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Guía gramatical. Presentation Transcript

  • 1. INTRODUCTION Welcome to my Grammar Lab. This course has been designed for students from complete beginner to high-intermediate level, however the teacher has to guide to the students in each topic of this book. I hope you enjoy using these materials. There are as many methods and approaches to grammar teaching as there are teachers. Here are some simple guidelines that may be instructive and useful. Students need to be able to recognize and produce the written form of the new target structure. Writing models of the target language aids memorization and gives students a record of the language that they can refer back to. It is very important to read the related topics. Encourage students to use a new structure to produce sentences about real events, real people, real feelings, real opinions, etc. in their own lives. As annex, I am attaching a grammar guide written in Spanish about the most important topics in the English learning. You have to learn grammar reading examples, identifying patterns, making rules and doing practices activities. MADRID VIVANCO, JOEL PIERRE2008 ENGLISH TEACHER FROM PERU
  • 2. Nouns In other cases, the word "male" or "female" is added, if it is considered necessary to be specific: • Gender • a female cat • Plural • a male giraffe • Related topics Note: If the gender of the person or animal is known, one will generally use the pronoun "he" or "she"Gender to refer to it, as appropriate. When the gender is left unstated, the pronoun "he" is generally used when speaking of people, or "it" when speaking of animals. Some objects are also considered to beIn English nouns rarely change form, even to indicate gender. As a general rule, only nouns referring gendered in certain usages: some people may refer to a boat or a car as "she."to people and some animals reflect gender in their form. By the same token, unlike many otherlanguages, the adjectives modifying nouns will remain unchanged.Example: Certain nouns (especially the names of professions) are traditionally associated with men or women, in which case one signals exceptions to the tradition by adding "woman" (or "lady") or "man" to the • My poor little dog died. term:However, certain nouns -- especially those referring to people -- may have different forms to indicate • They are in a group of male dancers.masculin or feminine usage: • My wife prefers to see a woman doctor. • man -- woman Plurals • gentleman -- lady • actor -- actress As a general rule, the plural is formed by adding "-s" to the singular form of nouns. • uncle -- aunt • father -- mother • shoe --> shoes • book --> booksThe same can be said of certain male and female animals: • river --> rivers • a buck, a doe Nouns ending in "s" or "s" will generally take the ending "-es" : • a ram, a ewe • a bull, a cow • bus --> buses • a stallion, a mare • kiss --> kisses
  • 3. Words ending in "y" will generally take the ending "-ies" in place of the "y": Words of Greek or Latin origin which have retained their original endings will generally take the plural form associated with the language they are drawn from: • party --> parties • supply --> supplies • one alumnus --> two alumni • one syllabus --> two syllabiCertain words have very irregular forms in the plural: • one alumna --> two alumnae • one alga --> many algae • one man --> two men • one criterion --> many criteria • one woman --> two women • one forum --> many fora (or : forums) • one person --> two people • one thesis --> two theses • one foot --> two feet • one hypothesis --> two hypotheses • one mouse --> two mice • one phenomenon --> two phenomena • one goose --> two geese • one cactus --> two cacti (or : cactuses) • one tooth --> two teeth • one diagnosis --> two diagnoses • one wife --> two wives • one oasis --> two oases • one child --> two children • one analysis --> two analyses • one knife --> two knives • one thief --> two thieves A few nouns are invariable or collective, always indicating a plural meaning: • one dwarf --> two dwarves (ou: dwarfs) • one potato --> two potatoes • She gave me some information. • one leaf --> two leaves • Michelle has a lot of clothes. • one life --> two lives Capital letters • one loaf --> two loaves • one half --> two halves Certain nouns are generally capitalized, including: days of the week and months; names of holidays,A small set of words do not change form in the plural: cities (or states, etc.) and religions; nouns of nationality: • one moose --> two moose • Minneapolis • one sheep --> two sheep • Jewish • one aircraft --> two aircraft • Monday • April
  • 4. Related topics Countable and Uncountable Nouns • Adjectives Countable nouns are used to name things we can count. • Definite articles One apple, two apples, three carrots, four fingers, etc. • Indefinite articles Uncountable nouns are used to name things we cannot count. • Partitive articles Bread, water, air, sand, etc. Countable nouns have a singular as well as a plural form. a chair two chairs some chairs a banana the bananas many bananas Remember! Use an in front of a word that begins with a vowel sound. An apple an orange an hour Uncountable nouns do not usually take the indefinite article a or an. They are often used without any article at all, and they do not usually have a plural form. (some) bread (some) coffee (some) fruit
  • 5. Personal pronouns Use of predicate pronouns: • Forms Predicate pronouns will always have the same form whether they are used as direct, indirect, or • Subject pronouns prepositional objects. The forms are: "me", "you", "it", "him", "her", "us", "them." • Predicate pronouns Whatever the form of the sentence (affirmative, negative, interrogative), direct objects -- or the • Order of pronouns pronouns replacing them -- will follow the verb: • Related topicsHere are the different forms for personal pronouns in English: • Did you buy it? • You didnt buy it. • You bought it. Prepositional objects will come after their preposition: • Will you come to the store with me? • He left without her. Indirect objects will generally come after the proposition "to," except if the pronoun precedes the direct object, in which cas the proposition "to" disappears:Use of the subject pronoun • I have spoken to her.Subject pronouns reflect the nouns they replace. Since English nouns rarely show gender, the • I gave this present to them.pronouns "he" and "she" are generally used only for people or animals; in the case of objects or • Mais : I gave them this present.impersonal expressions, the pronoun "it" will be used. Order of pronounsExamples: When a verb is followed by two or more pronouns, the following sequence is observed: • She wants to eat. • You look tired. • It is hard to cook well.
