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The NMC (New Media Consortium) is an international community of experts in educationaltechnology — from the practitioners who work with new technologies on campuses everyday;to the visionaries who are shaping the future of learning at think tanks, labs, and researchcenters; to its sta and board of directors; to the advisory boards and others helping the NMCconduct cutting edge research.> The NMC helps its members stay at the leading edge of emerging technology.> The key interest of the NMC community is in technologies and applications that make learning more relevant and more engaging.> As a community, we engage in research that catalyzes discussion, we convene people around new ideas, and we build communities and networks that encourage exploration and experimentation.We help our hundreds of member universities, colleges, schools, museums, and organizationsdrive innovation across their campuses.> Find out how you can join the NMC at go.nmc.org/join> Learn more about the NMC here
The internationally recognized NMC Horizon Report series and regional NMC Technology Outlooks are partof the NMC Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identi es anddescribes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming ve years in educationaround the globe.
1Contents > Click on a topic or page number to jump to that page.Executive Summary 3Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less> Mobile Apps 10> Tablet Computing 14Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years> Game-Based Learning 18> Learning Analytics 22Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years> Gesture-Based Computing 26> Internet of Things 30Methodology 34The NMC Horizon Project: 2012 Higher Education Advisory Board 36Interested in these emerging technology topics? Learn more about them and other edtech insights by “liking” us onFacebook at facebook.com/newmediaconsortium and following us on Twitter at twitter.com/nmcorg.
3Executive SummaryT he internationally recognized NMC Horizon topics that appear here in the NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Report series and regional NMC Technology Higher Education Edition. The examples and readings Outlooks are part of the NMC Horizon Project, under each topic area are meant to provide practical a comprehensive research venture established models as well as access to more detailed information. in 2002 that identi es and describes emerging The precise research methodology employed is detailedtechnologies likely to have a large impact over the in the closing section of this report.coming ve years in education around the globe. Thisvolume, the NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education The report’s format is consistent from year to year andEdition, was again produced in a collaborative e ort edition to edition, and opens with a discussion of thewith the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, an EDUCAUSE trends and challenges identi ed by the advisory boardProgram, and examines emerging technologies for theirpotential impact on teaching, learning, and creativeinquiry within the higher education environment. The technologies featured in eachTo create the report, an international body of experts ineducation, technology, and other elds was convened edition of the NMC Horizon Report areas an advisory board. The group engaged in discussionsaround a set of research questions intended to surface embedded within a contemporarysigni cant trends and challenges and to identify a widearray of potential technologies for the report. This dialog context that reﬂects the realities ofwas enriched by a wide range of resources, currentresearch, and practice that drew on the expertise of the time, both in the sphere of higherboth the NMC community and the communities ofthe members of the advisory board. These interactions education and in the world at large.among the advisory board are the focus of the NMC as most important for the next ve years. The formatHorizon Report research, and this report details the areas of the main section of this edition closely re ects thein which these experts were in strong agreement. focus of the NMC Horizon Project itself, centering on the applications of emerging technologies — inEach of the three global editions of the NMC Horizon this case for higher education settings. Each sectionReport — higher education, primary and secondary is introduced with an overview that describes whateducation, and museum education — highlights six the topic is, followed by a discussion of the particularemerging technologies or practices that are likely to relevance of the topic to teaching, learning, and creativeenter mainstream use with their focus sectors within inquiry in higher education. Several concrete examplesthree adoption horizons over the next ve years. Key of how the technology is being used are given. Finally,trends and challenges that will a ect current practice each section closes with an annotated list of suggestedover the same period frame these discussions. Over readings and additional examples that expand on thethe course of just a few weeks in the late fall of 2011, discussion in the report. These resources, along withthe advisory board came to a consensus about the six countless other helpful projects and readings, can all
4 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Editionbe found in the project’s open content database — the adoption of cloud-based applications and servicesNMC Horizon Project Navigator (navigator.nmc.org) All is changing not only the ways we con gure and usethe ephemera of the NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher software and le storage, but also how we conceptualizeEducation Edition, including the research data, the those functions. It does not matter where our work isinterim results, the topic preview, and this publication, stored; what matters is that our information is accessiblecan be downloaded for free on iTunes U (go.nmc.org/ no matter where we are or what device we chooseitunes-u). to use. Globally, in huge numbers, we are growing accustomed to a model of browser-based softwareKey Trends that is device independent. While some challengesThe technologies featured in each edition of the NMC still remain, speci cally with notions of privacy andHorizon Report are embedded within a contemporary sovereignty, the promise of signi cant cost savings is ancontext that re ects the realities of the time, both in the important driver in the search for solutions.sphere of higher education and in the world at large. Toensure this context was well understood, the advisoryboard engaged in an extensive review of currentarticles, interviews, papers, and new research to identify 3 The world of work is increasingly collaborative, driving changes in the way student projects are structured. Because employers value collaboration asand rank trends that are currently a ecting teaching, a critical skill, silos both in the workplace and at schoollearning, and creative inquiry in higher education. Once are being abandoned in favor of collective intelligence.detailed, the list of trends was then ranked according To facilitate more teamwork and group communication,to how signi cant each was likely to be for higher projects rely on tools such as wikis, Google Docs, Skype,education in the next ve years. The highest ranked and easily shared le-storage sites including Dropbox.of those trends had signi cant agreement among the Students are increasingly evaluated not just on theadvisory board members, who considered them to be overall outcome, but also on the success of the groupkey drivers of educational technology adoptions for the dynamic. In many cases, the way an online collaborationperiod 2012 through 2017. They are listed here in the tool is used is an equally important outcome. Like theorder in which the advisory board ranked them. wiki used to create this report, such sites preserve the process and the multiple perspectives that lead to the1 People expect to be able to work, learn, and study whenever and wherever they want to. Life in an end results.increasingly busy world where learners must balancedemands from home, work, school, and family posesa host of logistical challenges with which today’s ever 4 The abundance of resources and relationships made easily accessible via the Internet is increasingly challenging us to revisit our roles asmore mobile students must cope. Work and learning educators. Institutions must consider the uniqueare often two sides of the same coin, and people want value that each adds to a world in which informationeasy and timely access not only to the information on is everywhere. In such a world, sense-making andthe network, but also to tools, resources, and up-to-the- the ability to assess the credibility of information aremoment analysis and commentary. These needs, as well paramount. Mentoring and preparing students foras the increasingly essential access to social media and the world in which they will live and work is again atnetworks, have risen to the level of expectations. The the forefront. Universities have always been seen asopportunities for informal learning in the modern world the gold standard for educational credentialing, butare abundant and diverse, and greatly expand on earlier emerging certi cation programs from other sources arenotions like “just-in-time” or “found” learning. eroding the value of that mission daily.2 The technologies we use are increasingly cloud-based, and our notions of IT supportare decentralized. The continuing acceptance and 5 Education paradigms are shifting to include online learning, hybrid learning and collaborative models. Budget cuts have forced institutions to re-
Executive Summary 5evaluate their education strategies and nd alternatives factors in any decision to adopt — or not to adopt — ato the exclusive face-to-face learning models. Students given technology.already spend much of their free time on the Internet,learning and exchanging new information — often via Even institutions that are eager to adopt newtheir social networks. Institutions that embrace face-to- technologies may be critically constrained by theface/online hybrid learning models have the potential lack of necessary human resources and the nancialto leverage the online skills learners have already wherewithal to realize their ideas. Still others aredeveloped independent of academia. We are beginning located within buildings that simply were not designedto see developments in online learning that o er to provide the radio frequency transparency thatdi erent a ordances than physical campuses, including wireless technologies require, and thus nd themselvesopportunities for increased collaboration while shut out of many potential technology options. Whileequipping students with stronger digital skills. Hybrid acknowledging that local barriers to technologymodels, when designed and implemented successfully, adoptions are many and signi cant, the advisory boardenable students to travel to campus for some activities, focused its discussions on challenges that are commonwhile using the network for others, taking advantage of to the higher education community as a whole. Thethe best of both environments. highest ranked challenges they identi ed are listed here, in the order in which the advisory board ranked6 There is a new emphasis in the classroom on more challenge-based and active learning. them.Challenge-based learning and similar methods fostermore active learning experiences, both inside andoutside the classroom. As technologies such as tablets 1 Economic pressures and new models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to the traditional models of higher education. Across theand smartphones now have proven applications in board, institutions are looking for ways to control costshigher education institutions, educators are leveraging while still providing a high quality of service. Institutionsthese tools, which students already use, to connect are challenged by the need to support a steady — orthe curriculum with real life issues. The active learning growing — number of students with fewer resourcesapproaches are decidedly more student-centered, and sta than before. As a result, creative institutionsallowing them to take control of how they engage with are developing new models to serve students, such asa subject and to brainstorm and implement solutions to streaming introductory courses over the network. Aspressing local and global problems. The hope is that if these pressures continue, other models may emergelearners can connect the course material with their own that diverge from traditional ones. Simply capitalizinglives, their surrounding communities, and the world as a on new technology, however, is not enough; the newwhole, then they will become more excited to learn and models must use these tools and services to engageimmerse themselves in the subject matter. students on a deeper level.Signi cant ChallengesAny discussion of technology adoption must alsoconsider important constraints and challenges, and the 2 Appropriate metrics of evaluation lag the emergence of new scholarly forms of authoring, publishing, and researching. Traditional approaches toadvisory board drew deeply from a careful analysis of scholarly evaluation, such as citation-based metrics, arecurrent events, papers, articles, and similar sources, as often hard to apply to research that is disseminated orwell as from personal experience, in detailing a long conducted via social media. New forms of peer reviewlist of challenges higher education institutions face and approval, such as reader ratings, inclusion in andin adopting any new technology. Several important mention by in uential blogs, tagging, incoming links,challenges are detailed below, but it was clear that and re-tweeting, are arising from the natural actions ofbehind them all was a pervasive sense that individual the global community of educators, with increasinglyorganizational constraints are likely the most important relevant and interesting results. These forms of scholarly
