
  11. 11. 1 in 175 1 in 175,000 1 in 175 million 1 in 175 billion
  12. 12. 1 in 175 Million (174,233,510) Odds of getting struck by lightning: 1 in 280,000
  13. 13. Let’s say there is 1 RED popcorn kernel in this bag of 10,000 pieces of popcorn ….you’d have a better chance of reaching in and grabbing the one red kernel of popcorn in this bag than you would of winning $100 on a powerball ticket
  14. 14. So…if your lucky numbers have “almost” come up in the last 5 drawings, are your chances better, worse, or the same?
  15. 15. Sports bets Lottery tickets Video & online Bingo & raffles
  16. 16. Gambling Treatment Clients Gamblers' Preferences Video lottery & online gambling Electronic Gambling 89% Cards 6% Other 5%
  17. 17. Research shows about what percentage of Oregon adults have a gambling problem? 0.1% 11.2% 1.2% 2.7%
  18. 18. 2.7% of Oregon adults (1 in 37 people) have a gambling problem.
  19. 19. No Gambling Recreational Experimentation At-Risk Problem Pathological “GAMBLING DISORDER” Sources: 1. Moore (2006). 2. Volberg, Hedberg, & Moore (2008). 3. Shaffer & Hall (2001). 4. Northwest Survey & Data Services (2007). 5. Moore (2001).
  20. 20. The new DSM-5 (May 2013) defines pathological gambling as a “behavioral addiction,” the first of its kind.
  21. 21. SIMILAR BEHAVIORAL CONDITIONS, like internet and Binge eating, aren’t yet in the category of “behavioral addiction.” (It is thought They might be soon.)
  22. 22.  Gambling to escape problems  "Chasing" losses with more gambling  Lying to family and others about the extent of gambling  Committing crimes to finance gambling  Jeopardizing or losing relationships, jobs, education or career opportunities because of gambling  Relying on others to bail him or her out relieve a desperate financial situation caused by gambling
  23. 23. >70% 48% are current tobacco users experience suicidal ideation 10% 32% have current alcohol problems Source: Oregon Health Authority, 2012 actually attempt suicide Have current drug problems
  24. 24. At what age is the brain considered fully developed?  18  21  25  16
  25. 25. The brain is still developing until The PREFRONTAL CORTEX is the LAST PART to develop.
  26. 26. brain
  27. 27. Gambling & Dopamine It’s not about the money – it’s about the action of the game and the hope of winning. Dopamine not released when expecting a loss. Flooded with dopamine when expecting a win! Source: Brain Briefings (2007, October), Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC
  28. 28. Sources: Tonneato, T. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Subst Use Misuse. Sep;34(11):1 Anecdotal reports from problem gamblers in treatment and recovery.
  29. 29. COGNITIVE Distortions Superstition  Lucky #’s  Favorite shirt  “My” machine Image source: Anheuser-Busch Rituals/habits that are believed to affect the outcome.
  30. 30. COGNITIVE Distortions Biased Evaluation Attributing wins to one’s special skill or luck, while losses are blamed on external circumstances.  Example (win): “Yeah buddy! I was just waiting on my card. I know this game inside and out.”  Example (loss): “I would’ve won if that idiot didn’t get lucky and draw an ace.”
  31. 31. COGNITIVE Distortions Selective Memory Forgetting about losses, only remembering wins. Image source: Anheuser-Busch
  32. 32. COGNITIVE Distortions Gambler’s Fallacy Failure to see each event as independent. Examples: • Trying to see patterns in coin flips. • “This slot machine is DUE to hit!”
  33. 33. THIS  …those are other ways our minds trick us. We are wired to see patterns in things.
  34. 34. Reflect: cognitive distortions. Have you ever experienced a cognitive distortion? What was the experience like?
  35. 35. “A” Unique Set of Risks Youth gambling is still under the radar.
  36. 36. “The earlier people begin gambling, the more likely they are to experience problems from gambling.” - National Academy of Sciences
  37. 37. •Amygdala active •Fight or flight, emotion •Decision-making altered •More vulnerable to risktaking & impulsive behaviors Source: Ramoski, S., Nystrom, R. (2007). “The adolescent brain is especially sensitive to the effects of dopamine.
