HC4. Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing

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HC4. Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing

  1. 1. Introduction to Hollywood Cinema:Cinematography, Editing, and Do the Right Thing<br />Prof. Julia Leyda<br />September 10, 2010<br />
  2. 2. quiz<br />What does the title of the movie mean? Do you think Mookie does the right thing? Explain.<br />(ten minutes)<br />
  3. 3. I. black and white (b/w) and color <br />black and white<br />early film<br />today gives “old” or documentary look<br />vary contrast levels and lighting for softer or harder looks<br />color<br />early film tinting and toning, hand coloring<br />Technicolor, processing variations; also digital<br />color filters or gelatins over the lens<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. II. framing<br />framing as visual metaphor<br />inclusion and exclusion, separation<br />use of cinematic frame<br />use of other frames within mise-en-scene (windows, doorways, other lines and borders)<br />
  6. 6. framing<br />
  7. 7. framing<br />
  8. 8. framing<br />
  9. 9. III. camera distance and shot scale (38)<br /><ul><li>distance from the camera to the (human) subject
  10. 10. close, medium, long and variations on them
  11. 11. often helps to convey meaning:
  12. 12. extreme long shot is often first in new scene (called establishing shot)
  13. 13. long shot shows bigger movements and gestures
  14. 14. medium shots often show interaction or conversation
  15. 15. close-up shows more intimacy or emotion
  16. 16. extreme close-up shows significant detail</li></li></ul><li>extreme long shot (ELS)<br />
  17. 17. extreme long shot (ELS)<br />
  18. 18. long shot (LS)<br />
  19. 19. long shot (LS)<br />
  20. 20. medium long shot (MLS) or plan americain<br />
  21. 21. medium long shot (MLS) or plan americain<br />
  22. 22. medium shot (MS)<br />
  23. 23. medium shot (MS)<br />
  24. 24. medium close-up (MCU)<br />
  25. 25. medium close-up (MCU)<br />
  26. 26. close-up (CU)<br />
  27. 27. close-up (CU)<br />
  28. 28. extreme close-up (ECU)<br />
  29. 29. extreme close-up (ECU)<br />
  30. 30. IV. lens and focal length<br />wide-angle or short lens<br />DTRT uses short lenses more than most films<br />middle or normal lens<br />telephoto or long lens<br />zoom lens<br />zooming in or out<br />
  31. 31. V. focus and deep space<br />creating illusion of depth by showing objects in foreground, medium ground, and background at the same time <br />different uses of focus can show which elements are important<br />sometimes also achieved by using deep focus lenses <br />racking: changing focal point without cutting<br />
  32. 32. deep space<br />
  33. 33. deep space<br />
  34. 34. VI. camera angles<br />point of view (POV) and eyeline shots<br />high angle<br />low angle<br />canted frame or Dutch angle<br />
  35. 35. eyeline shot<br />
  36. 36. high angle shot<br />
  37. 37. low angle shot<br />
  38. 38. canted frame or Dutch angle shot<br />
  39. 39. VIII. camera movements<br />panning (from panorama): speed varies, including swish pan <br />tilting<br />handheld and Steadicam <br />dollying and tracking: DTRT’s handheld dolly <br />craning <br />
  40. 40. pan<br />
  41. 41. swish pan<br />
  42. 42. dolly<br />
  43. 43. long take, zoom out, crane<br />
  44. 44. VIII. other cinematographic tools<br />long take <br />mobile framing<br />special effects<br />aspect ratio<br />iris and masking<br />
  45. 45. editing concepts (42-49)<br />5 types of edits<br />cross-cutting or parallel editing<br />editing and time<br />continuity editing<br />
  46. 46. I. 5 types of edits<br />cut: 1st shot ends cleanly and 2nd shot begins (unless it’s a jump cut)<br />dissolve: end of 1st shot and beginning of 2nd shot overlap briefly<br />fade: -in or -out, often to black <br />wipe: boundary line replaces 1st shot with 2nd<br />iris: -in or -out, circle opens or closes frame<br />
  47. 47. cut and jump cut<br />
  48. 48. dissolve: implies brief passage of time, flashback, or flashforward<br />
  49. 49. dissolve: implies brief passage of time, flashback, or flashforward<br />
  50. 50. fade: implies longer passage of time, often at the end of a movie<br />
  51. 51. wipe: vertical, horizontal, or diagonal; often implies change of place<br />
  52. 52. II. cross-cutting or parallel editing<br />shows two or more actions happening at the same time in different locations<br />
  53. 53. cutaway shot<br /> a brief shot that interrupts a continuously-filmed action, by inserting another related action, object, or person, followed by a cutback to the original shot <br />
  54. 54. III. continuity and time<br />making shots and scenes flow smoothly to establish a sense of story<br />to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and the temporal and spatial orientation of viewers<br />piecing together partial fragments of time into comprehensible temporal experience<br />
  55. 55. shot / reverse shot<br /> a common sequence of shots in which the camera switches between shots of different characters<br />usually in conversation or other interaction <br />usually shows the shoulder and back of the other’s head<br />
  56. 56. shot / reverse shot<br /> a common sequence of shots in which the camera switches between shots of different characters <br />usually in conversation or other interaction <br />usually shows the shoulder and back of the other’s head<br />
  57. 57. shot / reverse shot<br /> a common sequence of shots in which the camera switches between shots of different characters<br />usually in conversation or other interaction <br />usually shows the shoulder and back of the other’s head<br />
  58. 58. 180-degree rule<br />camera usually stays on one side of 180° axis to preserve viewer’s sense of space<br />
  59. 59. 180-degree rule<br /> camera usually stays on one side of 180° axis to preserve viewer’s sense of space<br />
  60. 60. match on action<br /> two shots joined by following action from the first into the next<br />
  61. 61. match on action<br /> two shots joined by following action from the first into the next <br />
  62. 62. point of view editing<br />editing of subjective shots that show exactly what the character sees<br />different from eyeline match cut as it shows the character’s POV, whereas eyeline match cut shows what the character is seeing objectively (9)<br />
  63. 63. eyeline match<br /> joins shot A of a person looking off-screen in one direction, and shot B, an objective shot of whatever the person sees (again reverse order here)<br />
  64. 64. eyeline match<br /> joins shot A of a person looking off-screen in one direction, and shot B, an objective shot of whatever the person sees (or in this case, the object then the person looking)<br />
  65. 65. montage<br /> compresses time by showing a series of brief shots, sometimes accompanied by shots of maps, newspapers, or calendars <br />
  66. 66. montage<br /> compresses time by showing a series of brief shots, sometimes accompanied by shots of maps, newspapers, or calendars <br />
  67. 67. discussion questions<br />Classical Hollywood cinema doesn’t want you to notice most techniques. What elements of cinematography and editing did you notice in DTRT? Why do you think those were most noticeable?<br />How does the cinematography in DTRT support the meanings and themes of the movie?<br />Why do you think director Spike Lee and DP Ernest Dickerson used so many wide and high/low angles and canted frames? So many two-shots and so few shot / reverse shots?<br />

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