New Commons 5/6: Peer Production and the Networking Commons

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  • 1. Juhana  Venäläinen   Researcher,  PhD  Student   University  of  Eastern  Finland   School  of  Humanities   juhana.venalainen@uef.fi   5516126  New  Commons  /  Juhana  Venäläinen  /  University  of  Eastern  Finland  /  Spring  2013  
  • 2. freeasinfreedom  /  flickr.com  /  by-­‐nc-­‐nd  
  • 3. [25 August 1991]-> comp.os.minix Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since april, and is starting to get ready.
  • 4. ¡  Most  studied  of  all   operating  system  projects   ¡  “Adaptability  over   planning”   ¡  “Naturally  emergent”   organization   ¡  …from  the  romantic  view   of  authorship  to  the   spontaneous  organization   of  the  commons…  
  • 5. ¡  I  Networking  commons   §  The  idea  of  ”the  networking  commons”   §  Example:  the  political  economy  of  Wikipedia   §  Licensing  as  commons  governance   ¡  II  Peer  production   §  The  idea  of  ”peer  production”   §  Some  critiques  of  the  P2P  paradigm   §  Preliminary  notes  on  network  value  
  • 6.         networking  commons     =  shared  means  of  productive  communication  
  • 7.       -­‐>  A.  communication  as  a  catalyst  of  production   (knowledge  economy  thesis)     -­‐>  B.  communication  as  the  target  of   production,  a  goal  in  itself   (immaterial  economy  thesis)  
  • 8. ¡  Technological  infrastructure   §  The  tools  and  routes  for  communication   ¡  Organizational  norms   §  Institutions  for  regulating  the  communication   ¡  Cultural  values   §  The  “good”  and  “bad”  habits  of  communication   ¡  Frameworks  of  assessment   §  How  to  measure  the  productivity  of  the  system  in  whole?   §  How  to  measure  the  efforts  of  individuals?   ¡  Principles  of  equity   §  How  is  the  added  value  distributed  among  the  participants?   ¡  Means  of  reproduction   §  How  does  the  networking  system  sustain  itself?   §  How  does  the  networking  system  sustain  the  individual  participants?  
  • 9.     Wikipedia?     1)  Shared  practices  of  communication…   2)  …  for  building  a  shared  base  of  knowledge     -­‐>  networking  commons  +     knowledge  commons  
  • 10. ¡  Technological  infra  (hardware)   §  Internet   ▪  Communications  cables   ▪  Internet  exchange  points  (IXPs)   §  Data  center(s)   ▪  WP:  300  servers  in  Tampa,  FL   §  Electricity,  power  grids   ¡  Code,  services,  protocols  (software)   §  Maintenance  and  improvement  of  MediaWiki   §  Resistance  to  cyberattacks  etc.   ¡  Sociocultural  practices  of  sharing  (netware)   §  Attraction  to  contribute  (social  “barrier  of  entry”)   §  Mechanisms  of  quality  control   §  Communal  “goodwill”  
  • 11. ¡  Factors  of  (re)production:   §  Financing  the  fixed  capital  /  rents   §  Financing  the  variable  capital  (wages)   §  Sustaining  the  supply  of  voluntary  workforce   §  Sustaining  the  “good  atmosphere”  of  sharing    
  • 12. ¡  Wikimedia  Foundation   §  Non-­‐profit  charitable  organization   ¡  Input-­‐output-­‐streams   §  Donations  -­‐>  WMF  -­‐>  monetized  assets   §  Non-­‐paid  voluntary  work  (playbor)  -­‐>  WP  -­‐>  non-­‐monetized  assets   ¡  Externalities   §  WP  provides  positive  externalities  for  knowledge-­‐intensive  production   §  -­‐>  the  knowledge  commons  of  WP:  economically  valuable  factor  of   production   §  -­‐>  the  networking  commons  of  WP:  a  “non-­‐market”  way  of  building   and  sustaining  that  factor  of  production   ¡  -­‐>  market  value  produced  outside  of  the  market    
