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  • Research organized in three categories
  • OTL, the opportunity to learn, coined by Marzano Simply put, if students are not given the opportunity to learn, there is little chance they will
  • On slide
  • Schools must facilitate the flow of communication to and from school Communication doesn't occur automatically Use of phone calls, internet communication, home visits and parent-teacher conferences is suggested. Parents and community members should be a part of the governance of the school.
  • On slide
  • On slide
  • Marzano provides and extensive list of instructional strategies in the book…
  • Effective teacher can strike a healthy balance between rewards and consequences. School should have an approach that supports the classroom environment.
  • 3 principles of learning: Leaning is enhanced when a teacher identifies specific types of knowledge as the focus of a lesson Learning requires student engagement in structure tasks to allow for effective transfer of knowledge. Learning requires multiple exposures and interaction with knowledge.
  • Negative effects from home atmosphere can be overcome. Suggests a series of courses can be offered to parents in a variety of topics to support eh family in developing and maintaining a positive home atmosphere.
  • Schools can engage in enhancing background knowledge directly through out-of-class experiences such as field trips and indirectly by combining programs of wide reading and vocabulary instruction.
  • Reciprocal is true...no motivation, no learning Those who desire success will not find challenges as obstacles Other who engage in avoidance of failure behaviors find the simplest tasks threatening. Suggests the altering of the competitive classroom, engaging students in long term projects to encourage ownership and provide students with information about motivation and training techniques to control their motivation.
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  • If research is used, we can be in the 'best of times' in education…and it is our responsibility as professional educators to make this the era of educational reform the 'age of wisdom, not foolishness.'

What works in schools marzano book review What works in schools marzano book review Presentation Transcript

  • What Works In Schools Translating Research into Action A Book Review Robert J. Marzano Reviewer: Judi Emerson
  • It was the best of times; it was the worst of times. Charles Dickens
  • Factors Affecting Student Achievement
    • 3 Levels
    • School
    • Teacher
    • Student
  • School Level
    • Guaranteed and viable curriculum
    • Intended, implemented and attained
    • Provide students with OTL
    • The challenge for schools is to identify the essential content from published curricula, sequence it appropriately and address it in a timely manner.
  • School Level
    • Challenging goals and effective feedback
    • Goals must be specific and formative
    • The research gives clear evidence that "the most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback."
    • (Hattie, 1992)
  • School Level
    • Parent and community involvement
    • Communication, participation and governance.
    • Schools should establish multiple ways for parents and community members to be involved in the day-to-day running of the school.
  • School Level
    • Safe and orderly environment
    • Rules and procedures established
    • Appropriate consequences
    • Teaching self-discipline
    • A system of detecting at-risk behavior is a positive step in providing an effective environment for all.
  • School Level
    • Collegiality and professionalism
    • Professional interaction
    • Collaboration in a congenial manner
    • Schools should establish norms of professional conduct, allow teacher involvement in decisions, and engage teachers in meaningful staff development.
  • Teacher Level
    • Instructional strategies
    • Teachers should be provided with instructional framework that employs research-based strategies.
    • Expert teachers have more strategies at their disposal than ineffective teachers.
    • Teachers have greater impact on student achievement than all school level factors combined.
  • Teacher Level
    • Classroom management
    • Establishing and enforcing rules and procedures/healthy balance
    • Carrying out disciplinary actions
    • Maintaining teacher/student relationships
    • Emotional objectivity is important to classroom dynamics.
  • Teacher Level
    • Classroom Curriculum Design
    • Breakdown in student learning is correlated to poor curriculum design
    • Principles of learning grounded in curriculum design
    • Teachers must ensure students have multiple exposures to content and be engaged in complex tasks.
  • Student Level
    • Home atmosphere
    • Not related to socio-economic status
    • Positive communication, guardian supervision, parental expectations
    • There is little a school can do to affect the private confounds of the home.
  • Student Level
    • Learned intelligence and background knowledge
    • Crystallized intelligence: facts, generalizations, principles (academic)
    • Fluid intelligence: innate, abstract thinking
    • Background knowledge is directly related to learned intelligence and achievement.
  • Student Level
    • Motivation
    • Striving for success vs. the fear of failure.
    • Directly related to achievement
    • Concept of self plays a strong role
    • Motivation has a straightforward relation to achievement.
  • Implementation of the Marzano Design
    • Phase I - Examine current status of school
    • Phase II - Identify and implement interventions
    • Phase III - Examine the effect on achievement through data collection
    • Phase IV - Repeat the process
  • Leadership
    • Must exist at all three levels
    • The foundation for change
    • Should be carried out by a small group of educators
    • Provide guidance and respect
  • 35 Years of Research… "…it was the age of wisdom; it was the age of foolishness." Charles Dickens
  • Marzano, Robert J., (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.