6 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Editioncorroboration are not yet well understood by mainstream nature of the way we communicate, access information,faculty and academic decision-makers, creating a gap connect with peers and colleagues, learn, and evenbetween what is possible and what is acceptable. socialize. Taken together, they provided the advisory board a frame through which to consider the potential3 Digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every disciplineand profession. Despite the widespread agreement impacts of nearly 50 emerging technologies and related practices that were analyzed and discussed for possible inclusion in this edition of the NMC Horizon Report series.on the importance of digital media literacy, training in Six of those were chosen through successive rounds ofthe supporting skills and techniques is rare in teacher ranking; they are summarized below and detailed in theeducation and non-existent in the preparation of most main body of the report.university faculty. As lecturers and professors beginto realize that they are limiting their students by not Technologies to Watchhelping them to develop and use digital media literacy The six technologies featured in the NMC Horizonskills across the curriculum, the lack of formal training Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition are placed alongis being o set through professional development or three adoption horizons that indicate likely timeframesinformal learning, but we are far from seeing digital for their entrance into mainstream use for teaching,media literacy as an expected norm for academic learning, and creative inquiry. The near-term horizonprofessionals, nor as a key part of degree programs. assumes the likelihood of entry into the mainstream for higher education institutions within the next twelve4 Institutional barriers present formidable challenges to moving forward in a constructiveway with emerging technologies. Too often it is months; the mid-term horizon, within two to three years; and the far-term, within four to ve years. It should be noted at the outset that the NMC Horizon Report is not aeducation’s own processes and practices that limit predictive tool. It is meant, rather, to highlight emergingbroader uptake of new technologies. Much resistance technologies with considerable potential for our focusto change is simply comfort with the status quo, but in areas of education and interpretation. Each of the sixother cases, such as in promotion and tenure reviews, is already the target of work at a number of innovativeexperimentation with or adoptions of clearly innovative organizations around the world, and the projects weapplications of technologies is often seen as outside the showcase here reveal the promise of a wider impact.role of researcher or scientist. Near-term Horizon5 New modes of scholarship are presenting signi cant challenges for libraries and universitycollections, how scholarship is documented, and the On the near-term horizon — that is, within the next 12 months — are mobile apps and tablets. These two topics have become pervasive in everyday life, at leastbusiness models to support these activities. While the in the developed world, and students at universities anduniversity library has traditionally housed collections of colleges have ever-increasing expectations of beingscholarly resources, social networks and new publishing able to learn on these devices whenever and whereverparadigms, such as open content, are challenging the they may be. This year tablets have been separated fromlibrary’s role as curator. Students and educators are mobiles as a distinct category, preserving mobiles as aincreasingly able to access important, historic research descriptor used for typical hand-held devices designedin web browsers on devices of their choosing. As such, to make calls.libraries are under tremendous pressure to evolve newways of supporting and curating scholarship. > Mobile apps are the fastest growing dimension of the mobile space in higher education right now, withThese trends and challenges are a re ection of the impacts on virtually every aspect of informal life,impact of technology that is occurring in almost every and increasingly, every discipline in the university.aspect of our lives. They are indicative of the changing Always-connected Internet devices using 3G
Executive Summary 7 and similar cellular networks, imbedded sensors, > Game-based learning has grown in recent years as cameras, and GPS have proved to be a feature set research continues to demonstrate its e ectiveness with hundreds of thousands of applications. Apps for learning. Games for education span the range that take advantage of recent developments in these from single-player or small-group card and board tools, along with advances in electronic publishing games all the way to massively multiplayer online and the convergence of search technology and games and alternate reality games. Those at the location awareness, made this category of software enormously interesting in a higher education context. Higher education institutions are now designing apps The NMC Horizon Report is not a tailored to educational and research needs across the curriculum. predictive tool. It is meant, rather,> Tablet computing presents new opportunities to enhance learning experiences in ways simply not to highlight emerging technologies possible with other devices. High-resolution screens allow users of tablets, such as the iPad, to easily share with considerable potential for content with each other and pore over images and videos on the screen. As people tend to use tablets to our focus areas of education and supplement and not replace smartphones, they are viewed as less disruptive tools (no phone ringing and interpretation. no incoming text messages), which makes them ideal rst end of the spectrum are easy to integrate into tools for learning opportunities. Because tablets are the curriculum, and have long been an option in able to tap into all the advantages that mobile apps many higher education institutions; but the greatest bring to smaller devices, but in a larger format, higher potential of games for learning lies in their ability to education institutions are seeing them not just as an foster collaboration and engage students deeply in a ordable solution for one-to-one learning, but also the process of learning. Once educational gaming as a feature-rich tool for eld and lab work, often providers can match the volume and quality of their times replacing far more expensive and cumbersome consumer-driven counterparts, games will garner devices and equipment. more attention.Mid-term Horizon > Learning analytics loosely joins a variety of data-The second adoption horizon, two to three years out, gathering tools and analytic techniques to studyis where we will begin to see widespread adoptions student engagement, performance, and progressof two technologies that are experiencing growing in practice, with the goal of using what is learnedinterest within higher education: game-based learning to revise curricula, teaching, and assessment in realand learning analytics. Educational gaming brings time. Building on the kinds of information generatedan increasingly credible promise to make learning by Google Analytics and other similar tools, learningexperiences more engaging for students, while at analytics aims to mobilize the power of data-miningthe same time improving important skills, such as tools in the service of learning, and embrace thecollaboration, creativity, and critical thinking. Over complexity, diversity, and abundance of informationthe past year, learning analytics has garnered a lot of that dynamic learning environments can generate.attention. The ability to synthesize data in real-timeis exciting because it changes the structure of the Far-term Horizonlearning dynamic — educators can use the data to On the far-term horizon, set at four to ve years away frommake adjustments to their teaching style that better widespread adoption, are gesture-based computingcaters to student needs. and the Internet of Things. Gesture-based technology
8 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition has enabled students to learn by doing. Interfaces that environmental data such as temperature or humidity react to touch, movement, voice, and facial expression (and much more) attached to it; and then communicate allow more freedom in how we interact with our the status of that information on demand, whether devices. The Internet of Things, a notion rst outlined by optically or via electromagnetic frequencies. With Vint Cerf as one of the many reasons to move to IPv6 to the advent of the new internet Protocol, version six, expand the address space of the Internet, is converging those objects can now have an IP address, enabling with smart objects, and fueling considerable innovation their information store to be accessed in the same in how these devices communicate with each other and way a webcam might be, allowing real-time access with us. Smart objects are already well established in to that information from anywhere. At the same time, new wireless communication strategies, such as near eld communication, are making it easier for smartInterfaces that react to touch, objects to connect to networks. The implications are not yet clear, but it is evident that hundreds ofmovement, voice, and facial billions of devices — from delicate lab equipment to refrigerators to next-generation home securityexpression allow more freedom in systems — will soon be designed to take advantage of such connections.how we interact with our devices. Each of these technologies is described in detail in the the commercial sector and range along a continuum main body of the report, where a discussion of what from RFID sensors to near eld communication (NFC). the technology is and why it is relevant to teaching, These technology topics do not yet have an abundance learning, or creative inquiry may also be found. Given of well-documented project examples in higher the practical focus of the report, a listing of examples education, but the high level of interest found in both of the technology in use, especially in higher education, areas indicates that they are worth following closely. is a key component of each of the six main topics. Our research indicates that all six of these technologies, taken > Gesture-based computing moves the control together, will have a signi cant impact on learning- of computers from a mouse and keyboard to focused organizations within the next ve years. the motions of the body, facial expressions, and voice recognition via new input devices. It makes The NMC Horizon Project interactions with computational devices far more This report is part of a longitudinal research study of intuitive and embodied. From the touchscreens on emerging technologies that began in March 2002. Since smartphones to the gesture and voice interpretation that time, under the banner of the Horizon Project, the of the latest gaming systems (Xbox Kinect and NMC and its research partners have held an ongoing Nintendo Wii) and virtual assistants, gesture-based series of conversations and dialogs with its advisory computing enables users to learn by doing and boards — now more than 450 technology professionals, facilitates the convergence of a user’s thoughts with campus technologists, faculty leaders from colleges and their movements. Large multi-touch displays support universities, museum professionals, teachers and other collaborative work, allowing multiple users to interact school professionals, and representatives of leading with content simultaneously. corporations from more than thirty countries. For more than a decade, these conversations have been mined to > The Internet of Things is the latest turn in the provide the insights on emerging technology that are evolution of smart objects — a category of small published annually in the NMC Horizon Report series. devices or methods that enable an object to be assigned a unique identi er; contain small bits of This report, the NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher information, such as the object’s age, shelf life, and Education Edition, kicks o the tenth year of the
Executive Summary 9series, which is dedicated to charting the landscape fuel the work of the NMC Horizon Project throughoutof emerging technologies for teaching, learning, and 2012. For those wanting to know more about thecreative inquiry in higher education globally. In 2008, processes used to generate the NMC Horizon Reportthe NMC added to the three main NMC Horizon Reports series, many of which are ongoing and extend the worka new series of regional and sector-based studies, called in the reports, we refer you to the report’s nal sectionthe NMC Technology Outlooks, with the dual goals of on the research methodology.understanding how technology is being absorbedusing a smaller lens, and also noting the contrastsbetween technology use in one area compared toanother. To date, the NMC has conducted studies oftechnology uptake in Australia, New Zealand, the UK,and Iberoamerica, and has plans in place to expand that The 47 members of this year’sresearch to Central Europe, India, Singapore, and Africa.This report, the agship publication of the NMC HorizonProject, is translated into multiple languages every advisory board were purposelyyear. Over all editions, the readership of the reports isestimated at more than one million worldwide, with chosen to represent a broadreaders in some 100 countries. spectrum of the higher educationThe 47 members of this year’s advisory board werepurposely chosen to represent a broad spectrum of sector; key writers, thinkers,the higher education sector; key writers, thinkers,technologists, and futurists from education, business, technologists, and futurists fromand industry rounded out the group. They engagedin a comprehensive review and analysis of research, education, business, and industryarticles, papers, blogs, and interviews; discussedexisting applications, and brainstormed new ones; and rounded out the group.ultimately ranked the items on the list of candidatetechnologies for their potential relevance to teaching,learning, or creative inquiry. This work took placeentirely online and may be reviewed on the project wikiat horizon.wiki.nmc.org.The e ort to produce the NMC Horizon Report: 2012Higher Education Edition began in November 2011, andconcluded when the report was released in February2012, a period of just over three months. The sixtechnologies and applications that emerged at the topof the nal rankings — two per adoption horizon — aredetailed in the chapters that follow.Each of those chapters includes detailed descriptions,links to active demonstration projects, and a widearray of additional resources related to the six pro ledtechnologies. Those pro les are the heart of the NMCHorizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition, and will
