Interpersonal Skills for Managers – Psychology in Business
Interpersonal Skills for Managers – Psychology in Business Class 3 Karol Wolski
Motivation• Motivation is the process used to allocate energy to maximize the satisfaction of needs (Pritchard i Ashwood, 2008).
Motivation• We allocate time and energy to different actions by deciding direction, effort and persistence: – Direction: Which actions we will work on – Effort: How hard we will work on those actions – Persistence: How long we will work on those actions
Motivation – general model TheEnergy Pool Motivation Needs Process
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is Understandable – The components of motivation make sense. By understanding how these components work together, you can see your group’s motivation as a logical process, that you can diagnose and influence
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is a Process – Motivation is a process in the sense that manufacturing is a process: a series of interconnected steps produces the end product. If one step goes awry, the whole process breaks down.
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is a Fundamental Issue, Not a Fad – The history of management includes many fads that have become popular and then died out. Focus on motivation is not a fad; motivation is basic. Understanding motivational principles can help you understand behavior and identify in advance what is going to work, no matter what changes in the work environment.
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is a Long-Term Issue – So called "motivational speakers" may get people excited about work, but the high is temporary. Managing motivation is less emotional and more long-lasting. A sustained effort to continually monitor, diagnose, and make improvements is needed.
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is Logical – Motivation operates on logical, understandable principles. With a good model of motivation, you can diagnose a situation and know what to do to improve it. Think about quality: there was a time when quality was seen as vague and difficult to manage, but now it can be defined, measured, and improved. You can understand and encourage motivation, just as you can understand and encourage quality.
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is Manageable – Because motivation is understandable, you can manage it. You can affect the amount of time and energy people spend on different tasks to increase their effectiveness. – Think about a person whose motivation seems to be low, who exerts minimal effort with little apparent interest in how much gets done or how well it is done. On weekends, that same person spends hours diligently working as a volunteer in the community. This is the same person; the difference is the work environment. Its not that youre lucky to have motivated people working for you or unlucky to have unmotivated people. How you manage has a significant influence on motivation.
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is Also Work Strategy – Motivation is more than the overall effort that goes into a job; it is also work strategy. Work strategy is choosing what to work on, what not to work on, how much effort to put into each possible task, and how to sequence this effort over time.
Motivation at work – 9 features• Motivation Is a Collaboration – Motivation is a collaboration between the organization and its employees: staff members are asked to devote time and energy to the organization in exchange for pay and benefits. Thus, motivation is something the organization does with people not to people. Managing motivation is not manipulating people—in fact, its just the opposite. Managing motivation means learning how to optimize staff contributions to the organization while at the same time improving how staff needs are satisfied. With knowledge and skill, you can work with the people you supervise to create a work environment that is highly motivating to them.
Motivation at work – 9 features• With High Motivation, Everybody Wins – Maximizing motivation benefits people as well as the organization. Think of jobs where you havent felt strongly motivated. That kind of work is unpleasant, frustrating, boring, stressful, and fatiguing. In contrast, jobs that are highly motivating are more stimulating and more fun. When people can convert energy into satisfied needs efficiently, their energy actually increases. When they cant, energy decreases.
Maslows Need – Hierarchy Theory• A tension – reduction hypothesis – A T-R hypothesis is used to explain the process of motivation. In this, an unsatisfied need creates an uncomfortable state of tension in the person. Tension spurs individual into action in an effort to reduce the uncomfortable state. – Action in maintained until the need is satisfied and the tension is reduced.
Maslows Need – Hierarchy Theory• Criticism: – There is a little research evidence supporting Maslow’s theory – This theory is difficult to test• Popularity – Theory and its term were very well publicized to an extend that the terms are incorporated in everyday language. Self-actualization is now a wor in the dicitionary.
Maslows Need – Hierarchy Theory• Popularity – The theory treats humans sympathetically and shows that people work not only for money. – Is quite easy to apply in the workplace
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factors Motivators Salary, Job Security, Nature of Work, Working Conditions, Sense of Level and Quality of Achievement, Supervision, Recognition, Company Policy and Responsibility, Administration, Personal Growth and Interpersonal Advancement Relations
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory The motivator factor motivates toward satisfaction; the hygiene factor motivates away from dissatisfaction.
Achievement Theory – McClelland• The central feature of this theory is need for achievement (nAch)• People with high nAch wants to have high ability for certain activities. McClelland proposed that these activities are such that: – There is a standard of excellence – A person can succeed or fail• The second important feature is a need to avoid failure• Individuals are thought to have varying amounts of each need, with one being dominant.
