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World of insects
 

World of insects

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    World of insects World of insects Presentation Transcript

    • World of InsectsWorld of InsectsCharacteristics, Orders, andCharacteristics, Orders, andCollectingCollecting
    • What You Should KnowWhat You Should KnowAbout Insects …About Insects …
    • Taxonomy• Kingdom – Animalia• Phylum – Arthropoda•Class - Insecta
    • Insects Are ArthropodsInsects Are Arthropods• Insects are the largest group ofArthropods• Jointed appendages (bendable)• Segmented bodies• Exoskeleton of Chitin that mustbe molted to grow• Related to spiders, ticks,scorpions, millipedes, crustaceans
    • MAIN CHARACTERISTICSMAIN CHARACTERISTICS• Three body regions– head, thorax, and abdomen• One pair antenna (head)• Six legs or 3 pairs (thorax)• One-two pairs of wings (thorax)
    • Count the Legs!Count the Legs!There are ALWAYS SIXSIX legs, and they areattached to the THORAXTHORAX
    • AntennaAntenna• One Pair on head• Jointed• Sensory (smell)• Called “feelers”• Filiform mostcommon shape(segments = size)• May be modifiedFILIFORM
    • Antenna Modifications
    • Wings or No WingsWings or No Wings• Most adults have 2pairs• Called forewings andhindwings• Some insects arewingless (silverfish,fleas, some termitesand ants)
    • More on WingsMore on WingsA network of Veins strengthens wingsMEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGSMEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGS
    • Some Wings Are CoveredWith Powdery ScalesBUTTERFLIES & MOTHSBUTTERFLIES & MOTHS
    • Wings May Be ModifiedWings May Be Modified• Order Diptera(flies)• 2ndpair of wingsmodified intoHALTERES• Used forbalance• Makes flieshard to catch!
    • Beetle WingsBeetle Wings• Hard Forewing calledElytra• Meet in straight linedown the abdomen• Membranoushindwings foldedunderneath (flight)ELYTRA
    • CIRCLECIRCLE THE INSECTSTHE INSECTS
    • INSECT ORDERSINSECT ORDERSINSECTS WITH WINGSINSECTS WITH WINGS
    • Why Can’t I Call All of ThemWhy Can’t I Call All of ThemBugs?Bugs?• EVERY BUGEVERY BUG is aninsect, but NOT ALLNOT ALLINSECTSINSECTS are bugs!• True BUGS are in theOrder HEMIPTERAHEMIPTERA• Posterior thorax isPosterior thorax istriangulartriangular; called; calledSCUTELLUMSCUTELLUM• Last 3Last 3rdrdof wing CLEARof wing CLEAR
    • Which of these are BUGS?Which of these are BUGS?ALLALL
    • More HemipteransAssassin BugAssassin BugGiant WaterGiant WaterBugBug Leaf HopperLeaf HopperWater BoatmanWater Boatman
    • ColeopteraColeoptera• Called beetlesbeetles• Toughexoskeletonexoskeleton• Forewingscalled ElytraElytra•Fly withmembranoushindwings•Larva calledgrubsRhinoceros beetleRhinoceros beetleCucumber beetleCucumber beetleLadybird beetleLadybird beetle
    • Ephemeroptera• Called MayfliesMayflies• Juveniles areaquaticaquatic; called naiadsnaiads• Adults found nearAdults found nearwater &water & don’t feeddon’t feed• Adults reproduce &Adults reproduce &die in 24 hoursdie in 24 hours• SoftSoft bodies with 2bodies with 2longlong CeriCeri (tail fibers)(tail fibers)ADULTNAIAD
    • Diptera• Containsmosquitoesmosquitoes &fliesflies• One pairOne pairfunctional wings• Club-shapedhaltereshalteres forbalance• Bodies oftenhairyhairyGreen Bottle flyGreen Bottle fly Hover FlyHover FlyFruit Fly Aedes MosquitoAedes Mosquito
    • Dermaptera• Called earwigsearwigs• Long, flatflat bodies• ForcepsForceps (pincers)on end of abdomen• Short, hardShort, hardforewingsforewings(membranous wingsfolded underneath• Large jaws(mandiblesmandibles) on headEARWIG EATINGEARWIG EATINGCATERPILLARCATERPILLARPINCERS
    • Orthoptera• Grasshoppers, locusts,Grasshoppers, locusts,crickets, katydidscrickets, katydids• Very longlong bodies• Rear legs modified forjumpingjumping• Females with egglaying tube (ovipositoron end of abdomen)• Often communicatewith chirping sounds