10 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionMobile AppsTime-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or LessT here is a revolution that is taking place in collections of apps, and adding to your set is as simple software development that parallels the as it is inexpensive. changes in recent years in the music, publishing, and retail industries. Mass market is giving The app software model is clearly working: ABI research way to niche market, and with it, the era of shows that over 18 billion apps had been downloadedhighly priced large suites of integrated software is in the Apple marketplace by October 2011, and over tengiving way to a new view of what software should be. billion in the Android marketplace by December theSmartphones including the iPhone and Android have same year. Those numbers just scratch the surface ofrede ned what we mean by mobile computing, and in the anticipated growth of mobile apps. A recent studythe past three to four years, the small, often simple, by Distimo predicted that 44 billions apps will havelow cost software extensions to these devices — apps been downloaded by 2016 — or, around seven apps per— have become a hotbed of development. New tools person across the entire population of the earth.are free or sell for as little as 99 cents, and anyonecan be a developer. A popular app can see millions of The assortment of available apps is wide-ranging, fromdownloads in a short time, and that potential market those that extend the camera or sensors on the devicehas spawned a ood of creativity that is instantly (“Siesmometer”, “Hipstamatic,” and “360”); to new formsapparent in the extensive collections available in the of newspapers and magazines (“McSweeny’s”); to gamesapp stores — themselves a new way of delivering that make use of gestures in clever ways (“Angry Birds”);software that reduces distribution and marketing to new forms of mapping tools (“StarWalk”); to appscosts signi cantly. Apple’s app store opened in July that make restaurant recommendations based on the2008; Google’s followed in October of that year. Since user’s location (“Urbanspoon”). What makes apps as athen, simple but useful apps have found their way into category interesting are two key factors: the rst is thatalmost every form of human endeavor. there are so many to choose from — one can nd an app to support almost any interest or endeavor, and theOverview possibilities expand every day. The second is that theyWith the advent of mobile apps, the way we think about are inexpensive — rare is an app on someone’s mobilesoftware itself is changing, and whole industries are that costs more than $1.99. Taken together, the resultadjusting to a new world in which sophisticated but is that it is both easy and economical to completelysimple tools routinely sell for 99 cents. In contrast with customize a device to suit one’s own interests.the model for desktop applications that stack featureupon feature in a one-size- ts-all approach, mobile The best apps are tightly integrated with the capabilitiesapps are small, simple, and elegant. They generally of the device itself, using location data, motiondo one thing, or a small list of tightly related things, detection, gestures, access to social networks, and webextraordinarily well. They cost so little, trial versions are search, to seamlessly create a full-featured experience.unnecessary, and it is simple to out t a tablet or mobile As just one example, users are now able to not onlyphone with exactly the feature set you want for far read an article foregrounded because of its relation toless than you would pay for typical desktop software. the user’s location, but also to share it with their socialBoth Apple and Google have developed extensive networks, make comments, swipe over an image to see
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 11more, and store speci c content to read at a later date video, audio, and imaging. Mobile apps encompass— all within a typical newspaper app. it all, and innovation in mobile device development continues at an unprecedented pace.In the last year, new additions to mobile operatingsystems have made it easier for newspapers, periodicals, The potential of mobile computing is already beingand other subscription-based publications to migrate demonstrated in hundreds of projects at higherto mobile devices. Print and online publications, such education institutions. Since 2009, Abilene Christianas Time, Wired, or Mashable, provide users with new University has provided each student with an iPhonematerial on a regular basis, sometimes sending the or iPod Touch, in addition to o ering professorsuser alerts when there is a new edition, breaking news,or a story that is relevant to the user’s interests. Mobileapps designed for tablets have given many traditionalprint-based publications a new life, and new tools, such The mobile app marketplace reﬂectsas iBook Author, are making it very easy for anyoneto create and publish media-rich interactive pieces. an expanding world of resources thatThe newest version of iBook is optimized for viewinginteractive textbooks, and it seems that the e-readers ﬁts into the palm of a hand.for the Kindle and Android platforms are heading the mobile training and support. The institution has beensame direction. developing apps to extend learning outside of the classroom and documenting the results along the wayThe mobile app marketplace re ects an expanding in an annual mobile learning study. At the most basicworld of resources that ts into the palm of a hand. level, many universities and colleges have developedWhile the adoption of apps has been especially map and directory apps for current students to navigateapparent in the consumer sector, there has also been a campuses and for prospective students to take virtualgreat interest in apps that illustrate scienti c and related tours or to enhance physical tours.concepts via tools that also have practical application.Apps that support learning are commonplace. Fun, As institutions begin to understand the potential ofeasy-to-use tools can be found for budding chefs, apps, they have built in features for students to checkastronomers, physicists, artists, musicians, book lovers, their grades, or to update them with sports scores orand writers — and all of them are designed to go with breaking campus news. Ohio State University’s mobileyou anywhere and to be available with a tap on a screen. app includes a campus directory, plus library resourcesThe higher education sector is beginning to capitalize and personal information that is tied to each student’son this by integrating mobile apps into the curriculum ID. Higher education institutions have also beenand designing their own to encompass course materials designing apps that enhance the classroom learningand campus maps. experience. The University of Warwick in the UK created an app that quizzes medical students on the humanRelevance for Teaching, Learning, or anatomy and various laboratory scenarios using videoCreative Inquiry and audio clips.Mobile apps embody the convergence of severaltechnologies that lend themselves to educational use, While institutions are rapidly developing their own apps,including annotation tools, applications for creation they are also making use of external ones. Popular appsand composition, and social networking tools. GPS include those that help students and educators stayand compasses allow sophisticated location and organized and exchange their ndings and ideas withpositioning, accelerometers and motion sensors enable peers. Many apps, when coupled with digital textbooks,the apps to be designed and used in completely new ease the transition for students who are accustomedways, digital capture and editing bring rich tools for to print books. For example, “Good Reader” is an app
12 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Editionthat enables users to highlight, annotate, sketch, and organized outlines in addition to attaching notesadd footnotes to e-books — just as they would in the to speci c topics or automatically arranging themprint version. “JotNot Pro” is another app that allows based on common themes. The app has built in socialprofessors to digitally distribute course documents and features that allow students to share their projectstudents to instantly scan printed documents and store plans with each other. go.nmc.org/qnquwthem on their device. > University Services. Professor Catheryn Cheal atAs mobile apps become an important xture in the Oakland University, Michigan sends her students tobusiness world, many universities and colleges have ve speci c campus locations with the “SCVNGR” appdeployed special courses and programs to teach on their smartphones. They answer questions aboutstudent entrepreneurs how to design, develop, and visual rhetorical space into their phone at each site.market them. Vanderbilt University founded the Once back in the classroom, they have the backgroundVanderbilt Mobile Application Team in 2009 to prepare to write their essays in a learning management system.their students for high technology jobs. Since the group go.nmc.org/hochwwas founded, participating students have developedthree award-winning apps. All of their work is open Mobile Apps in Practicesource, and can be used as a learning model at other The following links provide examples of mobile apps ininstitutions. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a use in higher education settings:faculty associate in the School of Journalism and MassCommunication has incorporated app development Berkley Mobile International Collaborativeinto her magazine publishing class, recognizing that go.nmc.org/pramkmobile devices are taking on a prominent role in the In the Berkeley Mobile International Collaborative,magazine industry. student-created mobile apps will be judged based on business model and utility, with ten nalist universityThe increasing availability of network access means teams competing in Barcelona.that the growing capabilities of mobiles are available tomore students in more locations each year. Educational The Cleveland Historical Appinstitutions around the world are investing in the go.nmc.org/aeeueinfrastructure that supports mobile access, sponsoring “Cleveland Historical” is an interactive and GPS-enabledprograms that provide devices to students who do not app, providing historical information on speci c sitesalready have them, and commissioning custom mobile within the city in the form of images, audio, and videoapplications to serve their communities. clips. “Cleveland Historical” is curated by the Center for Public History and Digital Humanities with storiesA sampling of applications of mobile apps across contributed from community members, teachers,disciplines includes the following: professors, and students.> Multimedia Production. Students in the iPrinceton Instructional Systems program at Penn State go.nmc.org/oadcp University are developing a mobile video app for Princeton University’s free “iPrinceton” app enables users video ethnographers to record and annotate video in to catch up on athletic and academic news, browse a the eld. The app allows users to add, edit, and delete full library catalog, and connect to the university’s social text annotations displayed alongside the video media pages. The app also connects with Blackboard for footage. go.nmc.org/waxvi direct course support at any point.> Project Management. Using the mobile app “MindJet,” students can create mind maps and
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 13Stanford University’s iPhone and iPad Apps Course How to Build a University Mobile Application: Bestgo.nmc.org/tvlvs Practice and InsightLectures and slides from Stanford’s iPhone and iPad go.nmc.org/qnbcvapplication development course can now be freely (Karen Eustice, The Guardian, 8 December 2011.) Thisaccessed online through iTunes U. The appearance article compares the di erent avenues universitiesof the course material made iTunes history with one are taking in creating and updating their mobile apps,million downloads by the seventh week. showing the e ciency and reasoning behind each option from the developer’s perspective.The University of Michigan’s Mobile Apps Centergo.nmc.org/sewzg Smartphones on Campus: the Search for ‘Killer’ AppsUniversity of Michigan’s Mobile Apps Center brings go.nmc.org/wskketogether instruction and app building resources to (Je rey R. Young, The Chronicle of Higher Education,allow students and faculty to create and distribute 8 May 2011.) There is no one size ts all app becauseuseful apps to the U-M community. diversity in professors and courses leads to mobile apps being used in varying degrees and manners. ThisUniversity of Virginia iPhone and Android Apps article explores di erent examples of apps bene tinggo.nmc.org/xaess professors and students, and how they are providingThe University of Virginia has developed its campus app links from the classroom to the community.through WillowTree apps. Augmented reality featuresallow users to personalize their maps. The app has many Taking Mobile Applications Into the Cloudcomponents useful for alumni too, allowing them to go.nmc.org/zzrutfollow sporting events live and easily connect with UVA (Mary Grush, Campus Technology, 31 August 2011.)clubs and contacts. Because mobile devices are limited in their capabilities, researchers are looking to resource-rich cloud-basedFor Further Reading services that, when integrated with mobile apps, willThe following articles and resources are recommended expand the depth of information mobile phones canfor those who wish to learn more about mobile apps: access and the range of their function.7 Things You Should Know about Mobile App University Leverages Mobile App to Keep StudentsDevelopment Connectedgo.nmc.org/velrd go.nmc.org/ehjiw(EDUCAUSE, 19 April 2011.) This guide provides (Je Goldman, Mobile Enterprise, 17 October 11.) Thishigher education institutions with helpful information article on Indiana State University’s mobile app poweredto take into consideration when building an app, by Pryxis Mobile describes the challenges and decisionsincluding accessibility standards and enterprise system that were a part of the app building process, as well asintegration opportunities. marketing and monitoring the nished product.Can the iPhone Save Higher Education?go.nmc.org/abuoc(John Cox, NetworkWorld, 23 March 2010.) Exploring thee ect of digital devices for teaching and learning, AbileneChristian University has focused on mobile phones andhow they are changing the classroom. The lecturer tostudent model is becoming a more collaborative andinteractive model, now that instructors and studentshave ubiquitous and equal access to information.
