• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Agriculture Studies - Wet Rice Cultivation
 

Agriculture Studies - Wet Rice Cultivation

on

  • 2,241 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,241
Views on SlideShare
2,214
Embed Views
27

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
44
Comments
1

1 Embed 27

http://www.beirainformation.com 27

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • Informative & interesting!
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Ans: 9 months
  • See Video on Sri Lanka
  • This is the most back breaking part as each seedling has to be planted BY HAND. See video on transplanting rice seedlings.
  • This is the most back breaking part as each seedling has to be planted BY HAND.
  • See: http://www.riceromp.com/teachers/lessonContent.cfm?pId=19The idea that rice needs to be grown in water is a misconception. However, rice is almost always grown in water filled fields, called paddies. While not required, there are benefits to the rice plant when grown in such conditions. Rice fields flood more easily than other row crop fields, because rice is grown in clay soils. Water does not readily drain through clay soil. Most other crops will not grow in this type of soil. An advantage of this growing condition is weed control. Major plant cell functions like elongation and multiplication require oxygen. Flooded fields have less available oxygen for plant roots. This prevents the germination and growth of weeds that would compete with the rice plant for nutrients and sunlight in the field.Standing water is also a deterrent to insects that threaten rice such as the army worm and chinch bug. Standing water also offers a kind of temperature control for the crop. Anyone who lives near a body of water knows that water temperature changes more slowly than land temperature. So, on hot days the water filled fields keep the rice cool, and then warm it on cool nights. Standing water also helps in preventing excessive salt accumulation and the soil depletion. The interesting thing about rice is not that it grows in flooded fields, but that it can tolerate flooded conditions. Rice plant leaves and the stems contain a series of internal air tunnels that funnel air down to the roots. In this way it is similar to aquatic plants. One third of the rice plant needs to be above water for this mechanism to work. Rice that is totally under water will die. That is why the water level is carefully monitored and controlled in rice fields.

Agriculture Studies - Wet Rice Cultivation Agriculture Studies - Wet Rice Cultivation Presentation Transcript

