Skeletal system 2
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  • 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 5 The Skeletal System
  • 2. The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System Slide 5.1Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Parts of the skeletal system • Bones (skeleton) • Joints • Cartilages • Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle) • Divided into two divisions • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle
  • 3. Functions of BonesFunctions of Bones Slide 5.2Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Support of the body • Protection of soft organs • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Storage of minerals and fats • Blood cell formation
  • 4. Bones of the Human BodyBones of the Human Body Slide 5.3Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The skeleton has 206 bones • Two basic types of bone tissue •Compact bone • Homogeneous •Spongy bone • Small needle-like pieces of bone • Many open spaces Figure 5.2b
  • 5. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.4aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Long bones •Typically longer than wide •Have a shaft with heads at both ends •Contain mostly compact bone • Examples: Femur, humerus
  • 6. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.4bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Short bones •Generally cube-shape •Contain mostly spongy bone •Examples: Carpals, tarsals
  • 7. Classification of Bones on theClassification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape Slide 5.4cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.1
  • 8. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.5aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Flat bones •Thin and flattened •Usually curved •Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone •Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum
  • 9. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.5bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Irregular bones •Irregular shape •Do not fit into other bone classification categories •Example: Vertebrae and hip
  • 10. Classification of Bones on theClassification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape Slide 5.5cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.1
  • 11. Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneGross Anatomy of a Long Bone Slide 5.6Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Diaphysis •Shaft •Composed of compact bone • Epiphysis •Ends of the bone •Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a
  • 12. Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone Slide 5.7Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Periosteum • Outside covering of the diaphysis • Fibrous connective tissue membrane • Sharpey’s fibers • Secure periosteum to underlying bone • Arteries • Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c
  • 13. Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone Slide 5.8aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articular cartilage •Covers the external surface of the epiphyses •Made of hyaline cartilage •Decreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2a
  • 14. Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone Slide 5.8bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Medullary cavity •Cavity of the shaft •Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults •Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2a
  • 15. Bone Markings - Page 119Bone Markings - Page 119 Slide 5.9Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Surface features of bones • Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments • Passages for nerves and blood vessels • Categories of bone markings • Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface • Depressions or cavities – indentations
  • 16. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Osteon (Haversian System) • A unit of bone • Central (Haversian) canal • Opening in the center of an osteon • Carries blood vessels and nerves • Perforating (Volkman’s) canal • Canal perpendicular to the central canal • Carries blood vessels and nerves
  • 17. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.3
  • 18. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Lacunae • Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) • Arranged in concentric rings • Lamellae • Rings around the central canal • Sites of lacunae Figure 5.3
  • 19. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Canaliculi •Tiny canals •Radiate from the central canal to lacunae •Form a transport system Figure 5.3
  • 20. Changes in the Human SkeletonChanges in the Human Skeleton Slide 5.12Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage • During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone • Cartilage remains in isolated areas • Bridge of the nose • Parts of ribs • Joints
  • 21. Bone GrowthBone Growth SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood •New cartilage is continuously formed •Older cartilage becomes ossified •Cartilage is broken down •Bone replaces cartilage
  • 22. Bone GrowthBone Growth SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops •Bones change shape somewhat •Bones grow in width
  • 23. Long Bone Formation and GrowthLong Bone Formation and Growth SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.4a
  • 24. Types of Bone CellsTypes of Bone Cells Slide 5.15Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Osteocytes • Mature bone cells • Osteoblasts • Bone-forming cells • Osteoclasts • Bone-destroying cells • Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium • Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  • 25. Bone FracturesBone Fractures Slide 5.16Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • A break in a bone • Types of bone fractures • Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin • Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin • Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization • Realignment of the bone
  • 26. Common Types of FracturesCommon Types of Fractures Slide 5.17Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 5.2
  • 27. Repair of Bone FracturesRepair of Bone Fractures Slide 5.18Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed • Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus • Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus • Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
  • 28. Stages in the Healing of a BoneStages in the Healing of a Bone FractureFracture Slide 5.19Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.5
  • 29. The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Forms the longitudinal part of the body • Divided into three parts •Skull •Vertebral column •Bony thorax
  • 30. The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6
  • 31. The SkullThe Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Two sets of bones •Cranium •Facial bones • Bones are joined by sutures • Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint
  • 32. The SkullThe Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.7
  • 33. Bones of the SkullBones of the Skull Slide 5.22Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.11
