Cell Structure

1
Cell Theory
•

•

•

All organisms are composed of one or more
cells.
Cells are the smallest living units of all living
or...
•

•

•

Cell Characteristics
Genetic material
– single circular molecule of DNA in
prokaryotes
– double helix located in ...
Generalized Eukaryotic Cell

4
Cell Size
•

Most cells are relatively small because as
size increases, volume increases much
more rapidly.
– longer diffu...
Visualizing Cells
•

Resolution - minimum distance two points
can be apart and still be distinguished as
two separate poin...
Visualizing Cells

7
Prokaryotic Cells
•

Simplest organisms
– Cytoplasm is surrounded by plasma membrane and
encased in a rigid cell wall comp...
Prokaryotic Cells
•

Some use flagellum for locomotion
– threadlike structures protruding from cell
surface
Bacterial cell...
Eukaryotic Cells
•

Characterized by compartmentalization by
an endomembrane system, and the
presence of membrane-bound or...
11
12
•
•
•

•

Nucleus
Repository for genetic material
Directs activities of the cell
Usually single, some cells several, RBC n...
Nucleus

14
Chromosomes
•

DNA of eukaryotes is divided into linear
chromosomes.
– exist as strands of chromatin, except
during cell d...
•

Endomembrane System
Compartmentalizes cell, channeling
passage of molecules through cell’s interior.
– Endoplasmic reti...
Endoplasmic reticulum
•
•
•

•
•

•

Largest internal membrane
Composed of Lipid bilayer
Serves as system of channels from...
•

Endomembrane System
Golgi apparatus
–

collection of Golgi bodies
 collect, package, and distribute molecules
synthesi...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cisternae
cis face
Proteins
...
Endomembrane System
•

Vesicles
– Lysosomes - membrane-bound vesicles
containing digestive enzymes – from Golgi
– Microbod...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cytoplasm

Endoplasmic
retic...
Ribosomes
•

Ribosomes are RNA-protein complexes
composed of two subunits that join and
attach to messenger RNA.
– site of...
Organelles With DNA
•

•

Mitochondria
– bounded by exterior and interior
membranes
– interior partitioned by cristae
Chlo...
Mitochondria
A. "Powerhouse of the cell" - cellular
metabolism
B. Structure- outer and inner membranes,
cristae
C. Have th...
Chloroplasts
•Chloroplasts are larger and more complex than
mitochondria
•Grana – closed compartments of stacked membranes...
Endosymbiosis
•

Endosymbiotic theory suggests engulfed
prokaryotes provided hosts with advantages
associated with special...
Theory of Endosymbiosis

27
Evidence for the endosymbiont theory is that
mitochondria and chloroplasts:
- Are appropriate size to be descendants of eu...
Cytoskeleton
•

Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and
anchoring organelles
– Actin filaments
Microtubules
 ...
Cytoskeleton

30
Plant Cells
•

•

Central vacuole
– often found in the center of a plant, and
serves as a storage facility for water and
o...
Plant Cell

32
Animal Cells
•

Animal cells lack cell walls.
– form extracellular matrix
 provides support, strength, and resilience