  • 6. Reciprocal pronouns To show that two people, represented by a single grammatical subject, are acting on each other, one uses the reciprocal pronouns: "each other" or "one another". • They hate each other. • They killed one another.Examples : • We talk to each other often. • Dont tell that to him. Reflexive pronouns • He couldnt sell the car to them. Reflexive pronouns are used to show that the actions described by a verb act upon the subject of theException: As noted above, one may omit the preposition "to" in front of an indirect object, in which verb: the subject and the object are thus the same. The forms of reflexive pronouns correspond to thecas the indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object: forms of the subject pronouns: • He gave me it for Christmas. • I --> myself • Dont tell him that. • you (singular) --> yourself • He couldnt sell them the car. • you (plural) --> yourselves • he --> himselfRelated topics • she --> herself • it --> itself • Relative pronouns • we --> ourselves • Reflexive pronouns • they --> themselves • Reciprocal pronouns • Demonstrative pronouns To use a verb reflexively, the reflexive pronoun must follow the verb (and, in the case of an intransitive • Possessive pronouns verb, it will follow any preposition used with the verb). If there are multiple verbs in the sentence, the reflexive pronoun follows the verb to which it applies: • I told myself it would never happen. • She talks to herself all the time. • Look at yourself in that mirror!
  • 7. • I would like to give myself a raise. General informationAt the end of a sentence, one can add reflexive pronouns as a way of accentuating the subject in the Relative pronouns are used to join two sentences. For example, the following two sentences,sentence. In this case, the verb does not have reflexive power: • I found an apartment. This apartment has three rooms. • I would rather do that myself. may be joined using a relative pronoun: • Can you talk to him yourself?Related topics • I found an apartment which has three rooms. Relative pronouns have many different forms: who, whom, whose, that, which, that which, what. • Relative pronouns The pronoun is selected based on the following criteria: • Subject pronouns • Object pronouns 1) What is the grammatical function of the pronoun? Is it a subject, a direct object, or a prepositional • Reciprocal pronouns object? 2) Does the pronoun refer to a person or a thing (or a situation)?Relative pronouns 3) Does the pronoun have an antecedent, or does it represent an unknown entity? • General information 4) Does it represent a special case (possession, time, or space)? • Subject pronouns • Object pronouns • Possession ("whose") • As prepositional objects • Time • Space • Related topics
  • 8. According to the role it plays, the pronoun will take one of the following forms: Objects The pronoun "whom" (in spoken language one often hears "who") expresses a grammatical object when this object is a person; "that" or "which" are used (indifferently by most speakers) to represent objects which are things, events, situations, etc. • She is a person whom I respect a great deal. • He ordered a beverage which he didnt drink. • She is talking about the trip that were going to take. Note: Use of the relative pronoun is optional (except in the case of "what" or "that which" when referring to specific antecedents); the same sentences as above may be written correctly without theSubjects pronoun:The pronoun "who" expresses a grammatical subject when this subject is a person; "that" or "which" • She is a person I respect a great deal.are used (indifferently by most speakers) to represent subjects which are things, events, situations, • He ordered a beverage he didnt drink.etc. • She is talking about the trip were going to take. • Theres the man who stole my wallet! When the antecedent is vague or absent, on uses "what" or (less often) "that which" : • I read a novel that entertained me a great deal. • He made a mistake which embarrassed him. • You can do what you want. • What they are doing seems useful.When the antecedent is vague or totally absent, one uses "what" or (less commonly) "that which" : • What interests me in this film is the music. • That which eludes us intrigues us the most. • I dont know what happened.
