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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Seventh ...
The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System
Slide 5.1Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
•...
Functions of BonesFunctions of Bones
Slide 5.2Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• S...
Bones of the Human BodyBones of the Human Body
Slide 5.3Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cu...
Classification of BonesClassification of Bones
Slide 5.4aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin C...
Classification of BonesClassification of Bones
Slide 5.4bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin C...
Classification of Bones on theClassification of Bones on the
Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape
Slide 5.4cCopyright © 2003 Pears...
Classification of BonesClassification of Bones
Slide 5.5aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin C...
Classification of BonesClassification of Bones
Slide 5.5bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin C...
Classification of Bones on theClassification of Bones on the
Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape
Slide 5.5cCopyright © 2003 Pears...
Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneGross Anatomy of a Long Bone
Slide 5.6Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as B...
Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone
Slide 5.7Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone
Slide 5.8aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone
Slide 5.8bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Bone Markings - Page 119Bone Markings - Page 119
Slide 5.9Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin ...
Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Changes in the Human SkeletonChanges in the Human Skeleton
Slide 5.12Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing a...
Bone GrowthBone Growth
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Epiphyseal plates a...
Bone GrowthBone Growth
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Bones are remodeled...
Long Bone Formation and GrowthLong Bone Formation and Growth
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as B...
Types of Bone CellsTypes of Bone Cells
Slide 5.15Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
...
Bone FracturesBone Fractures
Slide 5.16Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• A break ...
Common Types of FracturesCommon Types of Fractures
Slide 5.17Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjam...
Repair of Bone FracturesRepair of Bone Fractures
Slide 5.18Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin...
Stages in the Healing of a BoneStages in the Healing of a Bone
FractureFracture
Slide 5.19Copyright © 2003 Pearson Educati...
The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Forms...
The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure ...
The SkullThe Skull
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Two sets of bones
•Cran...
The SkullThe Skull
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 5.7
Bones of the SkullBones of the Skull
Slide 5.22Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fi...
Human Skull, Superior ViewHuman Skull, Superior View
Slide 5.23Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benj...
Human Skull, Inferior ViewHuman Skull, Inferior View
Slide 5.24Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benj...
Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Hollow ...
Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Functio...
The Hyoid BoneThe Hyoid Bone
Slide 5.26Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The only...
The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The fetal s...
The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Fontanelles...
The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral Column
Slide 5.28Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cumming...
Structure of a Typical VertebraeStructure of a Typical Vertebrae
Slide 5.29Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publis...
The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Forms a
cag...
The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Made-up of
...
The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cu...
The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cu...
The Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleThe Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Slide 5.33Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing...
Bones of the Shoulder GirdleBones of the Shoulder Girdle
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benja...
Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummin...
Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummin...
Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb
Slide 5.36Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin C...
Bones of the Pelvic GirdleBones of the Pelvic Girdle
Slide 5.37Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benj...
The PelvisThe Pelvis
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 5.23a
Gender Differences of the PelvisGender Differences of the Pelvis
Slide 5.39Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publis...
Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cumm...
Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cumm...
Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs
Slide 5.41Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin...
JointsJoints
Slide 5.43Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Articulations of bones
•...
Functional Classification of JointsFunctional Classification of Joints
Slide 5.44Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. ...
Structural Classification of JointsStructural Classification of Joints
Slide 5.45Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. ...
Fibrous JointsFibrous Joints
Slide 5.46Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Bones un...
Cartilaginous Joints – mostlyCartilaginous Joints – mostly
amphiarthrosisamphiarthrosis
Slide 5.47Copyright © 2003 Pearson...
Synovial JointsSynovial Joints
Slide 5.48Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Articu...
Features of Synovial Joints-Features of Synovial Joints-
DiarthrosesDiarthroses
Slide 5.49Copyright © 2003 Pearson Educati...
Structures Associated with theStructures Associated with the
Synovial JointSynovial Joint
Slide 5.50Copyright © 2003 Pears...
The Synovial JointThe Synovial Joint
Slide 5.51Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fi...
Types of Synovial Joints Based onTypes of Synovial Joints Based on
ShapeShape
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc...
Types of Synovial Joints Based onTypes of Synovial Joints Based on
ShapeShape
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc...
Inflammatory ConditionsInflammatory Conditions
Associated with JointsAssociated with Joints
Slide 5.53Copyright © 2003 Pea...
Clinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of Arthritis
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Clinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of Arthritis
SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjami...