14 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionTablet ComputingTime-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or LessI n the past year, advances in tablet computers have Immensely portable, tablets are already a signi cant captured the imagination of educators around the distribution element for magazines and e-books. iOS world. Led by the incredible success of the iPad, 5 even includes a newsstand that allows quick and which in the fourth quarter of 2011 was selling easy access to newspapers and magazines and new at the rate of more than 3 million units a month, subscriptions — with a mere touch. Even withoutother similar devices such as the Samsung Galaxy and extending their functionality via the full range ofSony’s Tablet S have also begun to enter this rapidly mobile apps, tablets serve as nicely sized video playersgrowing new market. In the process, tablets (a form with instant access to an enormous library of content;that is distinct from tablet PCs) have come to be viewed digital readers for books, magazines, and newspapers;as not just a new category of mobile devices, but real-time two-way video phones; easily sharable photoindeed a new technology in its own right — one that viewers and even cameras; fast, easy email and webblends features of laptops, smartphones, and earlier browsers; and rich, full-featured game platforms —tablet computers with always-connected Internet, all in a slim, lightweight, portable package that ts inand thousands of apps with which to personalize a purse or briefcase — but which signi cantly omitsthe experience. As these new devices have become a traditional keyboard. That design choice, and themore used and understood, it is clear that they are implications it brings for interacting with the device, is aindependent and distinct from other mobile devices key reason that tablets are not a new kind of lightweightsuch as smartphones, e-readers, or tablet PCs. With laptop, but rather a completely new computing device.signi cantly larger screens and richer gestured-basedinterfaces than their smartphone predecessors, they When the iPad was introduced, it was described as a “leanare ideal tools for sharing content, videos, images, back” experience as contrasted to the “lean forward”and presentations because they are easy for anyone experience of typical computers. While second marketto use, visually compelling, and highly portable. and wireless keyboards are available for tablets, the real innovation in these devices is in how they are used. AOverview swipe, a tap, or a pinch allows the user to interact withLed by the category-de ning phenomenon that is the the device in completely new ways that are so intuitiveApple iPad, tablets have earned their own listing in the and simple they require no manuals or instructions. TheNMC Horizon Report this year, completely distinct from device itself encourages exploration of its capabilities,mobiles. According to a recent study from comScore, something easily demonstrated by simply placing thethe iPad now accounts for 97% of all tablet-based device in the hands of a small child. For times when aweb tra c in the U.S. and 46.8% of all mobile web keyboard is needed, a custom-con gured softwaretra c. Similar statistics show tablets are increasingly keyboard appears, but the best-designed apps makethe device of choice not just for web browsing, but little or no use of it.also social networking and reading news. Competingmodels, including Motorola’s Xoom and Samsung’s Screen technology has advanced to the point thatGalaxy Tab have not yet enjoyed the success of the iPad, tablets are exceptionally e ective at displaying visualbut together, these companies have solidi ed tablets as content, such as photographs, books, and video; similarthe new family of devices to watch. advances in gesture-based computing have moved
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 15tablets far beyond the point and click capabilities of More and more institutions are providing their studentstouchscreens, and tablets are engaging and intuitive with iPad devices that come pre-loaded with coursedevices to use. These combinations of features are materials, digital textbooks, and other helpful resources.especially enticing to educational institutions at all Under the Gri n Technology Advantage at Seton Hilllevels, and many K-12 institutions are considering University, for example, all full-time students receive antablets as a cost-e ective alternative to the netbook iPad 2. Similarly, the University of Southern Mississippiwhen planning a one-to-one deployment. In these is piloting up to 1,000 Galaxy Tab 10.1 devices thatand other group settings, their large screens — and will be issued to students, loaded with Blackboardthe ease with which the image automatically adjusts Mobile™ Learn. Students and professors, sharing theits orientation to the viewer — make it easy to share same hardware and software, will experience and sharecontent. audio, video, and other learning materials.Perhaps the most interesting aspect of tablets is that Because these types of tablet programs are relativelythey owe their heritage not to the desktop, but to the new, many universities and colleges are conductingmobile phone. Both iOS and Android-based tablets in depth studies to measure their outcomes. Studiesare designed with the app model rmly in mind, and including those at Abilene Christian University,hundreds of thousands of specialized apps are available Oberlin College, the Missouri University of Science andto extend the functionality of tablets. Apps for tablets Technology, and many others have generally foundhave many features in common with mobile apps,such as seamless use of location awareness, networkconnections, and other built-in sensors, but the largerscreen real estate allows for more detailed interfaces Because of their portability, largeor viewing area. Also similar to smartphone apps, appsfor tablets are inexpensive and very easy to add to the display, and touchscreen, tabletsdevice, using the same tools and online stores. are ideal devices for one-to-oneRelevance for Teaching, Learning, or learning, as well as ﬁeldwork.Creative InquiryBecause of their portability, large display, and that integrating tablets into the curriculum has led totouchscreen, tablets are ideal devices for one-to-one increased student engagement and has enhancedlearning, as well as eldwork. Many institutions are learning experiences. However, higher educationbeginning to rely on them in place of cumbersome institutions are just beginning to delve into morelaboratory equipment, video equipment, and various research surrounding some of the many potential usesother expensive tools that are not nearly as portable or of tablets, including the replacement of print textbooksas inexpensive to replace. with e-books, the wide use of specialized apps, the expanded use of the devices’ built-in sensors, GPS,For example, the iPad has become an integral instrument gesture interface, cameras, video and audio tools, andin the cadaver laboratories at the University of California, more.Irvine. Images of body structures and radiographic lmscan be easily explored and manipulated on-screen, and With their growing number of features, tablets giveapps such as “Epocrates Essentials” provide a mobile traction to other educational technologies — fromdrug and disease reference at students’ ngertips (go. facilitating the real-time data mining needed to supportnmc.org/epeif ). Similarly, Duke University has been learning analytics to o ering a plethora of game-basedexploring the use of the iPad as an e cient way to learning apps. What makes tablets so powerful is thatcollect global health research (go.nmc.org/fqxpm). students already use these or very similar devices outside the classroom to download apps, connect
16 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Editionto their social networks, and immerse themselves in iPad Makes Wall Street Debutinformal learning experiences. As such, students are go.nmc.org/swnbtalready quite comfortable using them in both academic During Drew University’s Wall Street Semester program,and social settings. students will be equipped with an iPad and apps that access and interpret nancial information. Conveniently,A sampling of tablet computing applications across students can read course materials on their iPads insteaddisciplines includes the following: of carrying books, and digitally compose documents, spreadsheets, and presentations.> Chemistry. In organic chemistry laboratories at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, wall- The iPad Replaces University Textbooks mounted iPads are equipped with a kiosk app to go.nmc.org/vblpb deliver video reviews of the lab techniques most The University of Adelaide will replace textbooks needed by the students. Students also use the with Apple iPads for rst year students in its Science iPads throughout the chemistry courses to clarify program. The University sees this as a way to allow the experiment set-up and answer other procedural evolution of student learning environments to augment questions. go.nmc.org/hjjvi individual student growth.> Lecture Capture. Tablet apps, such as McGraw Hill’s Solar-Powered iPad Devices “Tegrity,” are used by the University of Colorado, go.nmc.org/ctjzq Georgia Tech University, Fordham Law School, and In partnership with Apple, the Zimbabwe government is many others as a campus-wide solution for recording bringing solar-powered iPad devices to rural institutions and deploying class lectures. go.nmc.org/zmgnp across Africa that have not had consistent — or any — computer access in the past due to lack of electricity.> Mathematics. As a collaborative project between the math support centers at three universities — University of Dayton Undergraduate Viewbook Swinburne in Australia, Limerick in Ireland, and go.nmc.org/wdcwm Loughborough in the UK — “MathsCasts” are videos The free University of Dayton Viewbook app gives of mathematical explanations recorded by writing on potential undergraduate students a virtual orientation a tablet. They cover topics with which undergraduate to the school using video content, slideshows, and students typically struggle. All “MathsCasts” carry a interactive feeds to explore academic facilities, Creative Commons license and are available for free programs, opportunities and student life. on the Swinburne website and on iTunes U. go.nmc. org/igmlf Valparaiso College of Engineering Releases iPad App go.nmc.org/yqqhw> Writing. Designed and developed by the University Recent Valparaiso University graduates have developed of Queensland, UQMarkup is an iPad app developed a new interactive digital magazine for the iPad that to facilitate the integration of contextualized audio incorporates videos and photo galleries into stories so and written feedback in student writing assessments. that students, faculty, alumni and anyone interested can The feedback from the app is personalized, and the connect to news and happenings within the College of responses are provided in a short, xed and easily Engineering. understood format. go.nmc.org/hwzcu For Further ReadingTablet Computing in Practice The following articles and resources are recommendedThe following links provide examples of tablet for those who wish to learn more about tabletcomputing in use in higher education settings: computing:
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less 176 Reasons Tablets are Ready for the Classroom Kindle Fire: Changing the Game in Higher Education?go.nmc.org/lcrin go.nmc.org/hdoru(Vineet Madan, Mashable, 16 May 2011.) This article (Vineet Madan, Geek Wire, 15 November 2011.) Thisexplores the applications of tablet computers in higher article measures the new Kindle Fire to its competitor,education, based on reports from classrooms that have the iPad, citing that the smaller screen of the Kindle Fireparticipated in pilot studies, citing that iPads t with is the main shortcoming of the device for educationalstudents’ current lifestyles. purposes, since students are looking to use the device to read and access multimedia, such as images andThe B-School Case Study Gets a Digital Makeover videos.go.nmc.org/delwj(Erin Zlomek, Bloomberg Business Week, 25 July 2011.)This article demonstrates how tablets allow students a Tablets have come to be viewedconvenient way to access and interact with the manybusiness case studies that are a core part of businessschool curriculum. as not just a new category ofCampus Tour Now Comes with an iPad mobile devices, but indeed a newgo.nmc.org/hszrt(Jody S. Cohen, Chicago Tribune, 9 October 2011.) technology in its own right — oneBradley University is now distributing iPads duringcampus tours so that when prospective students are that blends features of laptops,shown areas of the campus, they can also watch videosof events that have taken place there throughout the smartphones, and earlier tabletyear. Seeing laboratories and lecture halls in use givesstudents an understanding of what busy campus computers with always-connectedlife will be like, even when touring during holidays orsummer months. Internet, and thousands of apps withEducators Evaluate Learning Bene ts of iPad which to personalize the experience.go.nmc.org/whlnr(Ian Quillen, Education Week, 15 June 2011.) This articlediscusses the use of iPad devices as learning tools, anddelves into the ongoing discourse about whether theyare more viable for one-to-one solutions or as part of agroup of shared devices.An iPad University: Giving It the Old College Trygo.nmc.org/zxqiy(Lena Groeger, Wired, 22 July 2011.) The University ofSouthern California has teamed up with TouchAppMediaand 2tor, Inc. to create an online distance learningexperience fully accessible with an iPad or mobiledevice, featuring social integrations like video chat withclassmates and sharing notes and ideas on course wallsand forums.