    • Lepidoptera• Moths, butterflies, &Moths, butterflies, &skippersskippers• SiphoningSiphoning mouthpartscoiled under head• Powdery scalesPowdery scales on wings• Butterflies fold wingsflatflat above body at rest• MothsMoths are night activenight active• Important plantpollinators
    • Neuroptera• LacewingsLacewings• Net veinedNet veined wings• Small, delicateinsects• Long antennaLong antenna• Predators onother insects• May feed onnectar
    • Thysanoptera• ThripsThrips• Two pairs of fringed wingsfringed wings• Feed on plant sapplant sap
    • Isoptera• TermitesTermites• Live in coloniescolonies• Feed on woodwood• Soft bodiesSoft bodies &short antenna• CastesCastes –workers,soldiers, kings,and queen
    • Mecoptera• Scorpion fliesScorpion flies• Last abdominalabdominalsegments curvedsegments curved likescorpion• Two pairs of narrownarrowwingswings• Head elongated intoa beak (rostrum)beak (rostrum)• LongLong antenna
    • Homoptera• Cicadas, leafCicadas, leafhoppers, winglesshoppers, winglessaphidsaphids• If wings present,held roof likeroof likeover body &membranousmembranous• Piercing-suckingPiercing-suckingmouthpartsAphidsCicadaLeafhopper
    • Odonata• Dragonflies &Dragonflies &damselfliesdamselflies• DragonfliesDragonflies holdclear wings spreadperpendicularperpendicular tobody at rest• DamselfliesDamselflies holdclear wings togethertogetherover abdomenover abdomen
    • Plecoptera• StonefliesStoneflies• Aquatic nymphsAquatic nymphs• Aerial adultsadults areshort livedshort lived• Make drummingdrummingsoundsound to findmates
    • Hymenoptera• Bees, ants,Bees, ants,waspswasps• Narrow waiNarrow waistconnects thorax& abdomen• Abdomen curvedAbdomen curveddownward• May have stingerstingeron end ofabdomenCarpenter beeRedantYellow jacket
    • INSECT ORDERSINSECT ORDERSWINGLESS INSECTSWINGLESS INSECTS
    • ThysanuraThysanura• Called Silverfish• Found around houses oroutside under stonesor wood• Fast runners• Damage books• Secretive and activeat night.• Flat, long bodies• Long antennae• Three, long, tail likeappendages
    • SiphonapteraSiphonaptera• FleasFleas• EctoparasitesEctoparasites• Bodies laterallycompressed• Enlarged hindhindjumping legsjumping legs• Very shortantenna
    • Collembola• Called springtailsspringtails• Small & softbodied• FurculaFurcula (jumpingmechanism) onabdomen• Furcula folds underfolds underthe bodythe body at rest• Found in decayingdecayingplant materialplant material
    • Anoplura• Sucking liceSucking lice• ParasitesParasites ofmammals• Very smallsmall• HeadHead and bodybodylicelice areexamples• Attracted tochildren’s finehair• Carry disease
    • Mallophaga• Biting liceBiting lice• Externalparasites on birdsbirds& mammals& mammals• Broad headBroad head &flattened body• Feed on deadskin, feathers,and fur
    • MetamorphosisMetamorphosisCHANGE IN FORM FROM EGG TO ADULTCHANGE IN FORM FROM EGG TO ADULT
    • IncompleteINCOMPLETEINCOMPLETEMETAMORPHOUSMETAMORPHOUSInsects changeshape gradually!
    • CompleteCompleteMetamorphosisMetamorphosisFour stages thatall look different
    • Amorphic InsectsAmorphic InsectsSpringtailsSpringtailsSilverfishSilverfish
    • Insects withInsects with CompleteCompleteMetamorphosisMetamorphosis• ColeopteraColeoptera (beetles)• HymenopteraHymenoptera (bees,ants, wasps)• DipteraDiptera (flies)LepidopteraLepidoptera(butterflies)EGGEGG  LARVALARVA  PUPAPUPA  ADULTADULT
    • Insects withInsects with IncompleteIncompleteMetamorphosisMetamorphosis• SiphonapteraSiphonaptera (fleas)• IsopteraIsoptera (termites)• OrthopteraOrthoptera(grasshoppers &crickets)• HemipteraHemiptera (true bugs)• HomopteraHomoptera (cicadas &hoppers)EGGEGG  NYMPHNYMPH  ADULTADULTWings NOTfullydeveloped