  38. 38. AWARENESS (low) 2012 Oregon Student Wellness Survey, Lane County (“ESD”) and Oregon; available at http://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011
  39. 39. ATTITUDES Oregon parent/youth focus groups revealed: All parents in their focus groups said their kids didn’t gamble All of their kids, who were in their own focus groups, said they did gamble Neither sees gambling as risky
  40. 40. By the gambling treatment, 2012: Oregonians in 32k $ IS THE AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD INCOME. Range is from $0 to over $1million/year. 85% ARE WHITE . 4.4% Hispanic/Latino., 3.4% Asian. People of color are under-represented in treatment. 90% prefer ELECTRONIC GAMBLING. 24% HAVE COMMITTED CRIMES TO FINANCE THEIR GAMBLING. Most crimes are “white collar” Video (slots/poker/line games). Cards 4.1%; scratch-its 1.3%; sports 0.9%; (forgery, check fraud, embezzlement.) $! 27k $ IS THE AVERAGE INDIVIDUAL GAMBLING DEBT.
  41. 41. Why? Is it the generation? Technology? Or what? 5.6% college age (18-24) 4% teens (13-17) 2½ % all adults (18+) This is the first generation of widely available electronic gambling. We really don’t know the effects yet.
  42. 42. RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH • Single-parent household • Gambling on • Started gambling before cards/sports 8th grade (early initiation) • Being male, older teen • Parents who gamble • Lower household income • Competitive • Having lost more than $50 in a single month Source: Volberg, et al (2008; bid).
  43. 43. 2012 Oregon Student Wellness Survey (SWS) 2012 Gambling, Substance Use and Mental Health among Oregon Youth 50% Percentage 40% 6th 30% 11th 20% 10% 0% Gambling Alcohol Binge Marijuana Cigarettes Depression Psych Alcohol distress Source: http://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011 n=55,611 students (18,885 6th grade; 21,368 8th grade; 15,358 11th grade) 8th
  44. 44. Used alcohol in the past month Did not gamble Gambled 46.9% 30.9% 14.9% 29.5% 14.6% 3.1% Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11
  45. 45. Binge drank in the last month Did not gamble Gambled 28.7% 16.4% 12.7% 4.3% 5.6% 0.5% Grade 6 Grade 8 Available at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm Grade 11
  46. 46. Smoked cigarettes in the past month Did not gamble Gambled 18.7% 10.8% 5.1% 12.5% 6.2% 1.1% Grade 6 Grade 8 Available at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm Grade 11
  47. 47. Used marijuana in the past month Did not gamble Gambled 28.4% 19.3% 15.8% 8.3% 4.3% 0.7% Grade 6 Grade 8 Available at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm Grade 11
  48. 48. Skipped school one or more days in the past month Did not gamble Gambled 35.4% 23.0% 15.4% 22.5% 12.8% 5.7% Grade 6 Grade 8 Available at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm Grade 11
  49. 49. Attempted suicide in the past year Did not gamble Gambled 11.3% 9.0% 7.2% 5.0% Grade 8 Available at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm Grade 11
  50. 50. Attempted suicide in the past year Did not bet/gamble more than wanted to Bet/gambled more than wanted to 21.0% 18.6% 10.1% 8.0% Grade 8 Grade 11
  51. 51. Delinquency (physical fight in last month) Gambled Did not gamble 41.80% 22.40% Physical fight
  52. 52. CONCLUSION? Teens who gamble are smoked up, toked up, drunk emo delinquents.
  53. 53. CONCLUSION? Teens who gamble are smoked up, toked up, drunk emo delinquents.
  54. 54. What do the data tell us about risk & youth gambling? How would you interpret the data?
  55. 55. Conclusion: Problem Gambling is ONE COMPONENT of Problem Behaviors delinquency sexual behavior Problem Behaviors depression gambling substance use
  56. 56. SO NOW WHAT? PREVENTION in action
  57. 57. Crashed cars “Scared straight” Boot camp One-time activities
  58. 58.  Public awareness  Policy  Support for in-school prevention curriculum  Parent education
  59. 59. 2012 Oregon Student Wellness Survey, Lane County (“Esd”) and Oregon; available at http://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011
  60. 60. Most parents believe:  Youth gambling is harmless  Youth who gamble are unlikely to have problems in school  Youth gambling is not associated with alcohol or drug use …and those beliefs are part of the problem
  61. 61.  Awareness campaigns  Integration with other parent programming  Policy efforts
  62. 62.  Focused, small, local  Policy & awareness  Professionals & community members
  63. 63. ON THE RIGHT PATH
  64. 64.  Youthful subject  Perception of harmlessness  Stigma/shame  Industry
  65. 65. Future Considerations…. The new blur of “gaming” & “gambling”
  66. 66. preventionlane.org facebook.com/ preventionlane twitter.com/ preventionlane Julie.Hynes@co.lane.or.us

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