Skeletal system 2
Skeletal system 2
Skeletal system 2
Skeletal system 2
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Transcript of "Skeletal system 2"

  1. 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 5 The Skeletal System
  2. 2. The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System Slide 5.1Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Parts of the skeletal system • Bones (skeleton) • Joints • Cartilages • Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle) • Divided into two divisions • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle
  3. 3. Functions of BonesFunctions of Bones Slide 5.2Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Support of the body • Protection of soft organs • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Storage of minerals and fats • Blood cell formation
  4. 4. Bones of the Human BodyBones of the Human Body Slide 5.3Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The skeleton has 206 bones • Two basic types of bone tissue •Compact bone • Homogeneous •Spongy bone • Small needle-like pieces of bone • Many open spaces Figure 5.2b
  5. 5. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.4aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Long bones •Typically longer than wide •Have a shaft with heads at both ends •Contain mostly compact bone • Examples: Femur, humerus
  6. 6. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.4bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Short bones •Generally cube-shape •Contain mostly spongy bone •Examples: Carpals, tarsals
  7. 7. Classification of Bones on theClassification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape Slide 5.4cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.1
  8. 8. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.5aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Flat bones •Thin and flattened •Usually curved •Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone •Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum
  9. 9. Classification of BonesClassification of Bones Slide 5.5bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Irregular bones •Irregular shape •Do not fit into other bone classification categories •Example: Vertebrae and hip
  10. 10. Classification of Bones on theClassification of Bones on the Basis of ShapeBasis of Shape Slide 5.5cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.1
  11. 11. Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneGross Anatomy of a Long Bone Slide 5.6Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Diaphysis •Shaft •Composed of compact bone • Epiphysis •Ends of the bone •Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a
  12. 12. Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone Slide 5.7Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Periosteum • Outside covering of the diaphysis • Fibrous connective tissue membrane • Sharpey’s fibers • Secure periosteum to underlying bone • Arteries • Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c
  13. 13. Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone Slide 5.8aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articular cartilage •Covers the external surface of the epiphyses •Made of hyaline cartilage •Decreases friction at joint surfaces Figure 5.2a
  14. 14. Structures of a Long BoneStructures of a Long Bone Slide 5.8bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Medullary cavity •Cavity of the shaft •Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults •Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Figure 5.2a
  15. 15. Bone Markings - Page 119Bone Markings - Page 119 Slide 5.9Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Surface features of bones • Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments • Passages for nerves and blood vessels • Categories of bone markings • Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface • Depressions or cavities – indentations
  16. 16. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Osteon (Haversian System) • A unit of bone • Central (Haversian) canal • Opening in the center of an osteon • Carries blood vessels and nerves • Perforating (Volkman’s) canal • Canal perpendicular to the central canal • Carries blood vessels and nerves
  17. 17. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.3
  18. 18. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Lacunae • Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) • Arranged in concentric rings • Lamellae • Rings around the central canal • Sites of lacunae Figure 5.3
  19. 19. Microscopic Anatomy of BoneMicroscopic Anatomy of Bone SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Canaliculi •Tiny canals •Radiate from the central canal to lacunae •Form a transport system Figure 5.3
  20. 20. Changes in the Human SkeletonChanges in the Human Skeleton Slide 5.12Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage • During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone • Cartilage remains in isolated areas • Bridge of the nose • Parts of ribs • Joints
  21. 21. Bone GrowthBone Growth SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood •New cartilage is continuously formed •Older cartilage becomes ossified •Cartilage is broken down •Bone replaces cartilage
  22. 22. Bone GrowthBone Growth SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops •Bones change shape somewhat •Bones grow in width
  23. 23. Long Bone Formation and GrowthLong Bone Formation and Growth SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.4a
  24. 24. Types of Bone CellsTypes of Bone Cells Slide 5.15Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Osteocytes • Mature bone cells • Osteoblasts • Bone-forming cells • Osteoclasts • Bone-destroying cells • Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium • Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  25. 25. Bone FracturesBone Fractures Slide 5.16Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • A break in a bone • Types of bone fractures • Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin • Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin • Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization • Realignment of the bone
  26. 26. Common Types of FracturesCommon Types of Fractures Slide 5.17Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 5.2
  27. 27. Repair of Bone FracturesRepair of Bone Fractures Slide 5.18Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed • Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus • Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus • Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
  28. 28. Stages in the Healing of a BoneStages in the Healing of a Bone FractureFracture Slide 5.19Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.5
  29. 29. The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Forms the longitudinal part of the body • Divided into three parts •Skull •Vertebral column •Bony thorax
  30. 30. The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6
  31. 31. The SkullThe Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Two sets of bones •Cranium •Facial bones • Bones are joined by sutures • Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint
  32. 32. The SkullThe Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.7
  33. 33. Bones of the SkullBones of the Skull Slide 5.22Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.11
