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  • K.RF.1d Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
  • Use same lesson plan and discuss how it would be modified for a different theory
  • Discuss which version of lesson plan would be most beneficial to my instructional setting. Chose either original task b or modified task c
  • HOW theories of design can help adapt or produce effecitve instruction. “Theories of design in general help to produce effective instruction. Then use either wiggins backward design, harvards teaching for understanding, or gagne’s nine events of instruction to discuss the topic as an exaple to help support discussion
  • Discuss which design process tha I find most effective in my instructional setting, for what I would be teaching and for my unique learner poplation
  • Jot2 presentation

    1. 1. JOT2 –Learning Theories Julie Hill
    2. 2. Task A: Learning Theories &LearnersConstructivism Cognitivism Behaviorism
    3. 3. Constructivism• Students learn by doing rather than passively listening• information is scaffold to build new knowledge upon old knowledge• Concentrates on learning HOW to think and understand• Gives students ownership of their learning
    4. 4. When Constructivism is Beneficial for Learners •When learning is difficult; ex. special education students •For students needing a multi-sensory approach to learning •When deep understanding is necessary •When exploring new concepts through experimentation
    5. 5. Congitivism• Schema- opens the “black box” of the human mind to understand how people learn• Symbol manipulation for mental mapping• Exploration of mental processes such as memory and problem solving skills
    6. 6. When Cognitivism is Beneficial for Learners• When processing information for memory recall• When creating analogies and cues for information• When problem solving• To build mental maps for understanding, and responding to learning and the environment• For students who lack preliminary knowledge and struggle to learn new concepts
    7. 7. Behaviorism• Behavior conditioning; consequences and rewards for learned behavior• “stimulus-response” - association of specific reinforcement for correct responses/incorrect responses• Teacher centered instruction via lecturing and demonstration• Chunks information into smaller units for learning and memorization• Provides regular feedback and is easily assessed
    8. 8. When Behaviorism is Beneficial for Learners •When setting learning standards for expected response •When used as a teaching tool to shape expected behavior •When combined with constructivism and cognitivism •To change operant learning behaviors
    9. 9. Task B: Learning TheoryUsed in Lesson PlanConstructivism ~learning by doing
    10. 10. Learning Theory – Lesson PlanGoal: Students will recognize and name all upper and lowercase letters in the alphabet.Objective: Given a variety of tools, students will name, write, and match lowercase letters to uppercase letters.Materials: Alphabet strips, A-Z/a-z flashcards, white boards/ erasers/markers, sand trays, Oh No! game with lettersStandard: Common Core Language Arts Standard K.RF.1dAssessment: District assessment and progress monitoring tools
    11. 11. Task C: Adaptation ofLesson PlanConstuctivist Plan to Cognitivist Plan Learning by doing to Memorization
    12. 12. Adapted Lesson Plan• Goal remains the same• Objective becomes “memorize” letters through repetitive practice using flashcards instead of playing games or using manipulating tools to match letters• Standard and assessment tools remain the same
    13. 13. Task D: Lesson PlanDiscussion Instructional Setting: Special Education – Kindergarten Preferred Plan: Constructivism
    14. 14. Why Constructivism?• Students learn better by doing• Different learning styles are used• Differentiation is easily achieved• Instruction is scaffold• Students use learning tools that suit their style
    15. 15. Task E: EffectiveInstruction Through theUse of Design TheoriesInstructional Design Theory ~The study of how to best design instruction so that learning will take place
    16. 16. Instructional Design Theory 1. Target Audience and Prerequisites 2. Identify Instructional Goal  3. Identify Enabling Objectives4. Plan Instructional Activities  5. Choose Instructional Media6. Develop Assessment Tools  7. Implement Instruction8. Revise Plan  1. Target Audience and Prerequisites (Smith, 2012)
    17. 17. Task F: Design Theories Strengths and LimitationsWiggins – The Backward DesignGagne – Nine Events of InstructionTeaching for Understanding (The Harvard Model)
    18. 18. Strengths of Wiggins Theory• Assessment is central to curriculum design• Frequent feedback is given and received• “Backward Design” • identifies desired results • determines validity of assessments • Plans learning experiences and instruction based on that information • Aligns with the Common Core
    19. 19. Limitations of Wiggins Theory• Assessing becomes a big part of instruction since data drives the instruction• Takes extra time to dissect standards and create goals for instruction based on data results
    20. 20. Strengths of Gagne’s Events• Systematic approach to teaching and learning• Recipe-like for new teachers to follow• Builds on prior knowledge - scaffolding• Provides modeling for observational learning• Organized and structured learning objectives
    21. 21. Limitations of Gagne’s Events• Little creativity - rigid• Need to organize and break down goals to fit within Gagne’s categories• Time consuming process• Learning objectives don’t always fit within Gagne’s categories
    22. 22. Strengths of Teaching for Understanding • Integrates pre-existing knowledge with new information • Builds cognitive strategies • Socially mediated learning • Engagement in constructive conversation (Bremer, Morocco)
    23. 23. Weaknesses of Teaching for Understanding • Requires acute knowledge of content area – suitable for middle and high school levels • Requires nontraditional teaching styles • Can be time consuming to prepare • Not accessible to a wide variety of learners
    24. 24. Task G: Most SuitableDesign Process The most suitable design process for my special education kindergarten classroom: Constructivism
    25. 25. Why Constructivism?• Hands-on approach to learning can fit all special education learning styles; multi-sensory• Students learn at their own pace and build new knowledge upon old knowledge; scaffold• Students demonstrate ability to recognize and name letters in different ways; individual goals and objectives• Students take ownership of their learning• Easily measured and assessed via observation and varied progress monitoring tools
    26. 26. References Smith, Kenneth J. 2012. Instructional Design Wiggins, Grant. 2004. Understanding By Cunningham, Donald, Corry, Michael. 1996. Gagne’sTheory of Instruction. Bremer, Christine D., Morocco, Catherine Cobb. 2003.Teaching for