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HC4. Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing
 

HC4. Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing

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    HC4. Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing HC4. Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Hollywood Cinema:Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing
      Prof. Julia Leyda
      September 10, 2010
    • quiz
      What does the title of the movie mean? Do you think Mookie does the right thing? Explain.
      (ten minutes)
    • I. black and white (b/w) and color
      black and white
      early film
      today gives “old” or documentary look
      vary contrast levels and lighting for softer or harder looks
      color
      early film tinting and toning, hand coloring
      Technicolor, processing variations; also digital
      color filters or gelatins over the lens
    • II. framing
      framing as visual metaphor
      inclusion and exclusion, separation
      use of cinematic frame
      use of other frames within mise-en-scene (windows, doorways, other lines and borders)
    • framing
    • framing
    • framing
    • III. camera distance and shot scale (38)
      • distance from the camera to the (human) subject
      • close, medium, long and variations on them
      • often helps to convey meaning:
      • extreme long shot is often first in new scene (called establishing shot)
      • long shot shows bigger movements and gestures
      • medium shots often show interaction or conversation
      • close-up shows more intimacy or emotion
      • extreme close-up shows significant detail
    • extreme long shot (ELS)
    • extreme long shot (ELS)
    • long shot (LS)
    • long shot (LS)
    • medium long shot (MLS) or plan americain
    • medium long shot (MLS) or plan americain
    • medium shot (MS)
    • medium shot (MS)
    • medium close-up (MCU)
    • medium close-up (MCU)
    • close-up (CU)
    • close-up (CU)
    • extreme close-up (ECU)
    • extreme close-up (ECU)
    • IV. lens and focal length
      wide-angle or short lens
      DTRT uses short lenses more than most films
      middle or normal lens
      telephoto or long lens
      zoom lens
      zooming in or out
    • V. focus and deep space
      creating illusion of depth by showing objects in foreground, medium ground, and background at the same time
      different uses of focus can show which elements are important
      sometimes also achieved by using deep focus lenses
      racking: changing focal point without cutting
    • deep space
    • deep space
    • VI. camera angles
      point of view (POV) and eyeline shots
      high angle
      low angle
      canted frame or Dutch angle
    • eyeline shot
    • high angle shot
    • low angle shot
    • canted frame or Dutch angle shot
    • VIII. camera movements
      panning (from panorama): speed varies, including swish pan
      tilting
      handheld and Steadicam
      dollying and tracking: DTRT’s handheld dolly
      craning
    • pan
    • swish pan
    • dolly
    • long take, zoom out, crane
    • VIII. other cinematographic tools
      long take
      mobile framing
      special effects
      aspect ratio
      iris and masking
    • editing concepts (42-49)
      5 types of edits
      cross-cutting or parallel editing
      editing and time
      continuity editing
    • I. 5 types of edits
      cut: 1st shot ends cleanly and 2nd shot begins (unless it’s a jump cut)
      dissolve: end of 1st shot and beginning of 2nd shot overlap briefly
      fade: -in or -out, often to black
      wipe: boundary line replaces 1st shot with 2nd
      iris: -in or -out, circle opens or closes frame
    • cut and jump cut
    • dissolve: implies brief passage of time, flashback, or flashforward
    • dissolve: implies brief passage of time, flashback, or flashforward
    • fade: implies longer passage of time, often at the end of a movie
    • wipe: vertical, horizontal, or diagonal; often implies change of place
    • II. cross-cutting or parallel editing
      shows two or more actions happening at the same time in different locations
    • cutaway shot
      a brief shot that interrupts a continuously-filmed action, by inserting another related action, object, or person, followed by a cutback to the original shot 
    • III. continuity and time
      making shots and scenes flow smoothly to establish a sense of story
      to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and the temporal and spatial orientation of viewers
      piecing together partial fragments of time into comprehensible temporal experience
    • shot / reverse shot
      a common sequence of shots in which the camera switches between shots of different characters
      usually in conversation or other interaction
      usually shows the shoulder and back of the other’s head
    • shot / reverse shot
      a common sequence of shots in which the camera switches between shots of different characters
      usually in conversation or other interaction
      usually shows the shoulder and back of the other’s head
    • shot / reverse shot
      a common sequence of shots in which the camera switches between shots of different characters
      usually in conversation or other interaction
      usually shows the shoulder and back of the other’s head
    • 180-degree rule
      camera usually stays on one side of 180° axis to preserve viewer’s sense of space
    • 180-degree rule
      camera usually stays on one side of 180° axis to preserve viewer’s sense of space
    • match on action
      two shots joined by following action from the first into the next
    • match on action
      two shots joined by following action from the first into the next
    • point of view editing
      editing of subjective shots that show exactly what the character sees
      different from eyeline match cut as it shows the character’s POV, whereas eyeline match cut shows what the character is seeing objectively (9)
    • eyeline match
      joins shot A of a person looking off-screen in one direction, and shot B, an objective shot of whatever the person sees (again reverse order here)
    • eyeline match
      joins shot A of a person looking off-screen in one direction, and shot B, an objective shot of whatever the person sees (or in this case, the object then the person looking)
    • montage
      compresses time by showing a series of brief shots, sometimes accompanied by shots of maps, newspapers, or calendars
    • montage
      compresses time by showing a series of brief shots, sometimes accompanied by shots of maps, newspapers, or calendars
    • discussion questions
      Classical Hollywood cinema doesn’t want you to notice most techniques. What elements of cinematography and editing did you notice in DTRT? Why do you think those were most noticeable?
      How does the cinematography in DTRT support the meanings and themes of the movie?
      Why do you think director Spike Lee and DP Ernest Dickerson used so many wide and high/low angles and canted frames? So many two-shots and so few shot / reverse shots?