  34. 34. Human Skull, Superior ViewHuman Skull, Superior View Slide 5.23Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.8
  35. 35. Human Skull, Inferior ViewHuman Skull, Inferior View Slide 5.24Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.9
  36. 36. Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity Figure 5.10
  37. 37. Paranasal SinusesParanasal Sinuses SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Functions of paranasal sinuses • Lighten the skull • Give resonance and amplification to voice Figure 5.10
  38. 38. The Hyoid BoneThe Hyoid Bone Slide 5.26Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The only bone that does not articulate with another bone • Serves as a moveable base for the tongue Figure 5.12
  39. 39. The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length Figure 5.13
  40. 40. The Fetal SkullThe Fetal Skull SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Fontanelles – fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones • Allow the brain to grow • Convert to bone within 24 months after birth Figure 5.13
  41. 41. The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral Column Slide 5.28Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs • The spine has a normal curvature • Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14
  42. 42. Structure of a Typical VertebraeStructure of a Typical Vertebrae Slide 5.29Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.16
  43. 43. The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Forms a cage to protect major organs Figure 5.19a
  44. 44. The Bony ThoraxThe Bony Thorax SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Made-up of three parts •Sternum •Ribs •Thoracic vertebrae Figure 5.19a
  45. 45. The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Limbs (appendages) • Pectoral girdle • Pelvic girdle
  46. 46. The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6c
  47. 47. The Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleThe Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Slide 5.33Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Composed of two bones •Clavicle – collarbone •Scapula – shoulder blade • These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement
  48. 48. Bones of the Shoulder GirdleBones of the Shoulder Girdle SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.20a, b
  49. 49. Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The arm is formed by a single bone •Humerus Figure 5.21a, b
  50. 50. Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The forearm has two bones • Ulna • Radius Figure 5.21c
  51. 51. Bones of the Upper LimbBones of the Upper Limb Slide 5.36Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The hand •Carpals – wrist •Metacarpals – palm •Phalanges – fingers Figure 5.22
  52. 52. Bones of the Pelvic GirdleBones of the Pelvic Girdle Slide 5.37Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Hip bones • Composed of three pair of fused bones • Ilium • Ischium • Pubic bone • The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis • Protects several organs • Reproductive organs • Urinary bladder • Part of the large intestine
  53. 53. The PelvisThe Pelvis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23a
  54. 54. Gender Differences of the PelvisGender Differences of the Pelvis Slide 5.39Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23c
  55. 55. Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The thigh has one bone •Femur – thigh bone Figure 5.35a, b
  56. 56. Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The leg has two bones •Tibia •Fibula Figure 5.35c
  57. 57. Bones of the Lower LimbsBones of the Lower Limbs Slide 5.41Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The foot •Tarsus – ankle •Metatarsals – sole •Phalanges – toes Figure 5.25
  58. 58. JointsJoints Slide 5.43Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articulations of bones • Functions of joints •Hold bones together •Allow for mobility • Ways joints are classified •Functionally •Structurally
  59. 59. Functional Classification of JointsFunctional Classification of Joints Slide 5.44Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Synarthroses – immovable joints • Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints • Diarthroses – freely moveable joints
  60. 60. Structural Classification of JointsStructural Classification of Joints Slide 5.45Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Fibrous joints •Generally immovable • Cartilaginous joints •Immovable or slightly moveable • Synovial joints •Freely moveable
  61. 61. Fibrous JointsFibrous Joints Slide 5.46Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bones united by fibrous tissue – synarthrosis or largely immovable. Figure 5.27d, e
  62. 62. Cartilaginous Joints – mostlyCartilaginous Joints – mostly amphiarthrosisamphiarthrosis Slide 5.47Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bones connected by cartilage • Examples •Pubic symphysis •Intervertebral joints Figure 5.27b, c
  63. 63. Synovial JointsSynovial Joints Slide 5.48Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity • Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity Figure 5.27f–h
  64. 64. Features of Synovial Joints-Features of Synovial Joints- DiarthrosesDiarthroses Slide 5.49Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones • Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule • Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid • Ligaments reinforce the joint
  65. 65. Structures Associated with theStructures Associated with the Synovial JointSynovial Joint Slide 5.50Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bursae – flattened fibrous sacs • Lined with synovial membranes • Filled with synovial fluid • Not actually part of the joint • Tendon sheath • Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
  66. 66. The Synovial JointThe Synovial Joint Slide 5.51Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.28
  67. 67. Types of Synovial Joints Based onTypes of Synovial Joints Based on ShapeShape SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29a–c
  68. 68. Types of Synovial Joints Based onTypes of Synovial Joints Based on ShapeShape SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.29d–f
  69. 69. Inflammatory ConditionsInflammatory Conditions Associated with JointsAssociated with Joints Slide 5.53Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction • Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths • Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints • Over 100 different types • The most widespread crippling disease in the United States
  70. 70. Clinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of Arthritis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Osteoarthritis • Most common chronic arthritis • Probably related to normal aging processes • Rheumatoid arthritis • An autoimmune disease – the immune system attacks the joints • Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints • Often leads to deformities
  71. 71. Clinical Forms of ArthritisClinical Forms of Arthritis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Gouty Arthritis •Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of urate crystals from the blood •Can usually be controlled with diet
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