30 Bearings& Lubrication Fope

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30 Bearings& Lubrication Fope

  1. 1. BEARINGS & LUBRICATION
  2. 2. PRINCIPLES OF FRICTION
  3. 3. TYPES OF BEARINGS
  4. 4. BEARING ARRANGEMENT THRUST RADIAL
  5. 5. BEARING ARRANGEMENT THRUST RADIAL
  6. 6. BEARING ARRANGEMENT
  7. 7. ANTIFRICTION BEARINGS <ul><li>BALL BEARINGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RADIAL BALL BEARING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANGULAR CONTACT BALL BEARING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROLLER BEARINGS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TAPER ROLLER BEARING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEEDLE ROLLER BEARING </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. BEARING NOMENCLATURE
  9. 9. LOAD DIRECTION
  10. 10. BALL BEARINGS
  11. 11. ROLLER BEARINGS
  12. 12. NEEDLE ROLLER BEARINGS
  13. 13. BEARING LIFE
  14. 14. LOAD CARRYING SURFACES
  15. 15. BEARING DESIGNATION
  16. 16. BEARING DESIGNATION
  17. 17. BEARING FAILURE ANALYSIS <ul><li>A SURVEY REVEALS : </li></ul><ul><li>9% FAILURE DUE TO FATIGUE. </li></ul><ul><li>27% FAILURES DUE TO IMPROPER MOUNTING & DISMOUNTING. </li></ul><ul><li>43% FAIL DUE TO IMPROPER LUBRICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>21% FAILURES DUE TO OTHER CAUSES. </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>100% FAILURES DUE TO NORMAL FATIGUE. </li></ul>
  18. 18. FRICTION BEARINGS TILTING PAD BEARING SLEEVE BEARINGS
  19. 19. WORKING PRINCIPLE
  20. 20. TILTING PAD RADIAL BEARING
  21. 21. TILTING PAD THRUST BEARING
  22. 22. LUBRICATION
  23. 23. WHY LUBRICATION?? <ul><li>Formation of protective film to </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce friction </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>Remove wear particles and debris </li></ul><ul><li>Provide efficient cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce wear </li></ul><ul><li>Shock absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Overall life improvement </li></ul>
  24. 24. LUBRICATION THEORY <ul><li>Full film </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrodynamic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastohydrodynamic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application of pressure / load </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depends upon speeds, loads, lubricant viscosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Boundary layer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Layer separation not complete </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results from insufficient lube, incorrect lube </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. GREASE Vs OIL <ul><li>When greases? </li></ul><ul><li>Normal speed and temp conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler / cheaper installation </li></ul><ul><li>Better adhesion </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against impurities </li></ul><ul><li>Less frequent application required </li></ul><ul><li>When Oils? </li></ul><ul><li>High Speed and temp </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent cleaning and flushing characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in recirculative systems </li></ul><ul><li>Can serve better in excessive dirt environment </li></ul><ul><li>More stable than greases </li></ul>
  26. 26. LUBE OIL PROPERTIES <ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pour point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demulsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load carrying ability (EP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detergency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TAN / TBN </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. TYPES OF LUBRICANTS <ul><li>Automotive oils </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engine oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gear oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other oils (preservative oils etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial oils </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turbine oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gear oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration compressor oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Greases </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic oils </li></ul>
  28. 28. LUBE OIL SELECTION <ul><li>OEM recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity & VI </li></ul><ul><li>Bearing and lubrication type </li></ul><ul><li>Operating temperature </li></ul>
  29. 29. LUBE OIL MONITORING <ul><li>Lube oil level </li></ul><ul><li>Oil pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Oil inlet and outlet temp </li></ul><ul><li>Lube cooler inlet & outlet temp </li></ul><ul><li>Oil filter DP </li></ul><ul><li>Bearing temp </li></ul>
  30. 30. WDA Concept <ul><li>Every lubricated wear surface generates particles </li></ul><ul><li>There is a gradual build up of small particles in a normal system </li></ul><ul><li>When abnormal wear begins, there is no sharp instantaneous increase in the concentration of small particles present in the system </li></ul><ul><li>Large particles, however, reach a dynamic equilibrium in a normal system (filtration) </li></ul><ul><li>When abnormal wear begins, there is a dramatic increase in the concentration of large particles </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, detection, measurement and analysis of these large wear particles can provide early and accurate information about the condition of the machine </li></ul>
  31. 31. WDA Methodology <ul><li>Particle Size </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul>
  32. 32. WDA Trend Graph
  33. 33. Oil analysis Vs WDA <ul><li>Lubricant Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of the lubricant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of the lubricant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscosity, TAN, TBN, Water content, Insolubles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wear debris Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of wear particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity of wear particles in ppm </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. WDA : Advantages and disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides early warning </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies lubricant contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies specific failing components </li></ul><ul><li>Helps monitor component deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Trending is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy depends on sampling point, skill </li></ul>

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