It’s all connected. Risk factors are common among many problem behaviors.Risk factors: [more info at www.preventionlane.org/risk-factors.htm ]Community DomainIndividual/Peer DomainSchool DomainFamily Domain
(Source: 2010 Student Wellness Survey data)
Mental, emotional, and behavioral problems are costing us a huge amount of money. The economist Ted Miller, Ph.D., calculated the costs of problem behaviors that occurred in 1998 by all youth. The behaviors he looked at are listed here. The costs he calculated include medical treatment, the use of government and community resources, loss of work, and decline in the quality of life. With the exception of smoking, he also included the costs that would continue beyond 1998 due to that problem behavior. The total national cost of youth problem behaviors that occurred in 1998 was $435 billion. Assuming that Oregon has about the same rate of youth problem behaviors as the rest of the nation, we simply divide Oregon’s share of the national costs based on the state’s population to estimate the 1998 cost of problem behaviors in Oregon. The total is about $5.3 billion, or $1500 for every man, woman, and child in Oregon. Aside from their dollar cost, these problems cost us so much in human suffering, and they take a tremendous toll on communities and society as well. These behaviors not only create problems in and of themselves, but they also make a huge contribution to other physical illnesses, such as heart disease and cancer.
“Every 15 minutes” / Grim Reaper“Scared Straight”“Just say no”All may have a temporary influence, and are quite powerful…. But do not change behavior over time.
A really important concept that the research has taught us is that it’s most cost-effective to get the right support to the right people.Not everyone needs the highest intensity level of intervention, but some people need more support than others.About 75% of youth are basically doing ok and can benefit from “universal” supports – that is, basic supports provided to everyone. All families and all kids need help, guidance, and support from time to time. These are kids in the GREEN zone.Some families and some kids need more support and guidance – about 15% or so might be considered “at risk” and would benefit from somewhat more intensive interventions and supports. These are kids in the YELLOW zone. About 5-10% are at the top of the pyramid– these highest-risk families and kids would benefit from the highest-intensity interventions. These are kids in the RED zone.Families and kids might be at risk for a number of reasons – Poverty, living in a high poverty/high crime neighborhoods, higher levels of stress and chaos in the family, single parenthood, marital conflict or multiple marital transitions, parental depression or substance abuse, social isolation – all of these conditions make it harder to be a good parent, provide positive opportunities, and to ensure positive influences on the child. Especially poverty. We could do a lot to alleviate these problems by alleviating poverty. But it’s important to recognize that these problems are not exclusive to poor people by any means. Ideally, a community would have varying levels of support to meet the needs of all youth and their families at all levels of need.
Prevention is a good investment!Here we see the stark difference between what evidence-based prevention programs cost us per child, and what it costs to incarcerate a youth in adult prisons, the Oregon Youth Authority, or Lane County Detention per year.We can pay a little now, or pay a lot later. These prevention programs are relatively inexpensive programs that have been shown to reduce the likelihood of later problems, including crime and substance use. If you don’t prevent these problems early on, they are very expensive to deal with later.Background notes:Cost is per pupil, family or inmateAccording to the National Institute of CorrectionsOregon Youth Authority: $219/day Lane County Juvenile Detention: $260/day (2009)SAMHSA CSAP Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents: A Cost Benefit Analysis 2009Triple P cost of $15 per child 0-12 in the catchment area includes: -- training of staff (including staff time involved in attending training and mastering/practicing Triple P)-- practitioner materials-- media strategy for a year-- consultation and support --It does not include:-- cost of staff for delivery of TP-- parent materials (these are a function of the number of parents served in a time period
This slide shows how much money we could be saving by using evidence-based prevention programs – these are the amount of savings we could achieve for every dollar spent on these evidence-based prevention programs. Many evidence-based prevention programs save more money in the long run than they cost to deliver.Data from: SAMHSA CSAP Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents: A Cost Benefit Analysis 2009
Oregon Lottery 2009: $1.24 billion (Oregon Lottery, 2009)Oregonians spent $1.6 billion on all forms of gambling in 2007 (EcoNW, 2007)Lane County citizens spent an average of $330 per capita on lottery games in 2009 (Oregon Health Authority, 2010)About $7 out of every $10 was spent on video lottery games (video poker & slots)
LCC - Intro to Human Services - Prevention
• Introduction• Prevention• Current conditions in Lane County• What we do• Q&A
Creating conditions infamilies, schools, and communitiesthat promote the wellbeingof people
Lane County 2012 Student Wellness Survey (SWS) 2012 Gambling, Substance Use and Mental Health among Oregon Youth 50% 40% 6th 8thPercentage 30% 11th 20% 10% 0% Gambling Alcohol Binge Marijuana Cigarettes Depression Psych Alcohol distress Source: http://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011 n=55,611 students (18,885 6th grade; 21,368 8th grade; 15,358 11th grade)
Estimated costs of behavior problems in Oregon in1998Antisocial behavior 2 billionBinge drinking 516 millionCocaine/heroin abuse 267 millionHigh-risk sexual behavior 591 millionSmoking 5.1 millionHigh school dropout 1.7 billionSuicide attempt 193 millionTotal $5.3 billionSource: Miller, 2004
• Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use and abuse• Delinquency and crime• Premature or unsafe sex• Depression and suicidality• School failure, dropout
• Classroom teams in elementary school earn small rewards for being on-task and cooperative• Randomized trial in Baltimore Inner City Schools – Had preventive effects even into young adulthood – Substance abuse disorders – Antisocial personality
Most intensive interventions for the ~10% youth and families at highest risk More intensive for at-risk youth ~15% and families Universal supports for all youth ~75% and families Ideally, we would have varying levels of support to meet the needs of diverse youth and theirSize of population affected families.
$20,050$15,050$10,050 $5,050 $1,200 $120 $880 $61 $50 Annual cost per person per family
Preventing youth problems with evidence-based approaches is more successful, costeffective, and nurturing than punitiveapproaches.