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Cephalosphorin

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  • 1. CEPHALOSPORIN Group 3 6B
  • 2. CEPHALOSPORIN • Cephalosphorin are bacteridal and work by interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis. • Active against gram-positives, gram- negatives or anaerobic bacteria. They do not against fungi and viruses.
  • 3. GENERATION OF CEPHALOSPORINS Fourth Generation Third Generation Second Generation First Generation
  • 4. FIRST GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS  First-generation cephalosporins are usually active against gram-positive and have limited activity against gram-negative bacteria.  They are available both in parental and oral forms.  Currently available first-generation cephalosporins include cefadroxil, cefazolin, cephalexin and cephradine.
  • 5. Action  Bind to bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death. Therapeutic Effects  Bactericidal action against susceptible bacteria. Spectrum  Active against many gram-positive cocci including: Streptococci, Penicillinase-producing Staphylococci.  Not active against: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterococcus.  Active against some gram-negative rods including: Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escbericbia coli.
  • 6. SECOND GENERATION  Second generation cephalosporins have coverage against gram-positive organisms similar to that of the first-generation cepalosporins but have enhance coverage against gram-negative bacteria.  Both parenteral and oral formulation are available.  Currently available second generation cephalosporin include cefoxitin and cefuroxime.
  • 7. THIRD-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS  Drug included  Ceftriaxone  Ceftazidime  Most potent of the first three generation in fighting gram-negative bacteria but less activity than the first and second drug against gram-positive organism.
  • 8. FOURTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORIN  There are currently three fourth-generation cephalosporin:cefdinir,cefepime,and cefditoren pivoxil.  Some references classify these with the third generation drug. They have a broader spectrum of anti bacteria activity, especially against gram-positive bacteria, than the third generation drug.
  • 9. TYPE OF DRUG UNDER CEPHALOSPORINS FIRST GENERATION IV PO -CEFAZOLIN -CEFADROXIL -CEPHARADIN -CEPHALEXIN -CEPHRADINE
  • 10. SECOND GENERATION IV PO -CEFOXITIN -CEFACLOR -CEFUROXIME -CEFPROZIL -CEFMETAZOLE -CEFOTETAN -LORACARBEF
  • 11. THIRD GENERATION IV PO -CEFOPERAZONE -CEFPODOXIME -CEFOTAXIME -PROXETIL -CEFTIZOXIME -CEFTIBUTEN -CEFTAZIDIME
  • 12. FOURTH GENERATION IV PO -CEFEPIME -CEFDINIR -CEFDITOREN -PIVOXIL
  • 13. SIDE EFFECT OF DRUG UNDER CEPHALOSPORIN *Cns :Seizures(high doses) *GI :Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting *Derm :Rashes, pruritis *Hemat :Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia *Misc :Allergic reaction including anaphylaxis a serum sickness, super infection.
  • 14.  Nursing diagnosis  Rashes related to side effect of cephalosporin medication as evidence by patient complain of red and itchy at his/her skin.  Goal  Reduce rashes of the patient
  • 15. NURSING INTERVENTION  Asses the rashes such as location, level of pain, condition of rashes to develop medical treatment of the patient.  Stop all the antibiotic related to cephalosporin group to avoid the rashes became bigger and more pain.  Encourage patient to take bath frequently to increase patient hygiene and reduce the rashes.  Avoid and note the patient from scratch the rashes area to prevent rashes from spread.  Limited the visitor to avoid other from the rashes.