Class 9
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Class 9

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Class 9 Class 9 Presentation Transcript

  • Class 9 The Ramayana
  • Religions of India: Buddhism Buddhism arose in the 6th-5th centuries B.C. in eastern North India at a time of growing discontent with the dominance of sacrificial orthodoxy. Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha believed that human problems were brought about by cravings and the belief in an eternal soul. His message of the eightfold path, which leads to Nirvana, the extinction of craving and the dissolution of the individual, spread along trade routes in India, travelling through Central Asia to China and Japan.
  • Religions of India: Hinduism Hinduism denotes the group of religious traditions that developed by stages from the Vedic religion brought into India by the Aryans. The Hindu hero is loyal to dharma or righteous behavior. Suffering or sorrow are part of human life and must be endured.
  • Major Hindu deities: Vishnu
  • Vishnu The peace-loving deity of the Hindu Trinity, Vishnu is the Preserver or Sustainer of life with his steadfast principles of order, righteousness and truth. When these values are under threat, Vishnu emerges out of his transcendence to restore peace and order on earth. Vishnu’s earthly incarnations have 10 major avatars. The devout followers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavas, and his consort is Lakshmi. Vishnu is popularly worshipped as Lord Venkateshwara in the southern India.
  • Shiva
  • Shiva The most powerful and fascinating deity in Hinduism, who represents death and dissolution. One of the godheads in the Hindu Trinity, and known by many names Mahadeva, Pashupati, Nataraja, Vishwanath, Bhole Nath - Shiva is perhaps the most complex of Hindu deities. Hindus recognize this by putting his shrine in the temple separate from those of other deities and worshipping Shiva as a phallic symbol called the ‘Shiva Limgam’ in most temples.
  • Lakshmi
  • Lakshmi Goddess Lakshmi means "Good Luck" to Hindus. The word 'Lakshmi' is derived from the Sanskrit word Laksya, meaning 'aim' or 'goal', and she is the goddess of wealth and prosperity, both material and spiritual. She is the household goddess of most Hindu families, and a favorite of women. Lakshmi is depicted as a beautiful woman of golden complexion, with four hands, sitting or standing on a full-bloomed lotus and holding a lotus bud, which stands for beauty, purity and fertility.
  • Krishna The great exponent of the Gita, Krishna is the ninth and the most complete avatar of Vishnu, the Godhead of the Hindu Trinity. Of all avatars he is the most popular and perhaps the one closest to the heart of the masses. This blue-skinned deity has influenced the Indian thought, life and culture in myriad ways - not only its religion and philosophy, but also into its mysticism and literature, painting and sculpture, dance and music, and all aspects of Indian folklore.
  • Rama and Sita
  • Rama Rama, the perfect avatar of the Supreme Protector Vishnu, is an all-time favorite among Hindu deities. The most popular symbol of chivalry and virtue, Rama is “the embodiment of truth, of morality, the ideal son, the ideal husband, and above all, the ideal king." He is widely believed to be an actual historical figure - a "tribal hero of ancient India" - whose exploits form the great Hindu epic of Ramayana or The Romance of Rama
  • Sita Goddess Sita is regarded as the daughter of ‘Bhudevi’ or Mother Earth since she arose from the earth and was found in a plough field. The king of Mithila, Janaka was overjoyed to find a baby in his field and brought her up with great love and care. One of her names is therefore Janaki. This Goddess is taken to be an incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi. Goddess Sita is worshipped for her ideal womanly virtues and she stands before all Hindu women as a model of wifely attributes. Though she was subjected to intense suffering in her life, she always bore it with a cheerful countenance and this is what her followers are supposed to inculcate from her.
  • Hanuman
  • Hanuman Hanuman, the mighty ape that aided Lord Rama in his expedition against evil forces, described in the epic Ramayana, is one of the most popular idols in the Hindu pantheon. Believed to be an avatar of Lord Shiva, Hanuman is worshipped as a symbol of physical strength, perseverance and devotion. In times of trouble, it is a common faith among Hindus to chant the name of Hanuman or sing his hymn - "Hanuman Chalisa". Hanuman temples are among the most common public shrines found in India.
  • Group Presentations
  • Homework Read Rosenberg: pp. 324-326 The Creation of the Universe and Human Beings pg. 326-328 Nu Kua pp. 328-329 P’an Ku pp. 330-333 Chi Li Slays the Serpent pp. 355-356 The Creation of Human Beings pg. 356-358 The Creation of New Zealand pp. 361-365 The Taming of the Sun pp. 335-338 Amateratsu