  • Wet Rice Cultivation Unit 10, 2B Textbook
  • Recap: Intro to Agriculture • When and why did agriculture come about? • How did it impact human populations?
  • Early humans used to live a nomadic lifestyle. They would hunt and gather food for a living. It was hard work and it made it difficult for our numbers to grow. 15,000 years ago
  • Eventually, many of these ‘banded societies’ grew tired of moving around and decided to stay and settle down.
  • Impact on humans… The advent of agriculture started:  the formation of permanent human settlements,  the domestication of animals  the use of metal tools for the first time in history  trade and cooperation  division of labour, class and social status
  • Agriculture…  …is the most important trigger for the building of human civilization  Today, 2.5 billion people are still employed in the agricultural sector!  1/3 of all land on Earth is used for agricultural purposes!
  • RECAP: SHIFTING CULTIVATION
  • Shifting cultivation  Also known and slash-and-burn  A type of farming in which small plots of land are cleared and razed to grow crops.  Traditionally small in scale and subsistence in nature
  • Shifting Cultivation  However…  …big timber companies are now using this practice to cut costs  Plots of land are now being razed on a much LARGER SCALE  As a result, fires are harder to contain, leading to problems such as HAZE and widespread habitat destruction
  • Wet Rice Cultivation Unit 10, 2B Textbook
  • Objectives today  Analyse the distribution of rice consumption around the world  Understand the challenges faced by farmers in growing rice to feed the world’s population today  Recognize the impact of wet rice cultivation on the environment  Investigate the future of rice cultivation through the case study of Thailand
  • Most important food?  Most widely consumed source of food in the world  Second-highest worldwide production, after corn  Intrinsic to Asian culture and identity  Over 3 billion Asians consume rice on a daily basis
  • Chinese
  • Philippines
  • Japan
  • India
  • “Our ability to produce enough rice will determine the future of this world”
  • Key Terms  Wet Rice Cultivation:  The process of growing rice on flooded fields  Double Cropping:  The process of harvesting two yields of crops in a year
  • WHERE IS RICE MOST WIDELY CONSUMED?
  • GLOBAL RICE CONSUMPTION ASIA
  • GLOBAL RICE PRODUCTION
  • WHERE DOES SINGAPORE GET MOST ITS RICE FROM?
  • GLOBAL RICE PRODUCTION With the exception of Thailand, most of the countries listed here grow rice mainly for subsistence.
  • THE PROCESS OF GROWING RICE
  • REQUIREMENTS: Physical  Climate  Abundant rainfall (rice is a semiaquatic plant)  High Temperatures above 25 C  Terrain  Soil must be ‘clayey’ (as it can retain water)  Flat land/terraces (so that water does not runoff)  Floodplains and deltas Human  High manual labour  To help sow and transplant the seeds  Water buffaloes/ machines  To help plough the fields  Others  Fertilizers
  • From the fields to your table… How long does it take for a grain of rice to get from the farmer’s field to your table?
  • Cycle Of Activities (~9 months) 1. Ploughing, preparing main fields 2. Sowing nursery 3. Transplanting to main field 4. Irrigating, Fertilizing, Weeding 5. Harvesting
  • Stage 1: Ploughing the field to loosen the soil and bring fresh nutrients to the surface. This usually occurs in before the start of the rainy season.
  • Stage 2: At the same time, the seeds are sown in separate nursery to protect the young rice stalks from pests and diseases, as well as wait for the rains to come.
  • Stage 3: After 2 – 3 months, the young seeds are then transplanted to the main fields. By now, the rainy season would have started.
  • Stage 4: Monitoring the water level, irrigating and fertilizing the soil. This will last for about another 2 – 3 months.
  • Stage 5: The stalks will change from green to gold in colour when they are ready. Harvesting begins. This usually takes place at the start of the dry season.
  • Quick Qn: Why does rice grow better in flooded fields? Won’t it die?!
  • Ans:  Rice is semiaquatic – its roots and stems have air tunnels  Flooded fields help to prevent weeds and pests from growing.  However, the stalk cannot be completely submerged or the plant will still die.
  • Japanese Rice Field Art Festival!
  • Every year, farmers in the rural town Inakadate, Japan, come together to create fields of art by seeding rice of different colours (light green, dark green and red) in complicated patterns. Behold…
  • Quick Check  Analyse the distribution of rice consumption around the world   Understand the challenges faced by farmers in growing rice to feed the world’s population today   Recognize the impact of wet rice cultivation on the environment  Investigate the future of rice cultivation through the case study of Thailand
  • WHAT ARE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF W.R.C.?
  • Environmental Impacts of WRC • Over-cultivation = soils become infertile = decrease in yields • Excessive use of fertilizers/pesticides = pollute water supplies in rivers and kill river animals • If not properly tended, the stalks can rot = release methane which contributes to global warming
  • HOW ARE FARMERS IN THAILAND ADAPTING?
  • Case Study: Thailand  Grown for subsistence and as a cash crop  The world’s biggest exporter of rice  High output due to:  Highly favorable climate  Large population  Favorable terrain with numerous rivers and floodplains
  • Case Study: Thailand  Problems:  Increased frequency of flooding  rains are getting unpredictable and more severe  Growing population  but yields are not increasing = food shortages  Majority of the best farmland held by a few wealthy landowners  poorer farm labourers have no land at all  ‘pay’ rent by either working for free or giving up to 60% of their harvest to the landlord
  • Case Study: Thailand  Problems:  Land Parcelling = lower yields per farmer 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation
  • Case Study: Thailand  In order to compete with the rest of the world, farmers are now using  …more fertilisers, tractors and mechanised ploughs to increase their yields.  …high-yielding rice seeds which can grow faster, allowing double or even treble cropping.
  • People who obtain most of their calories from rice are at risk of vitamin A deficiency. German and Swiss researchers have genetically engineered rice to produce vitamin A, in the rice kernel. The beta-carotene turns the processed (white) rice a "gold" color, hence the name "golden rice."
  • Case Study: Thailand  The government is also helping by…  …providing fertilizer subsidies and equipment loans to farmers  …building irrigation canals to farms further inland  …fixing the minimum price at which the rice is bought from local farmers  Currently at US$485/metric ton
  • In Summary What is it? What are the inputs? What are the problems - Growing rice on flooded land - Grown for subsistence and for cash - High rainfall - Clayey soil - Flat land - Lots of labourers - Need to buy machines - Overuse of fertilizers - Species destruction - Global warming and declining yields.