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Thematic Unit done by Mrs. Judy FloresPART ONEBEFORE READINGDiscuss these questions:Look at the picture what do you think is happening?How many hours does a human being sleep?Do you remember your dreams? Recall a nightmare you have had recently?Guiding Your Sleep While You’re Awake (LucidDreaming)By SARAH KERSHAWBefore Reading learn about the title of this unit 1
Thematic Unit done by Mrs. Judy FloresLucid dreaming means dreaming while knowing that you are dreaming. Theterm was coined by Frederik van Eeden who used the word "lucid" in the senseof mental clarity. Lucidity usually begins in the midst of a dream when thedreamer realizes that the experience is not occurring in physical reality, but isa dream. Often this realization is triggered by the dreamer noticing someimpossible or unlikely occurrence in the dream, such as flying or meeting thedeceased. Sometimes people become lucid without noticing any particular cluein the dream; they just suddenly realize they are in a dream. A minority oflucid dreams (according to the research of LaBerge and colleagues, about 10percent) are the result of returning to REM (dreaming) sleep directly from anawakening with unbroken reflective consciousness.http://www.lucidity.com/LucidDreamingFAQ2.html#LD(1)Nightmares resulting from traumatic events usually fade over time, as the hauntingimages and terrifying plots become less intense. The dreams may also naturally evolveinto what some specialists call “mastery dreams,” in which the dreamer has found a wayto ease the pain or horror say, confronting a rapist or saving someone from a fire.(2) But when that does not happen of its own accord, many therapists use behavioralinterventions to reduce nightmares or guide the waking patient toward having a masterydream using the conscious mind to control the wild ways of the unconscious.(3) Some of these techniques have been in use for years. In one treatment, known as luciddreaming, patients are taught to become aware that they are dreaming while the dreamis in progress. In another, called in vivo desensitization, they are exposed while awake towhat may be haunting them in their sleep for example, a live snake, caged and harmlessuntil the fear subsides. Both techniques have been researched extensively.(4)More recently, therapists and other experts have been using a technique called dreamincubation, first researched in the early 1990s by Deirdre Barrett, a psychologist atHarvard Medical School.(5) And Hollywood has just produced its own spin on lucid dreaming and the idea ofcontrolling dreams, with the release earlier this month of “Inception,” a thriller whoseplot swirls through the darkest layers of the dream world. As Dr. Barrett wrote in anonline review of “Inception,” for the International Association for the Study of Dreams,“I love the idea of millions of action-film fans the world over leaving theaters askingeach other if they’re ever had a dream in which they knew they were dreaming orwhipping out their smartphones and Googling to find out if you really can learn toinfluence dream content.”(6) Using dream incubation for problem solving, Dr. Barrett, the author of “TheCommittee of Sleep,” which expanded on her initial research, asks patients to write down 2
Thematic Unit done by Mrs. Judy Floresa problem as a brief phrase or sentence and place the note next to the bed. Then she tellsthem to review the problem for a few minutes before going to bed, and once in bed,visualize the problem as a concrete image, if possible.(7) As they are drifting off to sleep, the patients should tell themselves they want todream about the problem and ideally keep a pen and paper, and perhaps a flashlight or apen with a lit tip, on the night table. No matter what time they wake up, they should liequietly before getting out of bed, note whether there is “any trace of a recalled dream andinvite more of the dream to return if possible.” They should write down everything theyremember.(8)For reducing nightmares, she helps patients devise a mastery scenario to work with,and they can remind themselves of it as they fall asleep, saying to themselves, “Tonight ifI have the dream of the fire, of Vietnam, I want to find a fire hose, freeze the action,speak to the Vietnamese boy,” She said.(9)Dr. Barry Krakow of the Maimonides Sleep Arts and Sciences center in Albuquerqueand the author of “Sound Sleep, Sound Mind,” helped develop imagery rehearsaltherapy. In a 110-page manual he gives his patients, he has them select a nightmare theywant to transform into a dream of lesser intensity.(10) “Change the nightmare any way you wish,” the manual says. “Let new positiveimages emerge in your mind’s eye to guide you in ‘painting’ your new dream.”(11) Patients then rehearse the new dream, which could be a less haunting version of thenightmare or a completely different dream, at least once a day for 10 or 20 minutes. Hesuggests recalling a nightmare only once or twice a week and only when changing it intoa new dream.AFTER READINGA. Comprehension check1. What is lucid dreaming?2. Why do you think people want to lucid dream?3. Why are therapists using this technique?4. How can people who practice lucid dreams change their dreams? Explain5. Can Lucid dreamers create adventurous dreams or overcome their nightmares.6. What is the author’s point of view? Is she against lucid dreaming or in favor? Where inthe reading does it suggest she is in favor or against lucid dreaming? 3