18 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionGame-Based LearningTime-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three YearsG ame-based learning has gained considerable and appealing to players of various ages and of both traction since 2003, when James Gee began to genders: the feeling of working toward a goal; the describe the impact of game play on cognitive possibility of attaining spectacular successes; the ability development. Since then, research, and interest to problem solve, collaborate with others, and socialize; in, the potential of gaming on learning has an interesting story line; and other characteristics. Theseexploded, as has the diversity of games themselves, qualities are replicable for educational content, thoughwith the emergence of serious games as a genre, the they can be di cult to design well. This challenge isproliferation of gaming platforms, and the evolution of one reason why game-based learning continues to begames on mobile devices. Developers and researchers placed on the mid-term horizon.are working in every area of game-based learning,including games that are goal-oriented; social game In the most recent National Education Technology Plan,environments; non-digital games that are easy to gaming was named as an ideal method of assessingconstruct and play; games developed expressly for student knowledge comprehension, citing the abilityeducation; and commercial games that lend themselves of games to provide immediate performance feedbackto re ning team and group skills. Role-playing, to the players. Students are engaged because theycollaborative problem solving, and other forms of are motivated to do better, get to the next level, andsimulated experiences are recognized for having broad succeed. Proponents also underscore the productiveapplicability across a wide range of disciplines. role of play, which allows for experimentation, the exploration of identities, and even failure.OverviewAccording to Trip Wire Magazine, 61.9 million people In recent years, the Serious Games movement hasparticipated in online social games in 2011, up nearly focused on uniting signi cant educational content9 million people from 2010. Forty percent of these with play. The games within this genre layer socialgamers are between the ages of 20 and 34. The average issues or problems with game play, helping playersage of the American gamer is now 35-years-old, which gain a new perspective through active engagement.correlates with the early 1980s timeline in which the rst Research shows that players readily connect withdigital games appeared with the rst home computers. learning material when doing so will help them achieveTen years later, the web was born, and games began to personally meaningful goals. Purdue University’sbe delivered over the Internet. The three most recent Serious Games Center is just one of the many programscohorts of children — those born in the early 1980s, dedicated to conducting research and nding newthe early 1990s, and the early 2000s — have grown up means of collaboration with Serious Games in virtualin a world where digital games have always been an environments.important part of their lives, and entered or graduatedfrom higher education institutions with hundreds of Another area of gaming that is increasingly interestinghours of gaming experience. for higher education institutions is simulation-based games. Militaries worldwide have adopted games andEarly studies of consumer games helped to identify the simulations across the entire range of skills trainingaspects of games that make them especially engaging they provide, and the game-design insights from that
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years 19tremendous body of work are beginning to inform solutions. The ideas players have proposed havesimulations designed for graduate students studying earned them opportunities to put their proposals intoand training in speci c subjects including medicine. practice through internships with social innovators and“Emergency Room: Code Red” is one such popular business leaders around the world, and scholarshipsgame. or funding for their own ventures. Stanford University created “Septris,” an HTML5 mobile simulation gameThe 2011 edition of this report viewed massively that teaches practicing physicians and nurses aboutmultiplayer online (MMO) games as still a few years Sepsis (blood poisoning) identi cation, triage, andfurther out for learning, but increasingly interesting. management. Learners play the part of a physicianThis year, there has been more traction surrounding thisgenre of gaming. Online games including “Minecraft”and “World of Warcraft” have been integrated into Proponents underscore thecourse curriculum, with educators and educationaltechnology writers frequently documenting theirstories and outcomes. This type of game brings many productive role of play, which allowsplayers together to work on activities that requirecollaborative problem solving. They are complex, and for experimentation, the explorationinclude solo and group content, as well as goals thattie to a storyline or theme. Their link to education exists of identities, and even failure.in the highest levels of interaction in which game-play managing patients as their health deteriorates. Learnersrequires teamwork, leadership, and discovery. read history, order labs, and assign treatments to multiple patients at a time.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, orCreative Inquiry The browser-based game “Ikariam” simulates life inGame-based learning re ects a number of important ancient civilizations, and players learn about economicsskills higher education institutions strive for their and civic responsibility by building up the economy andstudents to acquire: collaboration, problem solving, caring for the residents on virtual islands. Some highercommunication, critical thinking, and digital literacy. education institutions are taking the incorporationWhat makes educational gaming appealing today is of socially aware games a step further and designingthe plethora of genres and applications associated with entire courses around them. St. Edward’s Universityit. From role-playing games to online social games to recently launched a pilot section of a required Culturalentire courses created around teaching better game Foundations course with an emphasis on the use ofdesign, aspects of game mechanics are well integrated social media and experiential learning approaches.in higher education curriculum. Their “Global Social Problems” course was designed using “heroic gaming” strategies. All course activitiesGames related speci cally to course content help were rooted in a common set of heroic values and werestudents gain a fresh perspective on material and represented as “character traits” on each student’s pro le.can potentially engage them in that content in morecomplex and nuanced ways. Alternate reality games Open-ended, challenge-based, truly collaborative(ARGs), in which players nd clues and solve puzzles games are an emerging category of games that seemsin experiences that blur the boundary between the especially appropriate for higher education. Games likegame and real life, o er a clear example in which course these, which occur in both online and non-digital forms,content and game play can overlap. Recent examples can draw on skills for research, writing, collaboration,of large-scale ARGs include Jane McGonigal’s “EVOKE,” problem solving, public speaking, leadership, digitala social networking game that simulates real global literacy, and media-making. When embedded in theissues to empower people to nd new and innovative curriculum, they o er a path into the material that allows
20 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition the student to learn how to learn along with mastering compares the student’s performance to that of a the subject matter. These games lend themselves to professional musician. go.nmc.org/udrgw curricular content, requiring students to discover and construct knowledge in order to solve problems. They > Online Learning. Students in an Adult Education are challenging to design well, but the results can be undergraduate online course at the University of transformative. British Columbia are participating in a role-playing game, in which they are reporters who are writing The challenge that persists with educational games articles for an imaginary journal called Adult Educator — a good indicator of why they still reside on the mid- Weekly. They also post comments as “readers” and term horizon — is embedding traditional educational vote for the best article. The results showed that the students posted more in the journal than they used to in LMS discussion forums. go.nmc.org/yvrzzOpen-ended, challenge-based, truly > Science. “MicroExplorer3D,” developed by Northcollaborative games are an emerging Carolina State University, provides an avenue for students who do not have access to a microscopycategory of games that seems lab to learn the parts of a compound microscope. Students interact with the 3D model of a compoundespecially appropriate for higher microscope by clicking (web) or touching (mobile), zoom into detailed views of the parts, and openeducation. menu items and descriptions with photograph and video examples. go.nmc.org/kwgmb content so that it looks and feels a natural part of playing the game. Faculty members may nd it di cult Game-Based Learning in Practice to make pronounced connections between speci c The following links provide examples of game-based course content and the gaming objectives. What is learning in use in higher education settings: known, however, is that these games spark interest in students to expand their learning outside of the game. 3D GameLab Constance Steinkuehler, for example, founding fellow go.nmc.org/vedmb of the Games+Learning+Society Initiative, found that Developed by Boise State University, 3D GameLab is the average MMO gamer spends 10-15 hours per week a unique quest-based learning platform that can turn conducting online research related to the game. Digital any classroom into a living game. 3D GameLab helps and communication literacy goes hand in hand with teachers tie innovative learning activities to standards, game play, which is why it continues to be of great providing learners choice while they game their way interest to educators. through a competency-based curriculum. A sampling of applications of game-based learning Cycles of Your Cognitive Learning, Expectations, across disciplines includes the following: and Schema go.nmc.org/gcogy > Music. In McGill University’s “Open Orchestra” A University at Albany research team is developing a simulation game, a workstation uses high de nition video game that will show people negative aspects of panoramic video and surround sound to provide their own decision-making processes, speci cally when musicians with the experience of playing in an they are confronted with incomplete information and orchestra or singing in an opera. A touchscreen in the operating under time pressure. music stand displays an electronic version of the score and the system controls, as well as a visualization that
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years 21GAMeS Lab at Radford University to successfully incorporate gaming into university andgo.nmc.org/qlohz college curriculum, underscoring that game-basedThe purpose of the Games, Animation, Modeling and learning is not a solution for all subjects and that gamesSimulation (GAMeS) Lab at Radford University is to are no quick x, but take research and classroom testingdesign interactive mobile games and study their impact by the educator to ascertain their success.on student engagement and learning. The GAMeS Labhas designed iPod Touch and iPad games for schools in Games and Learning: Teaching as Designingrural, southwestern Virginia, and is collaborating with go.nmc.org/cooatthe participating educators to determine how best to (James Gee, The Hu ngton Post, 21 April 2011.) Jamesintegrate these games within the existing curricula. Gee builds a case for games as catalysts for more interaction, creativity, and critical thinking in learning.Meet the Earthwork Builders He likens gamers to designers as they must understandgo.nmc.org/cyaow the “rule system” to be successful.Funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities,a team of content specialists and game developers is Games in the Librarymaking a video game prototype about the Newark go.nmc.org/fmtamEarthworks, an ancient lunar observatory in Newark, (Anastasia Salter, The Chronicle of Higher Education,Ohio. Through the game, players will learn about the 13 December 2011.) This article takes a logisticallunar observatory and gain a more global understanding perspective to game-based learning, focusing on theof di erent cultures. di culty of disseminating a gaming experience to a large classroom of varying students, and proposing thatSciEthics Interactive a game library is a good option to provide access andgo.nmc.org/khreb information as well as to track inventory.This project, funded by HP and the National ScienceFoundation, is designed to create virtual simulations with A Neurologist Makes the Case for the Video Gamea science and ethics focus. Upper level undergraduate Model as a Learning Tooland graduate students can experience real world go.nmc.org/rqvxpsituations in the safety of a virtual environment. (Judy Willis, Edutopia, 14 April 2011.) The neurologist behind this article equates the success of game-basedsimSchool learning with the release of dopamine, a physiologicalgo.nmc.org/dkbbl response to a prosperous choice or action, and outlinesA ight simulator for teachers, simSchool provides the phases of this natural learning process.challenging teaching scenarios that develop theknowledge and skills needed for classroom success. What Does Game-Based Learning O er HigherResearch has indicated that training time on the Education?simulator makes a signi cant di erence in a teacher’s go.nmc.org/qcunoself-e cacy and sense of the focus of control. (Justin Marquis, OnlineUniversities.com, 14 October 2011.) This article explores the bene ts of gaming atFor Further Reading the university level by breaking down a hypothesisThe following articles and resources are recommended by game designer, Jane McGonigal, which recognizesfor those who wish to learn more about game-based speci c positive attributes of gamers that can translatelearning: to productivity in the classroom and beyond.5 Teaching Tips for Professors — From Video Gamesgo.nmc.org/lssnv(Je rey R. Young, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 24January 2010.) This article shares best practices on how
22 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionLearning AnalyticsTime-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three YearsL earning analytics refers to the interpretation of Learning analytics was featured in the NMC Horizon a wide range of data produced by and gathered Report: 2011 Higher Education Edition on the far-term on behalf of students in order to assess academic horizon. This year, largely because of a major initiative progress, predict future performance, and spot focused on its re nement, the topic has been moved potential issues. Data are collected from explicit to the mid-term horizon, and is poised to make thestudent actions, such as completing assignments and transition from concept to practice. In 2010, EDUCAUSEtaking exams, and from tacit actions, including online announced a major program in partnership with thesocial interactions, extracurricular activities, posts on Gates Foundation under the Next Generation Learningdiscussion forums, and other activities that are not Initiative that identi ed learning analytics as one ofdirectly assessed as part of the student’s educational ve key areas for development. That same year, the HPprogress. The goal of learning analytics is to enable Catalyst Initiative established the Measuring Learningteachers and schools to tailor educational opportunities Consortium, led by Carnegie Mellon University, in whichto each student’s level of need and ability in close-to- several large-scale international learning analyticsreal time. Learning analytics promises to harness the projects are working towards common solutions. Thesepower of advances in data mining, interpretation, projects, and others located at a number of higherand modeling to improve understandings of teaching education institutions, are driving not only the scienceand learning, and to tailor education to individual behind learning analytics, but also interest. As thestudents more e ectively. Still in its early stages, science and technical aspects of learning analytics arelearning analytics responds to calls for accountability solved, one can expect to see signi cant developmenton campuses and aims to leverage the vast amount of activity as campuses begin to implement learningdata produced by students in academic activities. analytics strategies.Overview This interest has not escaped large publishers, such asAt its heart, learning analytics is about analyzing the McGraw Hill (“Connect”) and Pearson (“MyLabs”), whowealth of information about students in a way that have begun to establish their own learning analyticswould allow schools to make informed adjustments solutions and have hired dedicated employees whoseto a student’s learning experience, drawing on new job is to provide learning analytics expertise as theways of observing patterns in complex data. This emerging technology evolves. The initial focus ofsort of intervention is not new — school counselors these e orts is on integration with existing learningand student services professionals have long used management systems (LMS). Several researchersinformation such as student attendance records, grades, feel that this is a necessary part of a comprehensiveteacher observations, test scores, and the like to identify solution, but is insu cient. To move learning analyticsat-risk students. Learning analytics builds on this forward, many would argue that analytics must includeheritage, but aims to go much further than these tried more than LMS data. Other factors, such as the impactand true strategies, merging information from disparate of the learning environment (especially online, butsources to create a far more robust and nuanced picture also physical environments), knowledge gained viaof learning as it happens that can be used to improve informal learning, and metrics on skills includingboth teaching and learning environments. creativity, leadership, and innovation are seen as
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years 23equally important indicators of the overall quality of Broader sorts of analytics tools have a widerstudent performance. applicability for learning analytics, and Gephi is a good example. This free, open source interactive visualizationRelevance for Teaching, Learning, or and exploration platform allows not only easy visualCreative Inquiry exploration of complex data, but also provides tools likeUntil recently, research on learning in higher education social network analysis, link relationships in scale-freehas centered primarily on identifying students who networks, and much more.might be at risk of failure in a course or program, anddesigning interventions to address short-term issues Among the tools developed speci cally for learningthat may be preventing them from succeeding in their analytics is Socrato, an online learning analytics servicecoursework. The Signals project at Purdue University that designs custom diagnostic and performanceis an exemplary instance of this use. Initiated in reports for tutoring or training centers and schools.2007, Signals gathers information from SIS, course SNAPP (Social Networks Adapting Pedagogicalmanagement systems, and course grade books to Practice), developed by the University of Wollongong ingenerate a risk level for students, and those designatedas at-risk are targeted for outreach. Similarly, theUniversity of Maryland, Baltimore County supplements The goal of learning analytics is totheir Blackboard course management system with aself-service feedback tool for students and educatorscalled “Check My Activity.” enable teachers and schools to tailorThe larger promise of learning analytics, however, is educational opportunities to eachthat when correctly applied and interpreted, it willenable faculty to more precisely understand students’ student’s level of need and ability inlearning needs and to tailor instruction appropriatelyfar more accurately and far sooner than is possible close-to-real time.today. This has implications not simply for individual Australia, is designed to expand on the basic informationstudent performance, but in how educators perceive gathered within learning management systems; thisthe processes of teaching, learning, and assessment. By information set typically centers on how often and foro ering information in real time, learning analytics can how long students interact with posted material. SNAPPsupport immediate adjustments, suggesting a model of uses visual analysis to show how students interactcurriculum that is more uid and open to change. with discussion forum posts. Teachscape’s Classroom Walkthrough program allows teachers to collect dataProspects for learning analytics tools include commercial and analysis on student knowledge comprehensionapplications designed for other purposes that might be using their mobile devices. Across the board, however, itadapted to support a learning analytics use case, and is clear that a full-featured set of learning analytics toolsthose developed speci cally to accomplish learning is still some time way.analytics tasks. It is still a bit early in the life cycle ofthis technology for specialized tools, but applications As higher education institutions continue to re ne thesuch as Mixpanel analytics, which o ers real-time data theory and practice of learning analytics — especiallyvisualization documenting how users are engaging as they begin to design their own platforms — they willwith material on a website, have obvious potential in need to preemptively tackle the issue of data privacyhybrid and online courses. Similarly, User y, designed and determine what extent of information to share withfor usability testing, allows the behavior of visitors on students and other institutions.a website to be recorded, after which it can be replayedand analyzed.
