In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements of the Course
Philosophy II: Ethics
KEIZEN DANICA S. ARNADO
JUFFER DENN C. BORNALES
JENNIFER T. CAÑETE
COLEEN MONIQUE GALON
SUNSHINE JADE A. LUNA
RACHEL MAE RECIO
MR. JIOLITO BENITEZ
March 19, 2013
Lie. A three letter word that can make or break a life. Although doomed, lying is an
act that has become a common behavior. Through ages lying had grown so natural to people —
an avoidable part of human nature. The Oxford dictionary defines a lie as "an intentionally false
statement used in order to deceive". I should say, this definition is inaccurate. A lie
communicates information, believing it to be untrue, which is intended to deceive or mislead.
What makes a lie a lie is that the liar intends to decieve the person they are lying to by providing
them an information, but I believe that the information use to mislead need not be false with bad
People lie for a reason. And there are many reasons why people lie. A lie comes in
many forms and variations depending on the situation it is to be used in. A lie may be intended
to accomplish something; it may be geared towards sparing other people’s feelings; it may be to
disguise the oft-humiliating fact that we do not know the truth or can’t remember it; it may be
fallacious conclusions or extrapolations based on true assumptions or statements; or, it may
conceal or remove true information and thus mislead others. Whatever these are, one thing is
certain, we lie to cover up the truth because we are afraid that it might produce hazard.
Whether traversing an action to get away from castigation or insinuate an erroneous
statement to induce or beguile, lying is still an art, in which if mastered, can be a very useful tool
in life. It is functional because lies are used for many different purposes. But regardless of the
situation, yes, lying can be an effective escape but the consequences of getting caught may
sometimes be more detrimental than its worth. The aftermath of a lie brings about malevolence
in the lives of both the person who lied and he who is lied to.
No matter what nature lie has a lie will remain to be a basic moral wrong. It diminishes
trust between people and breed chained problems. Once caught, people will never trust you. If
they do, you will still be remembered the liar that you are for you had created your image in the
minds of people the kind of person you are. To make matters worse is that people might also
loose their respect for you. And that is why we should always weigh things first before
performing an action.
God's will alone decides what is right and wrong and human reason has no authority. God has
absolute authority. All humans could do is to accept and respond to God's revelation of what is
right and wrong. So, there are ten commandments of God, one of those commandments states
that "Thou shall not bear false witness against thy neighbor. If we are going to focus on the ten
commandments of God, telling lies is not good in the eyes of God.
Consequentialists assess the rightness or wrongness of doing something by looking at the
consequences caused by that act. So if telling a particular lie produces a better result than not
telling it, then telling it would be a good thing to do. And if telling a particular lie produces a
worse result than not telling it, telling it would be a bad thing to do.
These two forms of Utilitarianism could lead to different results: An act-Utilitarian might say
that telling a lie in a particular case did lead to the best results for everyone involved and for
society as a whole, while a rule-Utilitarian might argue that since lying made society a less
happy place, it was wrong to tell lies, even in this particular case.
In the viewpoint of situation ethics, lie is a moral act if the reason why you are lying is love. It
means that when are lying because of love, then a lie would be morally right. Fletcher says that
we are under obligation to tell the truth only if the situation demands it, but we are to love in all
situations. For Fletcher, whatever is the loving thing to do is the right thing to do. In situation
ethics, even if you are doing things unlovingly, then it is wrong, but if you do things, even if
wrong such as lying, lovingly then it is right.
Deontologists don't always agree on how we arrive at 'moral laws', or on what such laws are, but
one generally accepted moral law is 'do not tell lies'.
And if that is the law then lying is always wrong - even if telling the truth would produce far
better consequences: so if I lie to a Nazi who knocks on my door and asks me if there's any Jews
in my house when you have 20 of them in your attic, and so to save their lives, I have in fact
done wrong, because I broke the rule that says lying is wrong.
Most of us would accept that an unbreakable rule against lying would be unworkable, but a more
sophisticated rule (perhaps one with a list of exceptions) might be something we could live with.
Prima Facie Duties
In the perspective of Prima Facie Duties, lie is always wrong especially when it causes harm to
others. Although Ross believes that in all situations you have the first duty which is not to lie,
but if this(situation) action can prevent harm and promote welfare of the others, then lie is not
wrong because the Prima Facie Duties are only obligatory except when overridden by other