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Media citizenship Media citizenship Presentation Transcript

  • Media Citizenship Media Citizenship The case of Al Jazeera Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez Dean School of Journalism & Communication SEK University Segovia (Spain) Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address]
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] A communication system reflects the society in which operates
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] We are talking about the relationship between the government and the mass media We establish three types of relations 1.- Not differentiated political systems: media are monopolized by the State. Few alternative media. 2.- Polarized political systems: media are determinated by ideological positions 3.- Complex systems: interaction and competence between media and political establishment Which relation do we observe in Iraq?
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Manipulation through the institutional framework has been a pattern of authoritative behaviour, but now the old totalitarian system based on the control of the information and communication is overloaded It’s time for free communication The instantaneous global media environment Three steps: 1.- Internationalization 2.- Globalization 3.- Transnationalization
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] What is global iraqi media? Global cannot be an universal category, because there are more and more dominant oligopolistic conglomerates Arab cannot be a regional category, because there are many discrepances You can see the Euronews channel as example The new structural situation will be positive for the economic development and the progress of the democracy in Iraq It is necessary to create the specific iraqi voice
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Democracy is based on information The people has the right to know, to express and to disagree Communication is the web of the human society
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] In short: Press freedom drives the modernization Open mass media system are one of the core prerequisites for freedom in a society
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] So… Dismantle the old media system and construct one to replace it There are millions of people waiting for your news
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Why Press? Press increases the accountability of governments to citizens Governments should attend the social needs People read press or watch TV can decide about the future or that government through the ballot box
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Be sure… Policy makers will give you information about their activities and actions related to public interest Why? They want to maximize popular electoral support to maintain the political power Despite personal communication is important, modern political campaigns are based on mass mediated communication
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Media, specially a national information agency, found the process of democratization Why? The watchdog role promote the government transparency and the public scrutiny of the authority How? Highlighting policy failures, maladministration by public officials, corruption and scandals in the public and the private sector That means…
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] The watchdog role is one of classical liberal instrument to check and balance the government in the division of powers Information, even investigative journalism, can dialogue with the government and promote the evaluation and the accountability
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Information consists in ideas, opinions and disagreements People need a space to talk and media can be this space The free media provide the public sphere as civic forum of expression How? Providing and facilitating the informed debate about the major issues of the day
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] That means… Reflecting the social and cultural diversity within each society Balancing in a fair and impartial way the interests and voices The fair and impartial information is critical during political campaigns
  • The mass comunication media is a step (and an indicator) of the process of development It reflects urbanization, literacy and use of the modern technologies In a second step, the consumption of mass media will show a political development Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address]
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Indepedent journalism is not enough to promote development and to strengthen good governance They are necessary two more conditions: 1.- Free and independent media of established interests (public or private corporations) 2.- A widespread public access to media
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] The impact of the media on human development Strong media and the increase of channels of communication is vital for electoral democracies, particulary those which are in the process of establishing political and economic institutions The evidence concludes that a well established media system increases the polical knowledge and the participation
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] The virtous circle Because I am interested and involved in public affairs I regularly turn on the news or read a paper to follow the political issues Because I usually catch the news, I could gradually become more interested in, and informed about, politics
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Conclusions 1.- Media have to increase the citizen freedom by enlarging the information about the environment 2.- Media are the platform to express opinions and disagreements 3.- Media improve the public opinion and the debate in the public sphere arena
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] We have seen the theory, but what is Al Jazeera? Is it an example? Is it a bad example? Al Jazeera
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] First at all, Al Jazeera is (or was?) necessary to fill the gap of news agencies in arabic language 1996: the birth of the channel Three main reasons: 1.- Economic support 2.- Political support 3.- People support
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Satellite dishes appeared in greater number than ever before That fact shows a hunger for information, despite the economic poverty It is an expression of the wishes of freedom: people do not want more political and official information Al Jazeera have broken the western, particulary the American, news monopoly in the region The result: the expansion in the range of information sources and views People seek sources of uncensored news and opinions
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Do Al Jazeera benefit the expansion of the public sphere? Already in 2000, 64% of viewers preferred talk shows Talk shows are popular conversations People, at home, has been talking about the same topics during years This private conversation has now a public sphere-type arena discussion Examples 1.- Bi La Hudud (Without Limits): guests discuss about topics and they receive telephone calls and SMS messages
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] 2.- al-Ittiah al-Muakis (The Opposite Direction): Faisal al-Qasim 3.- Shariah wal-Hayat (Religion and Life): Yusif al-Qardhawi Both programms are weekly, two hour talk shows where well recognized people of differing opinions engage each other in debate about topics of the day, including values issues Both programms receive calls and SMS from listeners around the world
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Lessons from the Al Jazeera journalism 1.- Framing 2.- The contextual objectivity 3.- The economic factor
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] TALENT CONTENTS MEDIA MANAGERS Free media and human development
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] Any question? Now? Latter? Please find me at [email_address] ciberdemocracia.blogspot.com
  • Media Citizenship Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez, Ph.D. [email_address] THANK YOU VERY MUCH.