  • 34. Human Skull, Superior ViewHuman Skull, Superior View Slide 5.23Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.8
  • 35. Human Skull, Inferior ViewHuman Skull, Inferior View Slide 5.24Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.9
  • 36. Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity Figure 5.10
  • 37. Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Functions of paranasal sinuses • Lighten the skull • Give resonance and amplification to voice Figure 5.10
  • 38. The Hyoid BoneThe Hyoid Bone Slide 5.26Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The only bone that does not articulate with another bone • Serves as a moveable base for the tongue Figure 5.12
  • 39. The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length Figure 5.13
  • 40. The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Fontanelles – fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones • Allow the brain to grow • Convert to bone within 24 months after birth Figure 5.13
  • 41. The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral Column Slide 5.28Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs • The spine has a normal curvature • Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14
  • 42. Structure of a Typical VertebraeStructure of a Typical Vertebrae Slide 5.29Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.16
  • 43. The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Forms a cage to protect major organs Figure 5.19a
  • 44. The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Made-up of three parts •Sternum •Ribs •Thoracic vertebrae Figure 5.19a
  • 45. The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Limbs (appendages) • Pectoral girdle • Pelvic girdle
  • 46. The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6c
  • 47. The Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleThe Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Slide 5.33Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Composed of two bones •Clavicle – collarbone •Scapula – shoulder blade • These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement
  • 48. Bones of the Shoulder GirdleBones of the Shoulder Girdle SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.20a, b
  • 49. Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The arm is formed by a single bone •Humerus Figure 5.21a, b
  • 50. Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The forearm has two bones • Ulna • Radius Figure 5.21c
  • 51. Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.36Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The hand •Carpals – wrist •Metacarpals – palm •Phalanges – fingers Figure 5.22
  • 52. Bones of the Pelvic GirdleBones of the Pelvic Girdle Slide 5.37Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Hip bones • Composed of three pair of fused bones • Ilium • Ischium • Pubic bone • The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis • Protects several organs • Reproductive organs • Urinary bladder • Part of the large intestine
  • 53. The PelvisThe Pelvis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23a
  • 54. Gender Differences of the PelvisGender Differences of the Pelvis Slide 5.39Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23c
  • 55. Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The thigh has one bone •Femur – thigh bone Figure 5.35a, b
  • 56. Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The leg has two bones •Tibia •Fibula Figure 5.35c
  • 57. Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.41Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The foot •Tarsus – ankle •Metatarsals – sole •Phalanges – toes Figure 5.25
  • 58. JointsJoints Slide 5.43Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articulations of bones • Functions of joints •Hold bones together •Allow for mobility • Ways joints are classified •Functionally •Structurally
  • 59. Functional Classification of JointsFunctional Classification of Joints Slide 5.44Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Synarthroses – immovable joints • Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints • Diarthroses – freely moveable joints
  • 60. Structural Classification of JointsStructural Classification of Joints Slide 5.45Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Fibrous joints •Generally immovable • Cartilaginous joints •Immovable or slightly moveable • Synovial joints •Freely moveable
  • 61. Fibrous JointsFibrous Joints Slide 5.46Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bones united by fibrous tissue – synarthrosis or largely immovable. Figure 5.27d, e
  • 62. Cartilaginous Joints – mostlyCartilaginous Joints – mostly amphiarthrosisamphiarthrosis Slide 5.47Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bones connected by cartilage • Examples •Pubic symphysis •Intervertebral joints Figure 5.27b, c
  • 63. Synovial JointsSynovial Joints Slide 5.48Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity • Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity Figure 5.27f–h
  • 64. Features of Synovial Joints-Features of Synovial Joints- DiarthrosesDiarthroses Slide 5.49Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones • Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule • Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid • Ligaments reinforce the joint
  • 65. Structures Associated with theStructures Associated with the Synovial JointSynovial Joint Slide 5.50Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bursae – flattened fibrous sacs • Lined with synovial membranes • Filled with synovial fluid • Not actually part of the joint • Tendon sheath • Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
  • 66. The Synovial JointThe Synovial Joint Slide 5.51Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.28
  • 67. Types of Synovial Joints Based onTypes of Synovial Joints Based on ShapeShape SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29a–c
  • 68. Types of Synovial Joints Based onTypes of Synovial Joints Based on ShapeShape SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29d–f
  • 69. Inflammatory ConditionsInflammatory Conditions Associated with JointsAssociated with Joints Slide 5.53Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction • Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths • Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints • Over 100 different types • The most widespread crippling disease in the United States
  • 70. Clinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of Arthritis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Osteoarthritis • Most common chronic arthritis • Probably related to normal aging processes • Rheumatoid arthritis • An autoimmune disease – the immune system attacks the joints • Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints • Often leads to deformities
  • 71. Clinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of Arthritis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Gouty Arthritis •Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of urate crystals from the blood •Can usually be controlled with diet