Thematic Unit done by Mrs. Judy FloresB. Vocabulary BuildingChoose the definition that fits the context in which the word is used.nightmares(1) haunting(1) evolved(1) ease(1) unconscious(2).lucid dreaming(3) aware(3) desensitization(3) harmless(3) subside(3).whipping(5) visualize (6). drifting(7) trace(7) devise(8) hose(8) imagery(9) emerge(10)1. ________________is a new technique used by patients that have some traumaticissues.2. When they saw me I could not speak; I had been knocked __________________theday before and my throat was damaged.3. The memory of my mothers death is still__________________.4. _______________________may be upsetting, but they are not "real" and cant harmyou.5. Take this aspirin and the pain will ______________________within a few minutes.6. There is a possibility that we humans _____________from some form of apes.7. To reduce nightmares, doctors help patients _____________a mastery scenario towork with8. You can ___________________the pain in your leg by taking medicine.9. When you are sleeping you are not ________________of your surroundingsOnce you have worked10. Have dreamers ever had a dream in which they knew they were dreaming or_______________out their smartphones and Googling to find out if you really can learnto influence dream content.11. "This movie in effect may resensitize people who thought they were ____________toviolence.12. In the research that the University of Philadelphia is currently doing related to dreamsin the U.S, some interesting results will ________________from the finding of this study13. Don’t use a ___________pipe to wash your car, use a bucket with water instead.14. A cat is not a voracious animal, they are __________________little animals.15. I _________________myself in the future working as a doctor in a luxurious hospitalthat has my name on it.16. Some institutions that help patients with their dreams developed a_________________rehearsal therapy.17. Martha is constantly _____________________the logs downstream.18. The FBI can ____________________a phone call to a location within 10 meters.C. Reinforce vocabulary Look back at the text where the word is written Match thewords to the definition. Write the correct letter on the lines. Use a dictionary ifnecessary1. nightmares(1) a. come out2. haunting(1) b. a plan,3. evolve(1) c. move from one state to another4. ease(1) d. images descriptions5. unconscious(2). e. a comfortable and leisured state free from worries, 4
Thematic Unit done by Mrs. Judy Flores problems, and restrictions.6. lucid dreaming(3) f. piece of tubing that is used to move water or liquids7. aware(3) g. settle, to become less active or intense8. desensitization(3) h. see in your minds eyes, image in you mind of something9. harmless(3) i. conscious alert10. subside(3). j. to make somebody less responsive to an overwhelming fear11. whipping(5) k. evidence or an indication of the former presence or existence of something12. visualize (6). l. unaware13. drifting(7) m. develop, change14. trace(7) n. a dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming15. devise(8) o. something scary that can not be forgotten16. hose(8) p. frightening dreams17. imagery(9) q, not dangerous18. emerge(10) r. beating, poundingD. Main IdeaLook back at the reading find a sentence in the first paragraph that can give you an ideaof what the reading is about.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________E. Past Present and Future tenseRead each sentence. Then write the tense in which the sentence is written (past,present, or future) on the line. The first one has been done for you.1. The dreams are develop into what some specialists call “masterydreams._____________________________2. Many therapists use behavioral interventions to reduce nightmares.______________________________3. One important treatment is known as lucid dreaming.4. Lucid dreams was an old technique used by ancient people._______________________________5. She tells them to review the problem for a few minutes before going to bed.________________________________6. Hollywood had produced a spin on lucid dreaming.________________________________7. He suggests recalling a nightmare only once or twice a week and only when changingit into a new dream. ------------------------------------------------ 5