• Cephalosphorin are bacteridal and work by
interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis.
• Active against gram-positives, gram-
negatives or anaerobic bacteria. They do not
against fungi and viruses.
GENERATION OF CEPHALOSPORINS
FIRST GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS
First-generation cephalosporins are
usually active against gram-positive and
have limited activity against gram-negative
They are available both in parental and
Currently available first-generation
cephalosporins include cefadroxil,
cefazolin, cephalexin and cephradine.
Bind to bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell
Bactericidal action against susceptible bacteria.
Active against many gram-positive cocci including:
Streptococci, Penicillinase-producing Staphylococci.
Not active against: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci,
Bacteroides fragilis, Enterococcus.
Active against some gram-negative rods including:
Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escbericbia
Second generation cephalosporins have
coverage against gram-positive organisms
similar to that of the first-generation
cepalosporins but have enhance coverage
against gram-negative bacteria.
Both parenteral and oral formulation are
Currently available second generation
cephalosporin include cefoxitin and
Most potent of the first three generation in
fighting gram-negative bacteria but less
activity than the first and second drug against
There are currently three fourth-generation
Some references classify these with the third
generation drug. They have a broader
spectrum of anti bacteria activity, especially
against gram-positive bacteria, than the third
TYPE OF DRUG UNDER CEPHALOSPORINS
SIDE EFFECT OF DRUG UNDER
*Cns :Seizures(high doses)
*GI :Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
*Derm :Rashes, pruritis
*Hemat :Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia
*Misc :Allergic reaction including anaphylaxis
a serum sickness, super infection.
Rashes related to side effect of cephalosporin
medication as evidence by patient complain of
red and itchy at his/her skin.
Reduce rashes of the patient
Asses the rashes such as location, level of pain,
condition of rashes to develop medical
treatment of the patient.
Stop all the antibiotic related to cephalosporin
group to avoid the rashes became bigger and
Encourage patient to take bath frequently to
increase patient hygiene and reduce the rashes.
Avoid and note the patient from scratch the
rashes area to prevent rashes from spread.
Limited the visitor to avoid other from the