24 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionA sampling of applications of learning analytics across comprehension. The platform also provides educatorsdisciplines includes the following: with data on student behavior.> Business and Communications. Students at the Grade Discrepancy Project University of British Columbia are examining web and go.nmc.org/lfbnu social analytics to decipher meaningful trends about The University of Minnesota is using data from their human behavior. go.nmc.org/ugtei course management systems to determine whether the use of an online grade book can serve as a mitigating> Medicine. Learning analytics was used at the factor for helping lower achieving students estimate Graduate School of Medicine at the University of their nal grades more accurately. The goal is to Wollongong to help design a new curriculum with provide students with better information to guide a strong clinical focus. The approach provided their preparation for end-of-term exams, papers, and evidence of appropriate curriculum coverage, projects. student engagement, and equity while students were on clinical placement. go.nmc.org/zgxnk Learning Catalytics go.nmc.org/mymtv> Science, Technology, Mathematics, and Engineering Developed by the Mazur Group at Harvard University, (STEM). The University of Michigan uses a system Learning Catalytics supports peer-to-peer instruction, called ECoach in large introductory STEM courses. and provides real-time feedback during class. Faculty ECoach uses information about student background, can engage students with questions about course motivations, and recent performance to provide material with numerical, algebraic, textual, or graphical feedback, encouragement, and advice that are tailored responses, and the platform helps group students for to each student. go.nmc.org/vvoqp follow-up discussions.Learning Analytics in Practice SoLAR’s Open Online Learning Analytics CourseThe following links provide examples of learning go.nmc.org/pntpbanalytics in use in higher education settings: Hosted by Athabasca University for the Society for Learning Analytics Research (SoLAR), this free onlineCollaborative Assessment Platform for Practical course is an introduction to learning analytics and theSkills (video) role the approach plays in knowledge development.go.nmc.org/rhymf Also included is an overview of learning analyticsAmrita University is reaching more students in rural platforms and the optimal organization of informationIndia via a multilingual collaborative platform that can ow.be used remotely to teach language, promote adaptivelearning, and run virtual experiments. The platform will For Further Readinginclude a framework for the assessment of reporting The following articles and resources are recommendedand procedural skills, so that students can better for those who wish to learn more about learningconcentrate their e orts on the subject areas they need analytics:to master. Data Mining and Online LearningCoreDogs go.nmc.org/nyhsngo.nmc.org/bypup (Jim Shimabukuro, Educational Technology & ChangeCoreDogs is a platform for creating digital textbooks Journal, 7 August 2011.) In order to bene t from learningfor blended learning courses. While completing the analytics, educators must incorporate it into their dailyexercises in the books, students receive formative work ow, which can be time consuming. The authorfeedback and assessments on their knowledge explains his method of timely analysis and response.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years 25How Data and Analytics Can Improve Educationgo.nmc.org/btans(Audrey Watters, O’Reilly Radar, 25 July 2011.) Analyticsand data captured by digital platforms and programs canbe helpful for the learner to access as well as educators.This interview with education theorist George Siemensaddresses the importance and consequences of privacyissues within learning analytics.Learning Analytics: The Coming Third Wavego.nmc.org/mknvy(Malcolm Brown, EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative, April By o ering information in real time,2011.) This article discusses the current position oflearning analytics in education, and how third partyapplications are beginning to make the tools more learning analytics can supportcost-e ective. It also addresses the ethics involved indeploying learning analytics platforms. immediate adjustments, suggestingMonitoring the PACE of Student Learning: Analytics a model of curriculum that is moreat Rio Salado Collegego.nmc.org/apwgj ﬂuid and open to change.(Mary Grush, Campus Technology, 14 December 2011.)Rio Salado’s PACE (Progress and Course Engagement)automated tracking system generates reports so thatinstructors can easily see who is at risk in a given course,on the eighth day of the course, when there is still plentyof time to address the situation.Social Learning Analytics: Technical Reportgo.nmc.org/nvbjg(Simon Buckingham Shum and Rebecca Ferguson,Knowledge Media Institute, the Open University, UK,June 2011.) This paper studies the technological needsof implementing accurate learning analytics in an onlineacademic setting. Unprecedented amounts of digitaldata are now available from online social platforms, butthe goal is to narrow analytics to only pedagogicallyrelevant information.What are Learning Analytics?go.nmc.org/nqxvg(George Siemens, eLearnspace, 25 August 2010.) Thisarticle presents an overview of learning analyticsand discusses how it might be applied in learninginstitutions. A chart is included to depict the process oflearning analytics.
26 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionGesture-Based ComputingTime-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five YearsI t is already common to interact with a new class with a stationary infrared sensor to determine position, of devices entirely by using natural movements acceleration, and direction. The Kinect system eliminates and gestures. The Microsoft Surface, Apple’s the hand-held controller and discerns commands and iOS devices (iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch), and input by analyzing the visual eld. Development in this area other gesture-based systems accept input in the centers on creating a minimal interface, and in producingform of taps, swipes, and other ways of touching. The an experience of direct interaction such that, cognitively,Nintendo Wii and Microsoft’s Kinect system extend the hand and body become input devices themselves.that to hand and arm motions, or body movement. These systems recognize and interpret patterns in grossThese are the rst in a growing array of alternative motor movements, including body movements and facialinput devices that allow computers to recognize expressions. Players can jump, dance, point, and more andand interpret natural physical gestures as a means their actions catalyze the actions that take place on theof control. Gesture-based computing allows users screen.to engage in virtual activities with motions andmovements similar to what they would use in the real In previous years, the NMC Horizon Report hasworld, manipulating content intuitively. The idea that documented two major development paths for gesture-simple gestures and natural, comfortable motions based computing: marker-based and markerless. Whilecan be used to control computers is opening the way both pathways continue to see development, whatto a host of input devices that look and feel very makes gesture-based computing especially interestingdi erent from the keyboard and mouse — and that this year is two-fold. First is the increasingly high delityare increasingly enabling our devices to infer meaning of systems that understand gestures and their nuances.from the movements and gestures we make. This is allowing much more subtle hand and arm gestures — and even facial gestures — to be used toOverview control devices.Gesture-based devices are already commonplace.Tapping or swiping a nger across a screen is the way The second interesting development is the convergencemillions of people interact with their mobile devices of gesture-sensing technology with voice recognition,every day. The screens for the iPhone and iPad, and allowing, just as it does in human conversation, forAndroid-based tablets and smartphones, for example, both gesture and voice to communicate the user’sall react to pressure, motion, and even the number and intentions to devices. Siri, the virtual assistant includeddirection of ngers touching the devices. Some devices in the iPhone 4s, is a particularly successful examplereact to shaking, rotating, tilting, or moving the device of this convergence, seamlessly juxtaposing the voicein space. interface alongside the now routine taps and swipes. Another indication of this convergence is that both LGOver the past few years, gaming systems have increasingly and Samsung recently announced “smart” televisionsincorporated new gesture-based technology. Xbox Kinect equipped with both gesture and voice control.and Nintendo Wii, for example, continue to explore thepotential of human movement in gaming. The Wii functions Gesture-based computing is changing the ways thatby combining a handheld, accelerometer-based controller we interact with computers, both physically and
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years 27mechanically. As such, it is at once transformative and developing a system that allows those with visualdisruptive. Researchers and developers are gaining impairments to get more feedback with ne degreesa sense of the cognitive and cultural dimensions of of touch. Gesture-based computing algorithms are alsogesture-based communicating, and the full realization being used to interpret body language and even signof the potential of gesture-based computing within language.higher education will require intensive interdisciplinarycollaborations and innovative thinking about the very As an experimental media, however, it is easy to ndnature of teaching, learning, and communicating. examples of projects that are pushing the edges of gesture-recognition, especially as it converges withRelevance for Teaching, Learning, orCreative Inquiry Gesture-based computing allowsIt is clear that gesture-based computing has found anatural home in gaming and in mobile devices, but its users to engage in virtual activitiespotential uses are broader. Software that relies not onspeci c languages, but on natural human movements with motions and movementscommon to all cultures has a compelling utility incountries such as India, which has 30 native languages similar to what they would use inwith more than a million speakers. A natural interfaceopens up a key barrier between the user and his or her the real world, manipulating contentmachine, and indeed all that is required to see this isto put a gesture-enabled device in the hands of a two- intuitively.year-old. voice recognition in natural user interface applications.Devices that encourage users to touch them, move, or The idea of being able to have a completely naturalotherwise use play as a means to explore are particularly interaction with your device is not new, but neither hasintriguing to schools. Such devices, which currently are its full potential been realized. Recent advances acrossprimarily illustrated by Android and Apple smartphones the board in the underlying technologies, along withand tablets, the Microsoft Surface and Promethean’s strong interest in the consumer electronics segment,ActivPanel, and the Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect bode well for this category of technologies to continuesystems, open up a wide range of uses for learners. to see new and compelling developments.Gesture-enabled devices aid collaboration, sharing, andgroup interactions. A sampling of applications for gesture-based computing across disciplines includes the following:Nonetheless, while gesture-based computing isgarnering a lot of excitement in the consumer space, > Art and Fashion Design. Created by students at Ballan extensive review was unable to uncover many State University, “Morp Holuminescence” uses bodycurrent examples in higher education of gesture-based gestures to adjust the light in a room for optimalsoftware or devices being applied to speci c learning viewing results. Designed for use in the fashionexamples. As an enabling or assistive technology, industry, the system o ers an integrated lighting andhowever, gesture-sensing techniques are already sensor system, much of it built using the open-sourcehaving profound implications for special needs and Arduino prototyping platform. go.nmc.org/bnikwdisabled individuals. For example, devices with gesturecontrol are already helping blind, dyslexic, or otherwise > Music. The EyeMusic project at the University ofdisabled students, reducing their dependence on Oregon uses eye-tracking sensors to composekeyboards. Researchers at McGill University are multimedia productions based on the movements
28 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition of the user’s eye movement. The performer looks LZI Technology at a physical location to visually process it or to go.nmc.org/ophom create a sound, and EyeMusic reconciles those two European-based company Extreme Reality is creating motivations to achieve perceptual-motor harmony. software that will allow users to control computer go.nmc.org/hmhxq programs, games, and mobile devices with their hand gestures and movements. The technology will work > Science and Medicine. Researchers at Norrkoping with mechanisms already built into computers and Visualization Centre and the Center for Medical Image mobile devices so no extra hardware will be required. Science and Visualization in Sweden have created a Mogees: Gesture-Based Recognition with Contact- MicrophoneGesture-based computing is go.nmc.org/kepyk Using a contact microphone, two researchers connectedchanging the ways that we interact to a system that processes sound in real-time and will turn any surface into its own touchscreen. This system iswith computers, both physically and transforming the vibrations transmitted from touch into waveforms that a computer will recognize.mechanically. As such, it is at once MudPadtransformative and disruptive. go.nmc.org/xjtek Researchers in the Media Computing Group at RWTH virtual autopsy using a multi-touch table. Detailed CT Aachen University are developing a localized active scans are created from a living or dead person and haptic feedback interface called MudPad for uid touch transferred to the table where they are manipulated interfaces in order to o er more nuanced ways to with gestures, allowing forensic scientists to examine interact with screens through touch. a body, make virtual cross-sections, and view layers including skin, muscle, blood vessels, and bone. Zero Touch go.nmc.org/edaic go.nmc.org/xpsge Researchers at Texas A&M University have developed Gesture-Based Computing in Practice a multi-touch system from infrared sensors that allows The following links provide examples of gesture-based precision free-air interaction. Users reach into a frame computing in use in higher education settings: lined with sensors, and can use their hands, elbows, arms, head, or any object, such as a pen to create 3Gear Systems compositions on their computer screens. go.nmc.org/tahtr A pair of MIT graduate students created a marker-based For Further Reading gesture interaction system that would cost about one The following articles and resources are recommended US dollar to produce, using o the shelf computer for those who wish to learn more about gesture-based cameras and a pair of Lycra gloves. This economical computing: advancement in user interfaces will make human interaction with computers and digital devices more 7 Areas Beyond Gaming where Kinect Could Play a natural. Role go.nmc.org/yskco (Alex Howard, O’Reilly Radar, 3 December 2010.) This article looks at how the gesture-based Kinect System from Microsoft can have broad use beyond its intended
