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Riel file insert

  1. 1. The Metis People
  2. 2. Red River Rebellion 1869 <ul><li>Why would the Metis people rebel? Who are they fighting? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the Metis? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Louis Riel? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome of the Rebellion? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Metis <ul><li>Fur Trade and Bison hunt were the staples of this biracial, mixed community </li></ul><ul><li>Part aboriginal, Part French - people spoke French and aboriginal languages (Michif) and practiced Catholicism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Red River Community <ul><li>Large settlement at Red River (present day Winnipeg) </li></ul><ul><li>Red River valley extremely fertile </li></ul><ul><li>Seigneurial farming system </li></ul>
  5. 5. Bison Hunt <ul><li>Large, community-organized hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Bison was entirely used to feed, clothe, house people and nothing was wasted </li></ul><ul><li>Pemmican basic travelling food </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bison Hunt <ul><li>Every member of the Metis community important in the hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Women and children drove the Red River cart pulled by horses and oxen </li></ul><ul><li>Men hunted with horses in groups </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bison Hunt <ul><li>Laws and rules strictly enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Centre-piece of community activity and spirit </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Fur Trade <ul><li>2 competing companies </li></ul><ul><li>Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) est 1670 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur trading forts around the Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traders went to forts for business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ stay at the bay” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Fur trade cont. <ul><li>Fur trade - beaver pelts </li></ul><ul><li>HBC English company </li></ul><ul><li>North West Company (NWC) - French company </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fur Trade Cont. <ul><li>NWC preferred to go to aboriginal communities - trade directly </li></ul><ul><li>Aboriginals preferred to trade with NWC as aboriginal traders did not have to go to York Factory </li></ul>
  11. 11. Comparison Chart <ul><li>HBC </li></ul><ul><li>Stay at the bay policy </li></ul><ul><li>English - Headquarters in London, England </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraged relationships between Europeans and aboriginals </li></ul><ul><li>Traders could not share in profits </li></ul><ul><li>NWC </li></ul><ul><li>Established trading forts along rivers, close to aboriginal communities </li></ul><ul><li>French - HQ in Montreal </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Hivernants, workers, could become NWC partners </li></ul>
  12. 12. Which company would you prefer to work for? Why? <ul><li>HBC </li></ul><ul><li>NWC </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fur Trade Travel <ul><li>HBC used York boats </li></ul><ul><li>NWC used canoes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Question: How did voyageurs/ traders get across land with boat/ canoe?
  15. 15. Answer: Portage!
  16. 16. Impact of the Fur Trade on Aboriginal people <ul><li>Fur trade beginnings- equal partners </li></ul><ul><li>Women played role as interpreters and guides </li></ul><ul><li>New relationships led to new community “Metis” - mixed blood </li></ul><ul><li>Fur trade success led to disruption to hunting and self sufficiency </li></ul>
  17. 17. Impact on Aboriginal People <ul><li>More exposure to diseases like smallpox and measles </li></ul><ul><li>Communites like Red River Settlement formed where Metis became farmers and became more rooted to land </li></ul>
  18. 18. Homework: <ul><li>Read beginning of Chapter 4, from page 122 to page 135 </li></ul><ul><li>Do vocabulary list </li></ul><ul><li>Do questions 1 to 4, page 135 </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Northwest <ul><li>Background: What is the Dominion of Canada during this period? (1800 to 1869) </li></ul><ul><li>Do the Metis live in ‘Canada’? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Metis <ul><li>Definition: any person of Aboriginal or First Nations and European ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Manitoba - Red River Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Present day Winnipeg - junction of Red and Assiniboine Rivers </li></ul>
  21. 21. Metis cont. <ul><li>Farming community </li></ul><ul><li>Bison hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Pemmican - bison meat, blueberries and lard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable food for travelling/ fur trade </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Homework <ul><li>Read pages 136 to 142 </li></ul><ul><li>Add to vocab list </li></ul><ul><li>Do questions #1 and 2, page 142 </li></ul>
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