  • 13. ¡  Open  software   §  E.g.  Firefox,  OpenOffice,  Linux,  Apache,  MySQL   ¡  Open  knowledge   §  E.g.  Wikipedia,  Project  Gutenberg,     Internet  Archive   ¡  Open  protocols   §  E.g.  Internet  standards  (RFCs),  OpenDocument,   Google  APIs   ¡  Open  hardware  
  • 14. ¡  Alternative  namings   §  ”Free  software”   ▪  The  Free  Software  Foundation  (1985-­‐)   §  Open  Source  software   ▪  Open  Source  Initiative  (1998-­‐)   §  Software  Libre   ▪  European  Commission  (2000-­‐)   §  ”FLOSS”:  free  /  libre  /  open  source  software   ▪  Rishab  Ghosh  2001   ¡  Licenses   §  Copyleft  licenses   ▪  E.g.  GNU  General  Public  Licence  (1989,  1991,  2007)   ▪  Most  widely  used  open  software  licence   ▪  Guarantees  end  users  the  freedoms  to  use,  study,  share  (copy)  and  modify  the  software   ▪  Prohibits  commercial  redistribution  (”share-­‐alike”  clause)   §  Copycenter    lisences   ▪  E.g.  MIT/X11  licence  (1988),  BSD    licences  
  • 15. ¡  Knowledge  that  ”one  is  free  to  use,  reuse,  and  redistribute   it  without  legal,  social  or  technological  restriction”  (Open   Definition)   ¡  “Knowledge”  =   §  1.  Content  (music,  films,  books…)   §  2.  Data  (scientific,  historical,  geographic…)   §  3.  Administrative  information   ¡  Licenses   §  Creative  Commons  licenses  (2002-­‐)   §  GNU  Free  Documentation  License  (2000-­‐2008-­‐)   §  Free  Art  License  (2000-­‐2007-­‐)   §  Etc.  
  • 16. ¡  Open  Data  movement   §  Open  Knowledge  Foundation  (2004-­‐)   §  OK  Festival  (http://okfestival.org/)   ¡  APIs:  freedom  of  ”machine-­‐to-­‐machine”   communication  
  • 17. ¡  Physical  artifacts  that   §  Use  open  source  code   §  Use  standardized  open  protocols   §  Use  standardized  parts   §  Use  other  kinds  of  ”open  design”  principles  (e.g.   crowdsourcing)   ¡  http://www.bunniestudios.com/blog/?p=2686     ¡  E.g.  Arduino  (a  multi-­‐purpose  programmable   circuit  board)   §  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWkUFxItWmU  
  • 18. ¡  ”Information  wants  to  be  free.  Information   also  wants  to  be  expensive.  That  ension  will   not  go  away.”  (Stewart  Brand,  1984?)   §  -­‐>  freedom  of  information  as  right  to  open  access   ¡  ”Free  as  in  free  speech,  not  as  in  free   beer”  (Richard  Stallman)   §  -­‐>  ”Libre/gratis”  distinction  
  • 19. ¡  Licence:  a  legal  framework  for  regulating  the   use  of  networking  commons   ¡  Contractual  -­‐>  does  not  restrict  freedoms   based  on  fundamental  civil  rights  (e.g.  fair   use)   ¡  Main  concern:  balancing  the  economic  rights   of  the  producers,  distributors  and  end-­‐users  
  • 20. Tacit   norms   Institutions  of   self-­‐regulation   Regulation  of  the   networking  infrastructure   Constitutional  rights  
  • 21. WORLD  OF  COPYLEFT   ¡  Knowledge  as  commons   ¡  Legal  enforcement  of  the   open  access  to  the  cultural   artefacts   ¡  Derivative  works  are  also   determined  to  be  copyleft   WORLD  OF  COPYRIGHT   ¡  Propriety  rights   ¡  Legal  enforcement  of  the   private  ownership  of  the   cultural  artefacts   ¡  Relapse  to  the  public   domain  through  expiring   copyright  terms  
