Contents <ul><li>Integumentary system --- Albinism/Herpes (slides 4-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal system --- Osteochondroma/Osteoarthritis (slides 7-8) </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular system--- Tendonitis/PCL injury (slides 10-11) </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous system --- Alzheimer's/Parkinson's (slides 13-14) </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory system --- Peripheral vascular disease/Congenital heart defect (slides 16-17) </li></ul>
Integumentary system Diseases of the Integumentary system are Albinism & Herpes
Albinism Albinism is hereditary; it is not an infectious disease and cannot be transmitted through contact or blood transfusions. It is the lack of pigments in skin, hair, and eyes. Albinism is a condition that cannot be "cured", but small things can be done to improve the quality of life for those affected. Most importantly to improve vision, protect the eyes from bright lights, and avoid skin damage from sunlight. The extent and success rate of these measures depend on the type of albinism and severity of the symptoms; in particular, people with ocular albinism are likely to have normally-pigmented skin, and thus do not need to take special precautions against skin damage. Surgery is possible on the ocular muscles to decrease nystagmus, strabismus and common refractive errors like astigmatism. Strabismus surgery may improve the appearance of the eyes. Nystagmus-damping surgery can also be performed, to reduce the "shaking" of the eyes back and forth. The effectiveness of all these procedures varies greatly and depends on individual circumstances. More importantly, since surgery will not restore a normal RPE or foveae, surgery will not provide fine binocular vision. In the case of esotropia (the "crossed eyes" form of strabismus), surgery may help vision by expanding the visual field (the area that the eyes can see while looking at one point).
Cold Sores Cold sores, sometimes called fever blisters, are groups of small blisters on the lip and around the mouth. The skin around the blisters is often red, swollen, and sore. The blisters may break open, leak a clear fluid, and then scab over after a few days. Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of herpes simplex virus: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both virus types can cause lip and mouth sores and genital herpes. The first symptoms of cold sores may include pain around your mouth and on your lips, a fever, a sore throat, or swollen glands in your neck or other parts of the body. Small children sometimes drool before cold sores appear. After the blisters appear, the cold sores usually break open, leak a clear fluid, and then crust over and disappear after several days to 2 weeks.
Skeletal system Diseases of the Skeletal System are Osteochondroma & Osteoarthritis
Osteochondroma Solitary osteochondroma is a developmental abnormality of bone. It occurs when part of the growth plate forms an outgrowth on the surface of the bone. This bone outgrowth may or may not have a stalk. When a stalk is present, the structure is called pedunculated. When no stalk is present, it is called sessile. The most common symptom of an osteochondroma is a painless bump near the joints. The knee and shoulder are more commonly involved. Solitary osteochondroma can be found at the ends of any long bone and along the pelvis and bones that make up the shoulder. If the stalk of a pedunculated osteochondroma breaks, pain and swelling may start immediately. When surgery is recommended, it is best to wait until growth is complete (a mature skeleton by X-ray evaluation) before removing a solitary osteochondroma. This decreases the chance of the tumor growing back. The osteochondroma is removed at the level of the normal bone. Some of the inside of the bone may also be removed.
Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. It is associated with a breakdown of cartilage in joints and can occur in almost any joint in the body. It most commonly occurs in the weight bearing joints of the hips, knees, and spine. It can also affect the fingers, thumb, neck, and large toe. It usually does not affect other joints unless previous injury or excessive stress is involved. Primary osteoarthritis is mostly related to aging. With aging, the water content of the cartilage increases and the protein makeup of cartilage degenerates. Repetitive use of the joints over the years irritates and inflames the cartilage, causing joint pain and swelling. Eventually, cartilage begins to degenerate by flaking or forming tiny crevasses. Arthritis treatment generally includes occupational or physical therapy, exercise, drugs, and sometimes surgery to correct joint damage. Treatments for osteoarthritis can help relieve pain and stiffness, but the disease may continue to progress. The same was true for rheumatoid arthritis in the past. But treatments in recent years have been able to slow or stop progression of joint damage.