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years 29use as a gaming platform. Uses include applications inart, health, and education.Gesture Recognition Moves Beyond Gaminggo.nmc.org/auimq(Steve Sechrist, Software Quality Connection, 23 May2011.) In the context of the major developments ingesture recognition, the author discusses the potentialfor Kinect-style natural user interfaces.LG adds Google TVs, Smart TVs get Voice andGesture Control The idea of being able to have ago.nmc.org/eilfc(James K. Willcox, Consumer Reports, 9 January 2011.)LG Electronics is releasing televisions that double as completely natural interaction withcomputer monitors so users can download apps fromthe Android Market to surf the web on their televisions. your device is not new, but neitherThe SmartTV platform will also have voice and gesturecontrol, and built-in Wi-Fi to beam content like music, has its full potential been realized.photos, and videos from a notebook to the televisionset.SoftKinetic Previews Next-Gen Gesture Interfaces(Video)go.nmc.org/qhjle(SoftKinetic, youtube.com, 29 March 2011.) In thisvideo prepared by SoftKinetic for the 2011 ConsumerElectronics Show, the next generation of gestureinterfaces is illustrated. SoftKinetic is developing 3Dgesture control middleware for a wide range of devicesand platforms.To Win Over Users, Gadgets Have to Be Touchablego.nmc.org/lagrp(Claire Cain Miller, New York Times, 1 September 2010.)This article discusses how gesture-based computinghas become a prevalent way that we interact withour computers, especially mobile devices such assmartphones and tablets.
30 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionInternet of ThingsTime-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five YearsT he Internet of Things has become a sort of cams or shared printers, to use the Internet to transmit shorthand for network-aware smart objects and receive data and information from an object or that connect the physical world with the world piece of equipment. Vint Cerf noted that already we of information. A smart object has four key have Internet-enabled phones, appliances, picture attributes: it is small, and thus easy to attach frames, and o ce equipment. It is not a large step toto almost anything; it has a unique identi er; it has envision Internet-enabled electric meters that use thea small store of data or information; and it has a Smart Grid to let your house know to raise the ambientway to communicate that information to an external temperature a degree to help o set a peak load. Indeed,device on demand. The Internet of Things extends Cerf sees the Smart Grid as an accelerator for thethat concept by using TCP/IP as the means to convey Internet of things.the information, thus making objects addressable(and ndable) on the Internet. Objects that carry While there are examples, such as the Smart Grid, ofinformation with them have long been used for the what the Internet of Things might look like as it unfolds,monitoring of sensitive equipment or materials, it is still today more concept than reality. At the samepoint-of-sale purchases, passport tracking, inventory time, the underlying technologies that will make itmanagement, identi cation, and similar applications. possible — smart sensors that can easily be attachedSmart objects are the next generation of those to everyday objects to monitor their environment ortechnologies — they “know” about a certain kind of status; new forms of low-energy radio transmission thatinformation, such as cost, age, temperature, color, can enable the sensor to send its information wirelesslypressure, or humidity — and can pass that information or via electric lines to a network hub; and an expandedalong easily and instantly. They can be used to digitally address space for the Internet — are all well understood,manage physical objects, monitor their status, track easily mass-produced, and inexpensive.them throughout their lifespan, alert someone whenthey are in danger of being damaged or spoiled — or Smart objects have appeared in several previouseven to annotate them with descriptions, instructions, editions of the NMC Horizon Report, and are describedwarranties, tutorials, photographs, connections in the opening paragraph as having the attributesto other objects, and any other kind of contextual of being easy to attach, often much like a sticker;information imaginable. The Internet of Things would uniquely identi able; a small data store; and a wayallow easy access to these data. to read and write to that store of data. Several radio- based technologies are being explored as the rstOverview point of transmission, from the simple and ubiquitousThe Internet of Things, a concept advanced by IP co- RFID approach broadly used for inventory controlcreator Vint Cerf, is the next step in the evolution of to the proximity-based secure data exchange madesmart objects — interconnected items in which the line possible via Nokia’s near eld communication (NFC)between the physical object and digital information technology. NFC was designed to allow users to makeabout it is blurred. The advent of IPv6 has extended secure payments to kiosks, gas pumps, or dispensingthe Internet address space signi cantly, thus providing machines via smartphones, but it will also allow smartan avenue for any object, like is done with today’s web objects to communicate securely over small distances.
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years 31Today, NFC is optimized for payment data, and thus the network. When placed inside loaner equipment,works over distances of just a few inches, but when these sensors would allow campus managers to knowthat is extended to a few feet, as RFID is today, secure if a sensitive camera or piece of equipment had beenwireless communications between objects in a room dropped or otherwise put at risk while on loan. Inand a wireless hub will be possible. eldwork, when attached to scienti c samples, IP- enabled sensors could use the Internet to alert scientistsRelevance for Teaching, Learning, or and researchers to conditions that might impair theCreative Inquiry quality or utility of the samples.The advantages of Smart Grid technologies in e cientlymanaging energy resources are an obvious bene t toany organization, and similar remote monitoring and The advent of IPv6 has extended thecontrol via the Internet is already nding its way intolaboratories where such sharing of expensive resources Internet address space signiﬁcantly,has long been a part of how institutions collaborate.Smart objects will allow a similar approach to be applied thus providing an avenue for anyto all sorts of materials and delicate artifacts. The devicesrequired to do so are small, do not require batteries or object to use the Internet to transmitexternal power, can communicate wirelessly, and areinexpensive. They can be attached to any object very and receive data and informationdiscretely, and then used to track, monitor, maintain,and keep records about the object. from an object or piece of equipment.Anthropology and history departments will have aninstant window into the condition of the objects, A sampling of applications of the Internet of Thingswith the Internet being the mechanism for real-time across disciplines includes the following:monitoring of current location, environment, andmovement of an object in their care or collections. Once > Attendance. Northern Arizona University is usingsuch information is accessible, it is easy to imagine student cards that are embedded with RFID tags toit being attached to other sorts of information in track their class attendance. This is helping professorsways that will blur the line between the object itself who teach large classes by automating a once manualand content related to it. For example, every bone process. go.nmc.org/jvhzgin an Allosaurus skeleton has a story — when it wasdiscovered, its position in the body, the temperature at > Marine Biology. Researchers are using an RFIDwhich it is being stored, its provenance info, and more. system to track marine animals’ behavior, even inAn Internet of Things would make it simple to attach all saltwater, with a network of antennas set up in athat information directly to the bones themselves via an given area that read data from the tiny transpondersIP-enabled smart object that adds a constant stream of attached to the organisms as they pass by. go.nmc.monitoring information about the physical object. org/cikkqIn the classroom, IP-addressable projectors can already > Resource Management. The El Paso Health Sciencesstream the slides or videos professors are sharing so Center at Texas Tech University adopted a campus-that students who could not physically attend class wide RFID system to track the location of science labcan view the presentations and lecture materials from equipment and resources. A built in reporting suitewherever they are. Similarly, small smart sensors placed updates users on check-in and check-out information,in study rooms around campus buildings could provide and the system also enables users to make onlinereal-time updates on the occupancy of the rooms via resource transfers. The Center has reported that the
32 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition time it takes to account for inventories has drastically UVM Environmental Building Goes Green decreased. go.nmc.org/qulqx go.nmc.org/leeue Students and faculty in the Rubenstein School ofInternet of Things in Practice Environment and Natural Resources have “rehabbed”The following links provide examples of the Internet of the Aiken building which now has temperature sensorsThings in use in higher education settings: that advise when to open or shut the windows, and carbon dioxide sensors that trigger more fresh air into aAmarino classroom when the CO2 level gets too high.go.nmc.org/uyllxAmarino, developed by MIT, is a toolkit that allows users For Further Readingto control the lights in a room, and detect exposure levels The following articles and resources are recommendedto radiation or other potentially harmful environmental for those who wish to learn more about the Internet offactors through their smartphones. Things.NYU’s Sensitive Buildings Class How the “Internet of Things” Is Turning Cities Intogo.nmc.org/nhq Living OrganismsNew York University’s ITP program o ers a course where go.nmc.org/cxmqsstudents create smart habitats for city dwellers. Students (Christopher Mims, Scienti c American, 6 Decemberlearned how sensor management systems work and 2011.) If city systems are able to react to informationcreated their own prototypes with Digi products. stored in the cloud, a city could be “a virtual nervous system” that immediately responds to environmentalOtago Museum Radio Tracking System conditions like rainstorms.go.nmc.org/pjouuIn an e ort to increase security, Otago Museum The Internet Gets Physicallaunched a project that entails the installation of a radio go.nmc.org/yirhctracking system to monitor all of its objects. Each artifact (Steve Lohr, The New York Times, 17 December 2011.)will be tagged, and RFID readers will track the items as Smart devices are already a major link in humanthey move around the museum space. interaction, but they are further linking humans to their environment in ways that will bene t energyPenn State Behrend’s RFID Center of Excellence conservation, transportation, health care, foodgo.nmc.org/kxwlh distribution, and more.Penn State Behrend’s RFID Center conducts researchand outreach on RFID technology to better integrate it Internetting Every Thing, Everywhere, All the Timeinto the business school curriculum, assist IT providers go.nmc.org/tgyqnto attain RFID expertise, and provide prototype testing (Cherise Fong, CNN, 2 November 2008.) Any object canservices for customized applications. do the same things as a web page and smart objects are becoming more prevalent. This article outlines someSmart Grid Developments in 2011 (pdf ) current examples of how smart technology is actualizinggo.nmc.org/zlszm “The Internet of Things,” where objects, beings, and dataThis annual report by energy management rm, KEMA, seamlessly interact.tracks the progress of smart grid development aroundthe globe. They consider three critical factors when Launching Google Wallet on Sprintevaluating the progress of Smart Grid deployments: go.nmc.org/hurhdtechnology advancement, deployment track record, (Google Mobile Blog, 19 September 2011.) Thisand policy and regulatory drivers. announcement from Google explores Google Wallet — a new method of ecommerce that allows people
Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years 33to make purchases from their phones with near eldcommunication as the secure mechanism for storingand transmitting user payment information.NFC Technology: 6 Ways it Could Change Our DailyLivesgo.nmc.org/lumcp(Sarah Kessler, Mashable, 6 May 2010). Contactlesspayment and infotags containing schedules andannouncements are both cited in this article as two ofthe most potentially transformative features of near eld communication. Anthropology and history departments will have an instant window into the condition of the objects, with the Internet being the mechanism for real-time monitoring of current location, environment, and movement of an object in their care or collections.
