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Risk & Protective Factor Framework: Application to Problem Gambling.

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Keynote presentation, 6/26/13. Midwest Conference on Problem Gambling & Substance Abuse. Presenter: Julie Hynes, MA, CPS

Keynote presentation, 6/26/13. Midwest Conference on Problem Gambling & Substance Abuse. Presenter: Julie Hynes, MA, CPS

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

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  • 1. RiskFactors& ProtectiveJulie Hynes, MA, CPSMidwest Conference on Problem Gambling & Substance AbuseJune 26, 2013 | Kansas City, MOin Prevention
  • 2. These slides are online atwww.preventionlane.org/mcpgsa
  • 3. beforechange the factorsthat contribute to it.
  • 4. PROBLEM BEHAVIORS
  • 5. PROMOTION &PREVENTION
  • 6. ResiliencyTheoryADVERSE CHILDHOODEXPERIENCES (ACE)40 DEVELOPMENTALASSETSSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTSTRATEGYPROMOTIVE FACTORSRisk & Protective FactorTheoryKernels
  • 7. Risk-Focused Prevention• PREVENT problem behavior fromhappening:– Identify factors that increase risk of problemand then find ways to reduce those risks– Enhance protective/resiliency factors• Decades of research: Hawkins, Catalano& other researchers• Four Domains:– Community -- Family– School -- Individual/Peer
  • 8. Problem behaviors share common riskfactorsExposure to a greater number of riskfactors  a young person’s riskexponentiallyProtective factors buffer exposure to risk& build on strengths of individual, family,communityThe Risk & Protective FactorTheory:
  • 9. Risk FactorA characteristic at the biological,psychological, family, community,or cultural level that precedesand is associated with a higherlikelihood of problem outcomesSource: CAPT http://captus.samhsa.gov
  • 10. My Analogy
  • 11. Recognized Problem Behaviors• Substance abuse• Violence• Delinquency• Teenage pregnancy• School dropout Problem gambling??– Apparently similar risk factors– Very high co-occurrence between problemgambling & other problem behaviors, especiallyalcohol/substance abuse
  • 12. Risk Factors for AdolescentProblem Behavior
  • 13. Protective Factors:CharacteristicsIndividual Characteristics:– Gender– Resilient Temperament– Positive Social Orientation– IntelligenceProtective Processes:– Opportunities for involvement– Social and cognitive skills– RecognitionDickson, Derevensky & Gupta, 2002
  • 14. Source: Greater Old Town Communities that Care, Maine
  • 15. but where does
  • 16. Click to gohttp://www.problemgamblingprevention.org/resources/prevention-resource-guide03.pdf
  • 17. http://youthgambling.mcgill.ca/en/PDF/Publications/2008/Dickson%20article.pdf
  • 18. Source: Marotta & Hynes, 2003School:– Anti-Social behaviorIndividual/Peer:– Peer Involvement– Favorable Attitudes– Early Initiation– ConstitutionalPotential Shared Risk Factors forProblem Gambling
  • 19. Risk or Protective?Individual, family, community /society? Young people who feel school isimportant. Young people who live incommunities with norms tolerantof use. Young people who believe drug useis dangerous.
  • 20.  Young people who have friendswho use alcohol or marijuana. Young people who have anopportunity to contribute to theirschools. Young people who begin ______ atan early age.Risk or Protective?Individual, family, community /society?
  • 21. Potential Shared Risk Factors forProblem GamblingCommunity:– Availability– Community Laws & NormsFamily:– Family History– Family Conflict (competition)– Parental Attitudes/InvolvementSource: Marotta & Hynes, 2003
  • 22. • Single-parent household• Gambling oncards/sports• Being male, older teen• Lower householdincome• Competitive• Having lost more than$50 in a single month• Started gambling before8th grade (earlyinitiation)• Parents who gamble--youth twice as likely tobe at-risk gamblers &four times as likely to beproblem gamblersSource: Volberg, et al (2008; bid).RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH
  • 23. “A” Unique Set of RisksYouthgambling isstill underthe radar.
  • 24. “The earlier people begingambling, the more likelythey are to experienceproblems from gambling.”- National Academy of Sciences
  • 25. •Amygdala active•Fight or flight,emotion•Decision-makingaltered•More vulnerable to risk-taking & impulsivebehaviorsSource: Ramoski, S., Nystrom, R. (2007).“The adolescent brain isespecially sensitive to theeffects of dopamine.
  • 26. AWARENESS (low)2012 Oregon Student Wellness Survey, Lane County (“ESD”) andOregon; available athttp://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011
  • 27. AWARENESSOregon parent/youth focus groups :All parents in their focus groups said theirkids didn’t gambleAll of their kids, who were in their own focusgroups, said they did gambleNeither sees gambling as risky
