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Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
Weather systems
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Weather systems

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  • 1. Weather systems • Product of air mass characteristics • - and upper air influence • jetstream ( polar, - especially polar) • Violent weather: tornado, hurricanes • /
  • 2. Mid latitude wave cyclone • 1. Most common system in our region • 2. Here storms move from west to east • 3. Pattern looks like an ocean wave • 4. Components: • warm front, cold front, open system. Ends with an occluded front
  • 3. MID LATITUDE WAVE CYCLONE
  • 4. STORM SYSTEMS
  • 5. Ferrel & Ballots Law • Ferrel discovered the pattern of windflow associated with pressure gradients. • Buys Ballot clarified this with an example – “Sailors Law” In the Northern Hemisphere if you stand with your back to the wind where two pressure systems abut – then the low pressure is on the left hand side.
  • 6. Ballot’s Law
  • 7. thunderstorm
  • 8. microbursts • 1 mile in extent • Winds up to 150-200 miles per hour • Hazard to aviation • Caused by sudden evaporation of fallen precipitation ( or sudden contact with cold air) – cools the air and gives it a burst of speed ( down and divergent flow)
  • 9. Microburst ( opposite of a tornado)
  • 10. Photo - microburst
  • 11. Hurricanes • Where: Develop over oceans 5-30 degrees from equator. • Stages: Easterly flow ( convergence) • Trop. Disturbance: unorganized • Trop. Depression organize( 39mph winds) • Hurricane 75+ mph winds
  • 12. Hurricane facts • Called cyclone in India/Australia, • N. & S. Pacific typhoon • Philippines Baguio • Same type of storm • - Seasons. Atlantic May-Nov. • S. Hemis. Nov- May
  • 13. Areas of impact
  • 14. Descriptions • Extremely low pressure ( record 870 mb) • usually ~950 mb. • Effective energy conversion- takes water from ocean surface, evaporates it rapidly – • latent energy released when forced upwards and condenses ( think vacuum cleaner) • Anatomy: eye, eyewall, bands of outer clouds – creates a storm surge. can last for weeks, extend over 300 miles
  • 15. Hurricane Floyd - 1999
  • 16. Hurricane Scales • Saffir-Simpson • 1 75-95 mph • 2 96-110 • 3 111-130 • 4 130-155 • 5 155+
  • 17. Tornado • Land based storm • Lowest air pressure on record • Average speed of winds ( 100 mph) • Size from a few feet to a mile or more • Occur where warm and cold air meet • Last only a few seconds to a few minutes • Devastating impacts
  • 18. Fujita-Pearson Scale • Based on 3 second bursts as measured by damage to categories of structures & natural features • Began use in February 2007 • EF 0 – winds 65-85 • 1 86-110 4- 166-200 • 2 111-135 5- 200+ • 3 136-165
  • 19. Seasonal Tornado activity • 1. Southern tier ( tornado alley) late winter and early spring • 2. Midwest & plains - spring to summer • ( heat/cold & migrating jet stream)3. Tornadoes can happen anywhere at any time ( within the limits of colliding air masses) and have been expanding incidence worldwide in the past decade •
  • 20. Tornado families
  • 21. F3 tornado, Moore, Ok. 1999
  • 22. Topeka, Ka. 1966 – F5 TORNADO DAMAGE
  • 23. North American air masses
  • 24. Weather, prediction • Maps NOAA http://www.nws.noaa.gov/outlook_tab.php • Methods: Consistency, seasonality, averages, sensors & modeling
  • 25. Climate • It’s as easy as abc(de) • Koppen classification • based on suitability for agriculture ( moisture( seasonal) & temperature)- the best proxy for climate is latitude/continentality • A= tropical-& rainy ( over 64degreesF) • B- dry no permanent surface streams
  • 26. Climate cont. • C. Mild, humid ( summer & winter seasons) –coldest mo under 60 deg, but above 26 degrees, • Summer over 50 degrees • D. Cold snowy forest ( microthermal) • summer above 50, winter below 26 degrees • E. Polar- avg temp in summer below 50 degrees
  • 27. Climate (3) • H- highland cooler than surrounding flatlands • - 3 letter classifications • 1st letter based on temperature • 2nd letter is season of dryness( or moisture related) • 3rd letter more detailed temperature
  • 28. Climate influences/ Regions • 1. Latitude – most influence • 2. Continentality – coastal/inland influences • 3. Elevation • 4. temperature ( also influences moisture) • 5. cycles ( seasons) • temperature zones • Precipitation zones ( isohyets)
  • 29. Koppen map • http://www.uwmc.uwc.edu/geography/100/ koppen_web/koppen_map.htm
  • 30. Precipitation patterns • Wet equatorial • Trade winds) 25-30 N/S east coast wet, warm ( E. Brazil • Dry west coasts( you are here • Midlatitude deserts & steppes ( inland & rain shadow) Mojave • Moist subtropical ( 25-45 degrees N/S Miami • Midlatitude west coasts ( 35-65 n/s) westerly winds & wet San Francisco
  • 31. Climate regions- A
  • 32. Climate region B- Kelso Dunes
  • 33. Climate C
  • 34. Climate d- Boreal forest
  • 35. Climate ET
  • 36. EF - arctic harp seal
  • 37. Climate relevance • 1. Physical setting for all plant, animal and human behavior – limits of living things are largely related to temperature - • 2. Relatively unchanging for millions of years – but changes with cycles of Earth’s location and orientation ( orbital and axia • l shifts) • 3 Range of temperatures for humans
  • 38. Human narrow comfort zone • Homeothermic • Maintains core temperature above average environment temp. • Normal 37 C (98.6) • Lower limit- hypothermia • drop of 1.8 – 3.6F from normal • Heat: hyperthermic Above 38C fever, 40C critical, 44C (100% death rate) or • F: >104F starts, over 106F brain death begins, over 122F certain death
  • 39. Weather quiz • 1. Diagram a mid-latitude wave cyclone. • - label the parts • - Describe the process of origination • - Which part has warm, clear weather? Why? • - Which part has violent weather? Why?
  • 40. quiz • 2. How do hurricanes and tornadoes differ? • - Describe the dangers associated with hurricanes. • What areas of the U.S. are at most risk from hurricanes? From Tornadoes? • 3. In the Koppen system – identify the characteristics ( and example of a location) for: Am, BW, ET, Csa climate types
  • 41. Quiz (3) • 4. How are desert plant and animal species ( and the soil) specially adapted to the lack of moisture? • 5. What danger does a microburst pose to aircraft?

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