  • 22. ¡  Attribution  (by)   §  Rights:  to  copy,  distribute,  display,  and  to  make  derivative   works   §  Obligations:  the  name  of  the  author  and  the  original  work  have   to  be  mentioned,  as  well  as  the  license   ¡  Share-­‐alike  (sa)   §  Derivative  works  shall  have  the  same  license  as  the  original   ¡  Noncommercial  (nc)   §  Prohibits  commercial  use   ¡  No  derivative  works  (nd)   §  Only  identical  copies  /  performances  allowed  
  • 23. ¡  Dmitry  Kleiner:  ”artists  can  not  earn  a  living  from   exclusivity  of  ‘intellectual  property’  and  that  that   neither  copyleft  licenses  like  the  GPL,  nor   "copyjustright"  frameworks  such  as  the  creative   commons,  can  help."     ¡  Peer  Production  Licence   §  only  other  commoners,  cooperatives  and  nonprofits   can  share  and  re-­‐use  the  material,  but  not  commercial   entities  intent  on  making  profit  through  the  commons   without  explicit  reciprocity  
  • 24. ”FREE”  LICENCES   Attribution  (by)   Attribution  +   No-­‐derivatives   (by-­‐nd)   Attribution  +   Share-­‐alike  (by-­‐ sa)   NON-­‐COMMERCIAL  LICENCES   Attribution  +   Noncommercial  (by-­‐ nc)   Attribution  +   Noncommercial  +   No-­‐derivatives  (by-­‐ nc-­‐nd)   Attribution  +   Noncommercial  +   Share-­‐alike  (by-­‐nc-­‐sa)  
  • 25. ¡  peer  (n.)  c.1300,  "an  equal  in  rank  or   status"  (early  13c.  in  Anglo-­‐Latin),  from  Anglo-­‐ French  peir,  Old  French  per  (10c.),  from  Latin  par   "equal”   ¡  par  (n.)  1620s,  "equality,"  also  "value  of  one   currency  in  terms  of  another,"  from  Latin  par   "equal,  equal-­‐sized,  well-­‐matched,"  also  as  a   noun,  "that  which  is  equal,  equality,"  -­‐>  perhaps   from  PIE  root  *pere-­‐  "to  grant,  allot,"  with   suggestion  of  reciprocality   (Online  Etymology  Dictionary)  
  • 26. ¡  Peer  =   §  1.  A  person  who  has  equal  standing  with  another  or   others,  as  in  rank,  class,  or  age:  children  who  are   easily  influenced  by  their  peers.   §  2.   ▪  a.  A  nobleman.   ▪  b.  A  man  who  holds  a  peerage  by  descent  or  appointment.   §  3.  [Archaic]  A  companion;  a  fellow:  "To  stray  away   into  these  forests  drear,/Alone,  without  a  peer"  (John   Keats).   (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/peer)  
  • 27. CENTRALIZED  (SERVER-­‐BASED)   PEER-­‐TO-­‐PEER  
  • 28. ¡  Napster  (1999-­‐)   ¡  BitTorrent  (2001-­‐)   ¡  Internet  (esp.  WWW)  as  a  P2P  network  
  • 29. OPTE  Project  /  Matt  Britt  
  • 30. ¡  Yochai  Benkler  (2006):  commons-­‐based  peer  production   §  Socio-­‐economic  system  of  production   §  Emerges  in  digitally  networked  environment   §  Collaboration  among  large  groups  of  individuals   §  Organized  independently  of  market  pricing  and  managerial   hierarchies   ¡  Michel  Bauwens  (2012):  Peer  production:  ”when  a  pool  of   voluntary  contributors  can  create  commons-­‐oriented   value,  under  conditions  of  participatory  governance,  i.e.   through  the  social,  and  not  market  or  hierarchical,   allocation  of  productive  resources”   ¡  -­‐>  The  Wealth  of  Networks  (Benkler)  -­‐>  a  ”P2P  Society”?  
