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Educational trip report


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Students of B.Arch went to trip to Agra,Bharatpur & Fatehpur sikri.A brief report is appended for your perusal.

Students of B.Arch went to trip to Agra,Bharatpur & Fatehpur sikri.A brief report is appended for your perusal.

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  • 2. FATEHPUR SIKRIFatehpur Sikri is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It was first named Sikrigarh, constructed by Sikriwal Rajput Rajas last Emperor Maharana Sangram Singh beginning in 1500. At Seventh attack of Akbar Sikriwal Rajput left Palace after that Sikrigarh was named Fateh(victory) pur Sikri.There was a temple of Sikriwal Rajputs Kuldevi(Named Chamad Devi)In front of Lal Darwaja of Sikrigarh(at present Fatehpur Sikri).After victory on sikrigarh Akber served as the capital from 1571 to 1585. He was named Salim to honour the saint and would later rule the empire as Emperor Jahangir. Here after the second birthday of Jahangir in 1571, Akbar then 28 years old, decided to shift his capital from Agra to the Sikri ridge, to honor Salim Chishti, and commenced the construction of a planned walled city which took the next fifteen years in planning and construction of a series royal palaces, harem, courts, a mosque, private quarters and other utility buildings.
  • 3. He named the city, Fatehabad, with Fateh, a word of Arabic origin inPersian, meaning "victory", it was later called Fatehpur Sikri. It is at FatehpurSikri that the legends of Akbar and his famed courtiers, the nine jewels orNavaratnas, were born . One of them, musician and singer Tansen is said tohave performed on an island in the middle of the pool Anup Talao.Built duringthe 16th century, the Fatehpur Sikri is one of the best preserved collection ofMughal architecture in India.
  • 5. Fatehpur Sikri sits on rocky ridge, 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) in length and 1 km (0.62 mi)wide, and palace city is surrounded by a 6 km (3.7 mi) wall on three side with thefourth being a lake at the time. Its architect was Tuhir Das and was constructedusing Indian principles. The buildings of Fatehpur Sikri show a synthesis of variousregional schools of architectural craftsmanship such as Gujarat and Bengal.This was because indigenous craftsmen from various regions were used for theconstruction of the buildings. Influences from Hindu and Jain architecture are seenhand in hand with Islamic elements. The building material used in all the buildingsat Fatehpur Sikri, palace city complex, is the locally quarried red sandstone, knownas Sikri sandstone.It is accessed through gates along the five-mile long fort wall, namely, Delhi Gate, theLal Gate, the Agra Gate, Birbals Gate, Chandanpal Gate, The Gwalior Gate, theTehra Gate, the Chor Gate and the Ajmere Gate.
  • 7. Buland Darwaza: Set into the south wall of congregational mosque, the Jama Masjid atFatehpur Sikri, this stupendous piece of architecture is 54 metre high, from the outside,gradually making a transition to a human scale in the inside. The gate was added someFive years later after the completion of the mosque ca. 1576-1577 as an victory arch, tocommemorate the Akbars successful Gujarat campaign. It carries two inscriptions in thearchway, one of which reads: "Isa(Jesus) Son of Mary said: The world is a bridge, passover it, but build no houses on it. He who hopes for an hour may hope for eternity. Theworldendures but an hour. Spend it in prayer, for the rest is unseen“ .The central porticocomprises three arched entrances, with the largest one, in the centre, is known locally asthe Horseshoe Gate, after the custom of nailing horseshoes to its large wooden doors forluck. Outside the giant steps of the Buland Darwaza to left is deep well.
  • 9. Jama Masjid: It is a Jami Mosque meaning the Friday Mosquecongregational mosque, and was perhaps one of the first buildings tocome up in the complex, as its epigraph gives AH 979 (A.D. 1571-72)as the date of its completion, with a massive entrance to thecourtyard, the Buland-Darwaza added some five years later.[13] Itwas built in the manner of Indian mosques, with iwans around acentral courtyard. A distinguishing feature is the row of chhatri overthe sanctuary. There are three mihrabs in each of the sevenbays, while the large central mihrab is covered by a dome, it isdecorated with white marble inlay, in geometric patterns.
  • 11. Tomb of Salim Chishti: A white marble encased tomb of the Sufi saint, SalimChisti (1478–1572), within the Jama Masjids sahn, courtyard. The single-storey structure is built around a central square chamber, with has thegrave of the saint, under an ornate wooden canopy, encrusted with mother-of pearl mosaic. Surrounding it is covered passageway forcircumambulation, with carved Jalis, stone pierced screens all around withintricate geometric design, and an entrance to the south. The tomb isinfluenced by earlier mausolea of the early 15th century Gujarat Sultanateperiod. Other striking features of the tomb are white marble serpentinebrackets, which support sloping eaves around the parapet.On the left of the tomb, to the east, stands a red sandstone tomb of IslamKhan I, son of Shaikh Badruddin Chisti and grandson of Shaikh SalimChishti, who became a general in the Mughal army in the reign of Jahangir.The tomb is topped by a dome and thirty-six small domed chattris, andcontains a number of graves, some unnamed, all male descendants ofShaikh Salim Chisti.
  • 12. TAJ MAHAL
  • 13. The Taj Mahal , from Persian/Urdu: crown of palaces", pronounced ;also "the Taj ” is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, UttarPradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory ofhis third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as "thejewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpiecesof the worlds heritage".Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughalarchitecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, OttomanTurkish and Indian architectural styles.In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. While thewhite domed marble mausoleum is the most familiar component of the TajMahal, it is actually an integrated complex of structures. The constructionbegan around 1632 and was completed around 1653, employing thousands ofartisans and craftsmen. The construction of the Taj Mahal was entrusted to aboard of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-KarimMamur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Lahauri isgenerally considered to be the principal designer.