34 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionMethodologyT he process used to research and create the NMC any given year, a third of advisory board members Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition is are new, ensuring a ow of fresh perspectives each very much rooted in the methods used across all year. Nominations to serve on the advisory board are the research conducted within the NMC Horizon encouraged — see go.nmc.org/horizon-nominate. Project. All editions of the NMC Horizon Reportare produced using a carefully constructed process that Once the advisory board for a particular edition isis informed by both primary and secondary research. constituted, their work begins with a systematic reviewDozens of technologies, meaningful trends, and critical of the literature — press clippings, reports, essays,challenges are examined for possible inclusion in the and other materials — that pertains to emergingreport for each edition. Every report draws on the technology. Advisory board members are providedconsiderable expertise of an internationally renowned with an extensive set of background materials when theadvisory board that rst considers a broad set of project begins, and are then asked to comment on them,important emerging technologies, challenges, and identify those that seem especially worthwhile, and addtrends, and then examines each of them in progressively to the set. The group discusses existing applications ofmore detail, reducing the set until the nal listing of emerging technology and brainstorms new ones. A keytechnologies, trends, and challenges is selected. criterion for the inclusion of a topic in this edition is its potential relevance to teaching, learning, and creativeThis process takes place online, where it is captured inquiry in higher education. A carefully selected set ofand placed in the NMC Horizon Project wiki. The wiki is RSS feeds from dozens of relevant publications ensuresintended to be a completely transparent window onto that background resources stay current as the projectthe work of the project, and contains the entire record progresses. They are used to inform the thinking of theof the research for each of the various editions. participants throughout the process.The section of the wiki used for the NMC Horizon Report: Following the review of the literature, the advisory2012 Higher Education Edition can be found at horizon. board engages in the central focus of the research —wiki.nmc.org. the research questions that are at the core of the NMC Horizon Project. These questions were designed to elicitThe procedure for selecting the topics in the report a comprehensive listing of interesting technologies,included a modi ed Delphi process now re ned over challenges, and trends from the advisory board:years of producing the NMC Horizon Report series,and began with the assembly of the advisory board.The board represents a wide range of backgrounds,nationalities, and interests, yet each member brings 1 Which of the key technologies catalogued in the NMC Horizon Project Listing will be most important to teaching, learning, or creative inquirya particularly relevant expertise. Over the decade of within the next ve years?the NMC’s Horizon Project research, more than 450internationally recognized practitioners and expertshave participated on project advisory boards; in 2 What key technologies are missing from our list? Consider these related questions:
Methodology 35> What would you list among the established are compiled into a collective set of responses, and technologies that some educational institutions inevitably, the ones around which there is the most are using today that arguably all institutions agreement are quickly apparent. should be using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry? From the comprehensive list of technologies originally considered for any report, the twelve that emerge at the> What technologies that have a solid user base top of the initial ranking process — four per adoption in consumer, entertainment, or other industries horizon — are further researched and expanded. Once should educational institutions be actively this “Short List” is identi ed, the group, working with looking for ways to apply?> What are the key emerging technologies you see A key criterion for the inclusion of a developing to the point that learning-focused institutions should begin to take notice during the next four to ve years? topic in this edition is its potential relevance to teaching, learning, and3 What trends do you expect to have a signi cant impact on the ways in which learning-focusedinstitutions approach our core missions of teaching, creative inquiry in higher education.research, and service? both NMC sta and practitioners in the eld, begins to explore the ways in which these twelve important4 What do you see as the key challenge(s) related to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry thatlearning-focused institutions will face during the technologies might be used for teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in higher education. A signi cant amount of time is spent researching real and potentialnext ve years? applications for each of the areas that would be of interest to practitioners.One of the advisory board’s most important tasks is toanswer these questions as systematically and broadly For every edition, when that work is done, each of theseas possible, so as to ensure that the range of relevant twelve “Short List” items is written up in the format oftopics is considered. Once this work is done, a process the NMC Horizon Report. With the bene t of the fullthat moves quickly over just a few days, the advisory picture of how the topic will look in the report, theboard moves to a unique consensus-building process “short list” is then ranked yet again, this time in reverse.based on an iterative Delphi-based methodology. The six technologies and applications that emerge are those detailed in the NMC Horizon Report.In the rst step of this approach, the responses to theresearch questions are systematically ranked and placed For additional detail on the project methodology or tointo adoption horizons by each advisory board member review the actual instrumentation, the ranking, and theusing a multi-vote system that allows members to interim products behind the report, please visit horizon.weight their selections. Each member is asked to also wiki.nmc.org.identify the timeframe during which they feel thetechnology would enter mainstream use — de ned forthe purpose of the project as about 20% of institutionsadopting it within the period discussed. (This gure isbased on the research of Geo rey A. Moore and refers tothe critical mass of adoptions needed for a technologyto have a chance of entering broad use.) These rankings
36 NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education EditionThe NMC Horizon Project:2012 Higher Education Advisory BoardLarry Johnson Douglas Darby Vijay Kumar Dolors ReigCo-Principal Investigator Massachusetts Institute of El CaparazónNew Media Consortium United States Technology Universitat Oberta de CatalunyaUnited States United States Spain Eva de LeraMalcolm Brown Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Joan Lippincott Jochen RobesCo-Principal Investigator Spain Coalition for Networked HQ Interaktive Mediensysteme/EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative Information WeiterbildungsblogUnited States Veronica Diaz United States Germany EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative United States Phillip Long Jason RosenblumSamantha Adams University of Queensland St. Edward’s UniversityNew Media Consortium Kyle Dickson Australia United StatesUnited States Abilene Christian University United States Jamie Madden Rolf SchulmeisterBryan Alexander University of Queensland University of HamburgNational Institute for Technology Barbara Dieu Australia Germanyin Liberal Education (NITLE) Lycée Pasteur, Casa SantosUnited States Dumont Damian McDonald Wendy Shapiro Brazil University of Leeds and University Case Western Reserve UniversityKumiko Aoki of York United StatesOpen University of Japan Gavin Dykes United KingdomJapan Cellcove Ltd. Bill Shewbridge United Kingdom Glenda Morgan University of Maryland, BaltimoreNeil Baldwin University of Illinois at Urbana- CountyThe Creative Research Center, Julie Evans Champaign United StatesMontclair State University Project Tomorrow United StatesUnited States United States Paul Signorelli Javier Nó Paul Signorelli & AssociatesHelga Bechmann Allan Gyorke UPSA United StatesMultimedia Kontor Hamburg Pennsylvania State University SpainGermany United States Paul Turner Nick Noakes University of Notre DameMichael Berman Tom Haymes Hong Kong University of Science United StatesCSU Channel Islands Houston Community College and TechnologyUnited States United States China Jim Vanides HP, Inc.Melissa Burgess Deborah Heal Olubodun Olufemi United StatesAmerican Public University System University of Oregon University of LagosUnited States United States Nigeria Alan Wolf University of Wisconsin – MadisonGardner Campbell Paul Hicks David Parkes United StatesVirginia Tech New Media Consortium Sta ordshire UniversityUnited States United States United KingdomJohn Cook Phil Ice Lauren PressleyLondon Metropolitan University American Public University Wake Forest UniversityUnited Kingdom System United States United StatesCrista D. Copp Ruben PuenteduraLoyola Marymount University Helen Keegan HippasusUnited States University of Salford United States United Kingdom
Every NMC Horizon Report draws on the considerable expertise of an internationally renowned advisoryboard that rst considers a broad set of important emerging technologies, challenges, and trends, and thenexamines each of them in progressively more detail, reducing the set until the nal listing of technologies,trends, and challenges is selected.
T 512-445-4200 F 512-445-4205 E firstname.lastname@example.org NMC nmc.org New Media Consortium 6101 West Courtyard Drive Building One, Suite 100 ISBN 978-0-9846601-3-1 Austin, Texas USA 78730The NMC Horizon Report.Now available weekly. HZLaunching Mid-FebruaryIntroducing the NMC Horizon EdTech Weekly App for iPad and iPhone. Get weekly updates of the hottest newsin the EdTech world. Search our ever-expanding database of projects, reports, and news about innovations inteaching and learning. Download and share all NMC Horizon Reports. From anywhere. Find us soon in the AppleApp Store at go.nmc.org/app.