Diseases of the Muscular system are Tendonitis & PCL injury
Tendinitis Tendinitis is an inflammation in or around a tendon, which is a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone and transmits the force the muscle exerts. Tendons are designed to withstand bending, stretching, and twisting, but they can become inflamed because of overuse, disease, or injuries that leave them with torn fibers or other damage. Tendons can become inflamed when overstressed from any activity. Weekend athletes, who exercise sporadically rather than regularly, are often laid low by sore tendons. But by far the most common cause is repetitive stress -- using the same joints for the same stressful movements again and again. This happens not only in sports but also in many types of office work and other situations. Tendons are also more likely to become inflamed with increasing age since muscles and tendons tend to lose their elasticity over time. Most tendinitis heals in about 2-4 weeks, but chronic tendinitis can take more than 6 weeks, often because the sufferer doesn't give the tendon time to heal. In chronic cases, you may have locking of the joint in one position due to scarring or narrowing of the sheath of tissue that surrounds the tendon. Diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, and gout can slow healing.
PCL injury Injury most often occurs when a force is applied to the anterior aspect of the proximal tibia when the knee is flexed. Hyperextension and rotational or varus/valgus stress mechanisms also may be responsible for PCL tears. Injuries may be isolated or combined with other ligamentous injuries. A PCL tear can result in varying degrees of disability, from no impairment to severe impairment. Unfortunately, the PCL cannot be repaired. Once its completely torn or stretched beyond its limits, that's it. The only option is a reconstruction. In this procedure, tendons are taken from other parts of your leg or a cadaver to replace the torn ligament.
Nervous system Diseases of the Nervous system are Alzheimer's disease & Parkinson's disease
Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease is a condition in which nerve cells in the brain die, making it difficult for the brain's signals to be transmitted properly. Alzheimer’s symptoms may be hard to distinguish early on. A person with Alzheimer's disease has problems with memory, judgment, and thinking, which makes it hard for the person to work or take part in day-to-day life. The death of the nerve cells occurs gradually over a period of years. Researchers do not know the exact cause of Alzheimer's disease, but it is most likely due to a combination of a variety of genetic and other factors. Genetic research is concentrating on the role of heredity in determining risk for, and development of, Alzheimer's disease. While its not curable, you can do things to prevent it. Adults who are physically active may be less likely to get Alzheimer's disease or dementia than adults who are not physically active. There is also good evidence that older adults who stay mentally active may be at lower risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Research has also shown that people who eat more fruits and vegetables, high-fiber foods, fish, and omega-3 rich oils (sometimes known as the Mediterranean diet) and who eat less red meat and dairy may have some protection against dementia.
Parkinson's disease Parkinson's disease affects the way you move. It happens when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. Low levels of dopamine, a brain chemical (neurotransmitter) involved in controlling movement, cause symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The shortage of this brain chemical occurs when nerve cells in a part of the brain (substantia nigra) that produces dopamine fail and deteriorate. The exact cause of this deterioration is not known. There is no known way to prevent Parkinson's disease.
Circulatory system Diseases of the Circulatory system are Peripheral vascular disease & Congenital heart defect
Peripheral vascular disease Peripheral vascular disease includes all diseases caused by the obstruction of large arteries in the arms and legs. PVD can result from atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes leading to stenosis, an embolism or thrombus formation. It is lack of blood supply to limbs. Symptoms are pain, weakness, or cramping in muscles due to decreased blood flow, sores, wounds, or ulcers that heal slowly or not at all. A noticeable change in color (blueness or paleness) or temperature when compared to the other limb, and diminished hair and nail growth on affected limb and digits. Causes include, smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension. You can get many kinds of therapy for PVD.
Congenital heart defect Congenital heart defects are problems with how a baby's heart forms. "Congenital" means that the heart problem develops before the baby is born or at birth. Most congenital heart defects affect how blood flows through the heart or through the blood vessels near the heart. Some defects may cause blood to flow in a pattern that is not normal. Others can completely or partially block blood flow. No one knows exactly what causes most congenital heart defects. Genes passed down from a parent are a possible cause. Viral infections also may play a role. Women who have diabetes have a greater chance of having a child with a congenital heart defect. Symptoms of congenital heart defects will depend on what problem the baby has. Babies with congenital heart defects may have one or more of these symptoms,tiring quickly, having difficulty breathing, developing puffiness or swelling, sweating easily, having fewer wet diapers than normal, not gaining weight as they should, developing a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails that becomes worse while eating or crying and,having fainting or near-fainting spells, especially related to physical activity. Some defects get better on their own and may not need treatment. The baby's or child's treatment will depend on the type of defect. Medicines may be used to help the heart work better. Medicines may also treat symptoms until the defect is repaired.