  • 14. ARCHITECTURETombThe tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal. Thislarge, white marble structure stands on a square plinth and consists of asymmetrical building with an iwan (an arch-shaped doorway) topped by a largedome and finial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian inorigin.The Taj Mahal seen from the banks of river YamunaThe base structure is essentially a large, multi-chambered cube with chamferedcorners, forming an unequal octagon that is approximately 55 metres (180 ft) oneach of the four long sides. On each of these sides, a huge pishtaq, or vaultedarchway, frames the iwan with two similarly shaped, arched balconies stackedon either side. This motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on the chamferedcorner areas, making the design completely symmetrical on all sides of thebuilding. Four minarets frame the tomb, one at each corner of the plinth facingthe chamfered corners. The main chamber houses the false sarcophagi ofMumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan; the actual graves are at a lower level.
  • 15. Viewed from the west at sunsetThe marble dome that surmounts the tomb is the most spectacularfeature. Its height of around 35 metres (115 ft) is about the same asthe length of the base, and is accentuated as it sits on a cylindrical"drum" which is roughly 7 metres (23 ft) high. Because of itsshape, the dome is often called an onion dome or amrud (guavadome). The top is decorated with a lotus design, which also serves toaccentuate its height. The shape of the dome is emphasised by foursmaller domed chattris (kiosks) placed at its corners, whichreplicate the onion shape of the main dome. Their columned basesopen through the roof of the tomb and provide light to the interior.Tall decorative spires (guldastas) extend from edges of basewalls, and provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome. Thelotus motif is repeated on both the chattris and guldastas. Thedome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial, which mixestraditional Persian and Hindustani decorative elements.
  • 16. SITE PLAN
  • 17. Exterior decorationThe exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal areamong the finest in Mughal architecture. As thesurface area changes the decorations are refinedproportionally. The decorative elements werecreated by applying paint, stucco, stoneinlays, or carvings. In line with the Islamicprohibition against the use of anthropomorphicforms, the decorative elements can be groupedinto either calligraphy, abstract forms orvegetative motifs.Throughout the complex, passages from theQuran are used as decorative elements. Recentscholarship suggests that the passages werechosen by Amanat Khan.
  • 18. Keoladeo National ParkThe Keoladeo National Park or Keoladeo Ghana National Park formerly known asthe Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India is a famous avifaunasanctuary that plays host to thousands of birds especially during the winter season.Over 230 species of birds are known to have made the National Park their home. Itis also a major tourist centre with scores of ornithologists arriving here in thehibernal season. It was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971. It is also a declaredWorld Heritage Site.Keoladeo Ghana National Park is a man-made and man-managed wetland and oneof the national parks of India. The reserve protects Bharatpur from frequentfloods, provides grazing grounds for village cattle and earlier was primarily used asa waterfowl hunting ground. The 29 km (18 mi) reserve is locally known asGhana, and is a mosaic of dry grasslands, woodlands, woodland swamps, andwetlands. These diverse habitats are home to 366 bird species, 379 floral species, 50species of fish, 13 species of snakes, 5 species of lizards, 7 amphibian species,7turtle species, and a variety of other invertebrates.
  • 19. Every year thousands of migratory waterfowl visit the park for winteringbreeding etc. The Sanctuary is one of the richest bird areas in the world.It is known for nesting of its resident birds and visiting migratory birdsincluding water birds. The rare Siberian cranes used to winter in thispark but this central population of Siberian Cranes is now extinct.According to Sir Peter Scott Keoladeo Sanctuary is the world’s best birdarea.
  • 20. ARCHITECTUREKeoladeo (Bharatpur) National Park (27°10N, 77°31E) is a World Heritage Sitesituated in eastern Rajasthan. The park is 2 kilometers (km) south-east ofBharatpur and 50 km west of Agra. The Park is spread over approx 29 squarekilometer area. One third of the Keoladeo National Park habitat is wetlandsystems with varying types of microhabitats having trees, mounds, dykes andopen water with or without submerged or emergent plants. The uplands havegrasslands (savannas) of tall species of grass together with scattered trees andshrubs present in varying density.[4]A similar habitat with short grasses, such as Cynodon dactylon and Dicanthiumannulatum also exists. Woodlands with thickets of huge Kadam trees(Neolamarckia cadamba) are distributed in scattered pockets. Richness anddiversity of plant life inside the Park is remarkable. The Park’s flora consists of379 species of flowering plants of which 96 are wetland species. The Wetland is apart of the Indo- Gangetic Great Plains.
  • 21. In an area characterized by sparse vegetation, the park is the only spotwhich has dense vegetation and trees. The principal vegetation types aretropical dry deciduous forests intermixed with dry grasslands. Where theforest has degraded, the greater part of the area is covered with shrubsand medium sized trees. The park is a fresh water swamp and is floodedduring the monsoon. For most part of the year, effective wetland is only10 km2. The rest of the area remains dry.Dykes divide the wetland into ten units. Each unit has a system of sluicegates to control its water level. Depth of water ranges from 1 metre to 2metre during rains (July, August and September). In subsequentmonths, October to January, the level gets lowered. The area starts dryingfrom February. In May and June, the entire area dries. Water remainsonly in some depressions. This alternate wetting and drying helps tomaintain the ecology of the fresh water swamp, ideal for water-fowl andresident water birds. Arrangement to pump water from deep tube wells tofill small depressions to save seeds, spores and other aquatic life alsoexist. They are also helpful in extreme years of drought.