Achievement Theory – McClellandAchievement Theory Predictions of the Individuals with a Needto Gain Success or to Avoid Failure
Achievement Theory – McClelland• McClelland suggested other characteristics and attitudes of achievement-motivated people: – achievement is more important than material or financial reward. – achieving the aim or task gives greater personal satisfaction than receiving praise or recognition. – financial reward is regarded as a measurement of success, not an end in itself. – security is not prime motivator. – feedback is essential, because it enables measurement of success, not for reasons of praise or recognition (the implication here is that feedback must be reliable, quantifiable and factual). – achievement-motivated people constantly seek improvements and ways of doing things better. – achievement-motivated people will logically favor jobs and responsibilities that naturally satisfy their needs, ie offer flexibility and opportunity to set and achieve goals, eg., sales and business management, and entrepreneurial roles.
Expectancy Theory - Vroom• Force = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence• Expectancy – Expectancy is the belief that ones effort (E) will result in attainment of desired performance (P) goals. Usually based on an individuals past experience, self confidence (self efficacy), and the perceived difficulty of the performance standard or goal. Factors associated with the individuals Expectancy perception are self efficacy, goal difficulty, and control. – Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P)
Expectancy Theory - Vroom• Instrumentality – Instrumentality is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met. This reward may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the reward is given for all performances given. – Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O)
Expectancy Theory - Vroom• Valence – Valence refers to our emotional response to an anticipated outcome. Some outcomes are more attractive than others. These varied positive, neutral or negative feelings about the outcomes of performance are what is meant by valence.
Expectancy Theory - Vroom• Force = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence• For motivational force to be greater than zero, all components also must have a value greater than zero.• Person will be motivated only if – Expectancy > 0 – Instrumentality > 0 – Valence > 0
Equity Theory - Adams• Background: – Cognitive Dissonance – coined by Festinger – is an inconsistency in the cognitive structure that produces tension, which in turn motivates actions to restore consistency and reduce the tension. – Example: I thought I’m best runner. I lost the competition. I have dissonace. Am I the best runner?
Equity Theory - Adams• Adams called personal efforts and rewards and other similar give and take issues at work respectively inputs and outputs.• Inputs are logically what we give or put into our work. Outputs are everything we take out in return.• Adams used the term referent others to describe the reference points or people with whom we compare our own situation, which is the pivotal part of the theory
Equity Theory - Adams Inputs Outputs Time Job security Effort Salary Loyalty Employee benefit Hard Work Expenses Commitment Recognition Ability Reputation Adaptability Responsibility Flexibility Sense of achievement Tolerance Praise Determination Thanks Enthusiasm Stimuli Personal sacrifice Trust in superiors Support from co-workersand colleagues Skill
Equity Theory - Adams• People compare their inputs with outputs• People need to feel that there is a fair balance between inputs and outputs.• Crucially fairness is measured by comparing ones own balance or ratio between inputs and outputs, with the ratio enjoyed or endured by relevant (referent) others.
Equity Theory - Adams• If we feel that our inputs are fairly rewarded by outputs (the fairness benchmark being subjectively perceived from market norms and other comparable references) then generally we are happier in our work and more motivated to continue inputting at the same level.• If we feel that our ratio of inputs to outputs is less beneficial than the ratio enjoyed by referent others, then we become demotivated in relation to our job and employer.
Equity Theory - Adams• People respond to a feeling of inequity in different ways.• Generally the extent of demotivation is proportional to the perceived disparity with other people or inequity, but for some people just the smallest indication of negative disparity between their situation and other peoples is enough to cause massive disappointment and a feeling of considerable injustice, resulting in demotivation, or worse, open hostility.• Some people reduce effort and application and become inwardly disgruntled, or outwardly difficult, recalcitrant or even disruptive. Other people seek to improve the outputs by making claims or demands for more reward, or seeking an alternative job.
Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan• Need of Competence – Refers to being effective in dealing with the environment in which a person finds oneself• Need of Relatedness – Is the universal want to interact, be connected to, and experience caring for others• Need of Autonomy – Is the universal urge to be causal agents of ones own life and act in harmony with ones integrated self; however, Deci and Vansteenkiste note this does not mean to be independent of others
Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan• Main assumptions: – Humans are inherently proactive with their potential and mastering their inner forces (such as drives and emotions) – Humans have inherent tendency toward growth development and integrated functioning – Optimal development and actions are inherent in humans but they don’t happen automatically
Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan• Intrinsic motivation is the natural, inherent drive to seek out challenges and new possibilities that SDT associated with cognitive and social development.• Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure.
Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan• Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: – attribute their educational results to factors under their own control (e.g., the effort expended), – believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), – are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.
Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan• Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.
Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan• Rewards (Money) undermine intrinsic motivation• undermining effect - When people received rewards for working on an interesting activity, they tended to display less interest in and willingness to work on that activity after termination of the rewards than did people who had worked on the activity without receiving a reward.
Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan• Task-contingent rewards—those made contingent on doing the activity—have been consistently and reliably shown to undermine intrinsic motivation, presumably because their controlling function is salient (need of autonomy is not satisfied).• Rewards can enhance intrinsic motivation when the controlling aspect is minimized and competence cues are emphasized (reward is treated as a feedback of competence level)