  • 28. ATTITUDESMost parents &communities believe:Youth gambling is harmlessYouth who gamble areunlikely to haveproblems in schoolYouth gambling is notassociated withalcohol or drug use…and those beliefs arepart of the problem!
  • 29. 2012 OregonStudent Wellness Survey (SWS)2012 Gambling, Substance Use and Mental Healthamong Oregon Youth0%10%20%30%40%50%Gambling Alcohol BingeAlcoholMarijuana CigarettesDepression PsychdistressPercentage6th 8th11thSource: http://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011n=55,611 students (18,885 6th grade; 21,368 8th grade; 15,358 11th grade)
  • 30. Used alcohol in the pastmonth3.1%14.6%29.5%14.9%30.9%46.9%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble Gambled
  • 31. Binge drank in the last 30days0.5%5.6%16.4%4.3%12.7%28.7%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
  • 32. Smoked cigarettes in the pastmonth1.1%6.2%12.5%5.1%10.8%18.7%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
  • 33. Used marijuana in the pastmonth0.7%8.3%19.3%4.3%15.8%28.4%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
  • 34. Skipped school one or moredays in the past month5.7%12.8%22.5%15.4%23.0%35.4%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
  • 35. 7.2%5.0%11.3%9.0%Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htmPercent of youth that attemptedsuicide in the past year
  • 36. Percent of youth that attemptedsuicide in the past year10.1%8.0%21.0%18.6%Grade 8 Grade 11Did not bet/gamble more than wanted toBet/gambled more than wanted to
  • 37. Delinquency (physical fight inlast month)41.80%22.40%Physical fightGambled Did not gamble
  • 38. CONCLUSION?Teens who gamble aresmoked up, toked up,drunk emo delinquents.
  • 39. CONCLUSION?Teens who gamble aresmoked up, toked up,drunk emo delinquents.
  • 40. delinquencysexualbehaviordepressionsubstanceusegamblingProblemBehaviorsConclusion: Problem Gambling isOne Component ofProblem Behaviors
  • 41. Protective Factors &Gambling60.60%29%65.90%21.80%Strong Positive Youth development DepressionGambled Did not gamble
  • 42. 43.80%32.90%53.70%23.20%Likes school absenteeismGambled Did not gambleProtective Factors &Gambling
  • 43. Protective Factors &GamblingLussier et al (2007):Social bonding &personal competencerelated to lowergambling severity.
  • 44. SO NOW WHAT?PREVENTION in action
  • 45. • Tobacco, alcohol, andother drug use and abuse• Delinquency and crime• Premature or unsafe sex• Depression and suicidality• School failure, dropoutScientific consensus is that that wecan prevent these problems
  • 46. By creating nurturingenvironments usingEVIDENCE-BASEDPREVENTION PRACTICES
  • 47. Pre-conceptionPrenatal/InfancyEarlyChildhoodChildhoodEarlyAdolescenceAdolescenceFamily• Prenatal care• Home visiting• Evidence-based parentingprograms• Evidence-based kernelsSchools• High-quality preschool and daycare• Classroom-based prevention curricula• Evidence-based kernels• Afterschool programsCommunity• Community organizing to improve neighborhood environments• Support for evidence-based strategies• Support for out-of-school activities• Evidence-based kernelsPolicy• Community members have ensured access to services to meetbasic needs• Promotion and support of healthy lifestyles• Policy to promote and support evidence-based strategiesPrevention strategies bydevelopmental phase and domainSource: Project WEAVE, 2011
  • 48. The right support to the right peopleIdeally, we would have varying levelsof support to meet the needs ofdiverse youth and their families.Size of population affectedMore intensive for at-risk youth and families~15%Most intensiveinterventions for theyouth and families athighest risk~10%Universal supports forall youthand families~75%Source: Project WEAVE, 2011
  • 49. Evidence-based prevention isa good investment$61 $120 $880$1,200$15$30,828$79,935 $94,900$50$5,050$10,050$15,050$20,050Annual cost per person perfamilySource: Project WEAVE, 2011
  • 50. Evidence-based prevention programssave money• On average, for every dollar investedin these evidence-based preventionprograms nationwide…– $6 was saved with Project Alert– $8 was saved with Adolescent TransitionsProgram– $11 was saved with StrengtheningFamilies 10-14– $35 was saved with Good Behavior GameWe can expect all of these to work withproblem gambling!
  • 51. It’s ALL of us.NOT JUST programsOR those prevention people.
  • 52. More links:Consider doing one of yourassignments on a vulnerablepopulation group we didn’tget to explore.National Registry of EffectivePrevention Practices (NREPP)(SAMHSA)“Best Intentions Aren’t Enough:Techniques for Using Research &Data to Develop New Evidence-Informed Prevention Programs”(U.S. Dept of H&HS, 2013)
  • 53. preventionlaneFor more info & resources, visitpreventionlane preventionlane

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