33
34
35
36
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Cell structure

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Cell structure

  1. 1. Cell Structure 1
  2. 2. Cell Theory • • • All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the smallest living units of all living organisms. Cells arise only by division of a previously existing cell. 2
  3. 3. • • • Cell Characteristics Genetic material – single circular molecule of DNA in prokaryotes – double helix located in nucleus in eukaryotes – nuclear envelope (double membrane Cytoplasm fills cell interior – Phospholipid – sugars, amino acids, – proteins - organelles Plasma membrane encloses – the cell – phospholipid bilayer Membrane proteins 3
  4. 4. Generalized Eukaryotic Cell 4
  5. 5. Cell Size • Most cells are relatively small because as size increases, volume increases much more rapidly. – longer diffusion time 5
  6. 6. Visualizing Cells • Resolution - minimum distance two points can be apart and still be distinguished as two separate points – Compound microscopes - magnify in stages using multiple lenses – Transmission electron microscope electrons transmitted through specimen – Scanning electron microscope - electrons beamed onto surface of the specimen 6
  7. 7. Visualizing Cells 7
  8. 8. Prokaryotic Cells • Simplest organisms – Cytoplasm is surrounded by plasma membrane and encased in a rigid cell wall composed of peptidoglycan.  no distinct interior compartments  gram-positive – thick single layer wall that retains a violet dye from Gram stain procedure  gram-negative – multilayered wall does not retain dye  Susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics depends on cell wall structure. 8
  9. 9. Prokaryotic Cells • Some use flagellum for locomotion – threadlike structures protruding from cell surface Bacterial cell wall Rotary motor Flagellin Sheath 9
  10. 10. Eukaryotic Cells • Characterized by compartmentalization by an endomembrane system, and the presence of membrane-bound organelles. – Central vacuole – plants, storage – Vesicles (smaller) – Chromosomes - DNA and protein – Cytoskeleton (internal protein scaffolding) – Cell walls – plants and fungi 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. • • • • Nucleus Repository for genetic material Directs activities of the cell Usually single, some cells several, RBC none – Nucleolus - region of intensive ribosomal RNA synthesis Surface of nucleus bound by two phospholipid bilayer membranes – nuclear membrane – Nuclear pores – protein gatekeepers  Usually proteins going in and RNA going out 13
  14. 14. Nucleus 14
  15. 15. Chromosomes • DNA of eukaryotes is divided into linear chromosomes. – exist as strands of chromatin, except during cell division – associated with packaging histones, packaging proteins  nucleosomes 15
  16. 16. • Endomembrane System Compartmentalizes cell, channeling passage of molecules through cell’s interior. – Endoplasmic reticulum  Rough ER - studded with ribosomes  Smooth ER - few ribosomes 16
  17. 17. Endoplasmic reticulum • • • • • • Largest internal membrane Composed of Lipid bilayer Serves as system of channels from the nucleus Functions in storage and secretion Rough ER is “rough” because of associated ribosomes (sites of protein synthesis Smooth ER - lack associated ribosomes – contained embedded enzymes, catalyze synthesis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules 17
  18. 18. • Endomembrane System Golgi apparatus – collection of Golgi bodies  collect, package, and distribute molecules synthesized at one location in the cell and utilized at another location  Front - cis , Back – trans  Cisternae – stacked membrane folds 18
  19. 19. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cisternae cis face Proteins trans face Golgi apparatus Transport vesicle Protein Vesicle Migrating budding transport from rough vesicle endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome Fusion of vesicle with Golgi apparatus 19
  20. 20. Endomembrane System • Vesicles – Lysosomes - membrane-bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes – from Golgi – Microbodies - enzyme-bearing, membrane-enclosed vesicles.  Peroxisomes - contain enzymes that catalyze the removal of electrons and associated hydrogen atoms  Peroxisome – named for hydrogen peroxide produced as a by-product  Enzyme breaks down to water and oxygen 20
  21. 21. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Phagocytosis Food vesicle Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Plasma membrane Extracellular fluid Digestion of phagocytized food particles or cells Transport vesicle Old or damaged organelle Breakdown of old organelle 21
  22. 22. Ribosomes • Ribosomes are RNA-protein complexes composed of two subunits that join and attach to messenger RNA. – site of protein synthesis – assembled in nucleoli 22
  23. 23. Organelles With DNA • • Mitochondria – bounded by exterior and interior membranes – interior partitioned by cristae Chloroplasts – have enclosed internal compartments of stacked grana, containing thylakoids – found in photosynthetic organisms 23
  24. 24. Mitochondria A. "Powerhouse of the cell" - cellular metabolism B. Structure- outer and inner membranes, cristae C. Have their own DNA 24
  25. 25. Chloroplasts •Chloroplasts are larger and more complex than mitochondria •Grana – closed compartments of stacked membranes •Thylakoids – disc shaped structure – light capturing pigment •Stroma – fluid matrix 25
  26. 26. Endosymbiosis • Endosymbiotic theory suggests engulfed prokaryotes provided hosts with advantages associated with specialized metabolic activities. 26
  27. 27. Theory of Endosymbiosis 27
  28. 28. Evidence for the endosymbiont theory is that mitochondria and chloroplasts: - Are appropriate size to be descendants of eubacteria. - Have inner membranes similar to those on prokaryotic plasma membranes. - Replicate by splitting, as in prokaryotes. - DNA is circular and different from the DNA of the cell's nucleus. - Contain their own components for DNA transcription and translation into proteins . - Have ribosomes similar to prokaryotic ribosomes. - Molecular systematics lend evidence to support this theory. - Many extant organisms are involved in endosymbiotic relationships. 28
  29. 29. Cytoskeleton • Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring organelles – Actin filaments Microtubules  cell movement – Microtubules Intermediate  Hollow tubes filaments  Facilitate cell movement  Centrioles – barrel shaped  organelles occur in pairs –  help assemble animal cell’s microtubules Actin – Intermediate filaments  Stable - don’t break down 29
  30. 30. Cytoskeleton 30
  31. 31. Plant Cells • • Central vacuole – often found in the center of a plant, and serves as a storage facility for water and other materials Cell wall – primary walls – laid down while cell is growing – middle lamella – glues cells together – secondary walls – inside the primary cell walls after growth 31
  32. 32. Plant Cell 32
  33. 33. Animal Cells • Animal cells lack cell walls. – form extracellular matrix  provides support, strength, and resilience 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36

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