  • 31. ¡  “Digital  revolution”  through  ICT  &  Internet   §  New  global  opportunities  for  free  self-­‐expression   §  Emergence  of  information-­‐based  economy   §  Inexpensive  and  effective  tools  for  data   processing   ¡  -­‐>  Constitutes  a  new  mode  of  production   (“Networked  Information  Economy”)   ¡  -­‐>  Poses  new  regulatory  challenges  &   struggles    
  • 32. ¡  1.  Peer  production  as  complementary  to  the   market  dynamics   ¡  2.  Peer  production  as  a  pioneer  form  for   building  a  ”peer  society”   ¡  3.  Peer  production  as  a  harmful  illusion   ¡  4.  Peer  production  as  a  double-­‐edged   phenomenon   ¡  (Bauwens  2012:  ”From  the  Theory  of  Peer  Production  to  the  Production  of  Peer  Production  Theory”)    
  • 33. ¡  P2P:  flexible  complementary  to  more   traditional  market  dynamics  (Benkler)   ¡  Lowers  the  transaction  and  coordination   costs  of  production   ¡  Embraces  classic  Liberal  concerns  and  values   (liberty,  equality,  diversity)   ¡  Seeks  to  improve  and  balance  negative   aspects  of  capitalism  
  • 34. ¡  Free  software  as  a  forerunner  for  wider  social   transformation   §  E.g.  the  Oekonux  movement  (Stefan  Meretz,  Christian   Sie{es)   ¡  Peer  production  as  an  autonomous  mode  of  value   creation   ¡  Problems:   §  Commons-­‐based  reproduction  of  human  life  (“wetware”)?   §  New  ways  of  extracting  and  enclosing  value  from  the   common?  
  • 35. ¡  “Peer  production”  as  an  extension  of  capitalism   and  the  market   ¡  New  way  of  distributing  products  and  workforce   -­‐>  increased  productivity   ¡  Real  peer  production  would  require  commonly   owned  stocks  of  physical  “counter-­‐capital”   ¡  E.g.  Dmitry  Kleiner:  venture  communism  
  • 36. ¡  Two  kinds  of  commons:   §  Capitalist  commons:  used  by  the  capital  for  its  self-­‐ reproduction  (against  the  interest  of  the  commoners)   §  Anti-­‐capitalist  commons  produce  “other  values”  that   escape  and  subvert  the  logic  of  the  capital   ¡  -­‐>  a  sharp  antagonism  between  the  “liberal”  and   “anti-­‐capitalist”  commons  projects   ¡  E.g.  George  Caffentzis,  Massimo  de  Angelis  
  • 37. Humilde  Fotero  del  Pánico  /  flickr  /  by-­‐nc  
  • 38. ¡  Bauwens,  Michel.  2012.  “From  the  Theory  of  Peer  Production  to  the  Production  of   Peer  Production  Theory”.  Journal  of  Peer  Production  (1).   http://peerproduction.net/issues/issue-­‐1/invited-­‐comments/from-­‐the-­‐theory-­‐of-­‐ peer-­‐production-­‐to-­‐the-­‐production-­‐of-­‐peer-­‐production-­‐theory/.   ¡  Bauwens,  Michel.  2005.  “The  Political  Economy  of  Peer  Production”.  CTHEORY.   http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=499   ¡  Benkler,  Yochai.  2006.  The  Wealth  of  Networks:  How  Social  Production   Transforms  Markets  and  Freedom.  New  Haven  [Conn.]:  Yale  University  Press.   ¡  Kelty,  Christopher  M.  2008.  Two  Bits:  The  Cultural  Significance  of  Free  Software.   Durham  [N.C.]:  Duke  University  Press.  http://twobits.net/pub/Kelty-­‐TwoBits.pdf     ¡  Pasquinelli,  Matteo.  2008.  Animal  Spirits:  A  Bestiary  of  the  Commons.   Rotterdam:  NAi  Publishers  /  Institute  of  Network  Cultures.