Color-coding Presented by Jugnu Agrawal Gary Hoag at Council of Learning Disabilities October 2008
How did it come into existence
In 1890, N. Dale in his book, "Reading by rainbow and colour story" introduced color as a learning tool.
Gattegno (1966) in his book, Words in Color described the system to use color-coding to teach phonics for the first time.
Color-coding is multisensory.
Color supports learning by scaffolding, clustering, and/or associating with to be remembered content (Lamberski & Dwyer, 1983).
Color-coding can be used as a low-tech method in the classroom.
Color-coding is research based.
Color-coding involves kinesthetic and tactile modalities of learning.
Color is helpful to all types and levels of learners (Winters & Hoats, 1984).
According to Watts & Nisbet, (1974), Colors make the material meaningful and easy to retain, so they serve as a powerful mnemonic device.
Use of color-coding for vowels increases the students ability to learn the spelling of irregularly spelled and non-phonetic words (Turner, 1984).
Color as a visual tool encourages students to use both hemispheres of the brain and aids in learning (Richards, 1984).
"Color-coding helps learners organize or categorize information into useful patterns which enables the learners to interpret and adjust to their environment" (Dwyer& Moore, 1995).
Laws(2002) found that color was a powerful tool for enhancing memory.
In a study of the acquisition of grammar by ESL learners, Wilson (2005) found that "physical manipulation of color-coded elements" was an effective approach for teaching written expression.
Certain colors may be more significant than others in enhancing one's ability to remember. Focal colors (certain colors that are thought by some researchers to have universal or nearly universal appeal) appear to be especially powerful enhancer of memory in tests. (Reiger, Kay, & Cook,2005).
According to Dr. Halberda from John Hopkins University (2006), color plays a major role in catching the attention of people. One can select and attend to up to 70 items at once if they are of the same color. Color-coding helps to keep things organized and simple .
Use color-coding's palette of possibilities! Behavior
Stop and go for behavior
Cool and not cool behavior
Signal good days and bad days on the behavior chart-green spot-good day, red spot- unsuccessful day
Behavior Management tool in the class- Pocket for each student with three colored cards-Green-good behavior; Yellow-warning; red-action taken
Color-coding to check temperature (stressometer)
To teach turn taking to students with autism- one card with green and red side. When student's turn green side, when next student's turn red side up.
Color coding data sheets in a special ed class- LA- red, math-yellow, behavior-green
Back packs of different colors-red for A days, green for B days.
Select a color for each class- Orange=World History, Green=Math,Red=Biology,Yellow=Health or PE , Blue=Geography,Pink=Literature http://homeworktips.about.com/od/homeworkhelp/a/organizecolor.htm
Color-coding on the planner -different colors for different subjects.
While taking notes use color coding for subtopics.
Color coding the calendar to signal number of days left for assignment http://www.practicespot.com/article.phtml?id=114&pid=4
Color code word wall: sight words-one color,decodable words another color. http:// www.education.pitt.edu/leaders/fluency/colorcode.aspx
Teach root words, suffixes, and prefixes.
Using color coding to teach tenses- Past Tense-Red, Present Tense-Yellow,Future Tense-Green
Color-coding to teach comprehension skills-Use cards of different colors for questions-who, what, when, where, and use those to color code the answers while reading the text (Nanci Bell, Visualizing and Verbalizing).
Writing and written expression
Color coded parts of speech
Material: Making the parts of the exercise
1. Colored plastic cards for the overhead projector.
2. Cards for the students in the following colors.
Dwyer, F.M., & Moore, D.M. (1995). Effect of color-coding and test type (visual/ verbal) on students identified as possessing different field dependence levels. Imagery and Visual Literacy,26, 2-8.
Gattegno, C., & Hinman, D.(1966). Words in color - The Morphologico-Algebraic Approach to Teaching Reading". In The Disabled Reader: Education of the Dyslexic Child. Ed. John Money. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins Press, 1966, Ch. 11.
Lamberski, R. J., & Dwyer, E M. (1983). The instructional effect of coding (color and black and white) on information acquisition and retrieval. Educational Communications and Technology Journal, 31(I), 9-21.
Laws, G. (2002). Working memory in children and adolescents with Down Syndrome: evidence from a colour memory experiment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.43 (3), 353.
Learner, Janet W. and Kline, Frank (2006). Learning Disabilities and Related Disorders. Characteristics and Teaching Strategies. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Reiger, T., Kay, P., Cook, R.S. (2005). Focal Colors are universal after all. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, (10) 1073.
Richards, R., G. (1984), Innovationve right brain teaching techniques. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children (62nd Washington, DC, April 23-27).
Winter, J. Jr., & Hoats, D. (1984). Effects of isolation of color on mentally retarted and nonretarted persons recall of printed words. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 89, 310-312.
Watts, L., & Nisbet, J. (1974). Legibility in Children's Books. Windsor, England: NFER.
Wilson. H. "Testing the Covert Method of Grammar Teaching: A Pilot Study." Proceedings of the CATESOL State Conference. (2005).
Turner, A. (1984). Colour-coded vowels and spelling with visual cues in beginning reading. NJ: Kean College of New Jersey. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 244 226)
Johns Hopkins University (2006, July 24). Colors Are Key To Keeping Your Eyes On The Game . ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 11, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2006/1202-tracking_your_team.htm