Measuring Democracy and Technology Dr. Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez Correo-e: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @juanmanfredi http://ciberdemocracia.blogspot.com
2 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 1. Measuring Democracy
3 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 1. Measuring Democracy
4 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 2. Measuring Technology Information has gone from scarce to superabundant That brings huge new benefits, but also big headaches The capability of digital technology multiplies the information that was previously unavailable
5 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 2. Measuring Technology It plays a central role both in macroeconomics and in economic development: it’s a key question in public policies Again, we have dozens of index: there’s no good index and bad index OECD: “The Guide is a compilation of concepts, definitions, classifications and methods for information society measurement and analysis” in three dimensions: Information society Economic dimension Social dimension Let’s see how
7 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 2. Measuring Technology Convergence and Innovation – The Big Three Moore's Law: the processing power of a microchip doubles every 18 months; corollary, computers become faster and the price of a given level of computing power halves every 18 months Gilder's Law: the total bandwidth of communication systems triples every twelve months Metcalfe's Law: the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of nodes; so, as a network grows, the value of being connected to it grows exponentially, while the cost per user remains the same or even reduces.
8 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 3. Mixing Democracy and Technology
9 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 3. Mixing Democracy and Technology
10 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 3. Mixing Democracy and Technology
11 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 4. Public Policies What to consider?
Facilitation of learning (both formal and informal)
Positive and negative changes in society and social behaviour
Positive and negative influences on the natural environment
12 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 5. The Digital Divide Definition: the gap between ICT “haves” and “have-nots” Issues of economic marginalisation and social exclusion associated with ICT It includes ICT-induced benefits: business, governments, health, education and any other area.
The idea of ‘ICT for development’ has been the driving force behind much activity internationally, including the two World Summits on the Information Society in Geneva (2003) and Tunis (2005) View: ICT as an historic opportunity for the evolution of our economies and societies; and has the potential to accentuate already existing and sizeable imbalances. Different approaches:
13 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 5. The Digital Divide Three issues to consider The magnitude The evolution The speed
The three issues combined show us: Absolute divide in absolute number: users vs non-users Absolute divide in overall rates: proportion of users vs non-users Relative divide: the difference in penetration rates between different groups
14 Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi 5. The Digital Divide ICT Opportunity Index