  • 9. Possession: "whose" / "of which" TimeThe pronoun "whose" expresses possession when the subject is a person; it will often be replaced by The pronoun "when" is used with nouns indicating time. However, it is rarely necessary to include this"of which" if it refers to an object, an event, etc.: pronoun, and it is often omitted: • The tourist whose ticket had expired filed a complaint. • I remember the day when we met. • There is the man whose mother is our mayor. • I remember the day we met. • That was a good article, the point of which was to make us think. • He arrived at the moment when we were speaking of him. • He arrived at the moment we were speaking of him.Prepositional objects SpaceThe preposition generally precedes the appropriate pronoun: When more specific prepositions (such as "on," "under,", etc.) are not necessary, the general pronoun • Heres the pattern with which I made this shirt. "where" will suffice: • The woman for whom I work is quite strict. • Heres the tree next to which Newton was sitting. • Heres the house where my parents were born. • They went out for dinner, after which they went home. • She doesnt know where shes going. In spoken English, one often places the preposition at the end of the clause. Moreover, with Related topics: the pronoun "what" this structure is required, even in written English: • Subject pronouns • Heres the pattern which I made this shirt with. • Object pronouns • The woman whom I work for is quite strict. • Reflexive pronouns • Heres the tree which Newton was sitting next to. • Reciprocal pronouns • Tell me what youre thinking about. • Demonstrative pronouns • Possessive pronouns
  • 10. There is / there are Definite articlesWe use there is and there are to talk about things that exist. • General principles • Omission of the articleThere is is used before singular subjects. • Use in negatives and interrogativesThere is a man standing outside. • Related topicsCan you see if there’s an apple in the bowl? General principlesThere are is used before plural subjects.There are twenty-four students in the class. The definite article "the" (invariable in form) designates a person, place, or event which has beenCarl says there are lots of new shops in the town center. specified or defined by the speaker: • Heres the book I bought. • The cat is on the roof. • He said he would bring the money. Omission of the definite article The definite article does not always precede nouns: sometimes indefinite articles or partitive articles will be used. Often, though, no article at all is necessary, as in the following cases: 1. As a general rule, the definite article is omitted before abstract nouns or nouns representing general categories. It is often omitted after verbs expressing opinions or preferences: • Truth is the highest good. • I dont like animals. • Cats are nicer than dogs. • Time flies. • She likes coffee, but she hates tea.
  • 11. 2. Generally, the article is omitted before days of the week and dates: Indefinite articles • On Tuesdays the museums are closed. The indefinite article has two forms: before singular nouns one uses "a" (or "an" before most vowels); • On Saturdays I sleep in. before plural nouns one uses "some": • Friday night we are going dancing. • I was born on June 16, 1980. • a cat • an accident3. Generally, the article is omitted before names of countries, states, cities, and regions: • some dogs • France is seventeen times smaller than the United States. But: before vowels producing a "y" sound (as in "you"), "a" is used, rather than "an": • California is larger than Brittany. • a unit Exception: Some names actually include the definite article, such as The Hague. • not a one • a unicorn As a general rule, the indefinite article signals a person, thing or event that has not been clearly4. Generally, the article is omitted before titles or nouns indicating professions: defined by the speaker. It does not indicate a specific objection (which is the role of the definite article); rather, it indicates any one object out of many possible ones (in the singular), or any assortment or • President Mitterrand completed two terms. quantity from many possible assortments or quantities (in the plural). It is often used after verbs of • We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant. possession or consumption: • She met with Doctor Schmidt. • Give me a coffee, please.The use of the definite article does not change in interrogatives and negatives. • I have a book you might like. • She has some cherries for sale.Related topics In the negative, the plural indefinite article changes: "some" is generally replaced by "any" (this • Indefinite articles change also occurs in negative questions) : • Partitive articles • Dont you have any cookies ? • They dont have any books for sale. • I have never had an accident.
  • 12. Related topics Partitive article:"some" • Definite articles When the article "some" appears before a plural noun it functions like an indefinite article: • Partitive articles • He has some tickets for the game. • Some students decided not to attend the class. However, when "some" appears before a singular noun, it is being used as a partitive. This is to say that a part of something is indicated, or a partial (or indeterminate) quantity is referred to. It is often used after verbs of possession or consumption: • Do you have some time? • Were going to buy some milk. • I heard some bad news. • She has some money to spend. • Would you like some help ? Note: After expressions of quantity, the partitive article is not used: • Students buy a lot of pastries. • Today people have more activities than before. In negative expressions, the partitive article "some" generally becomes "any" (this change will also occur in negative interrogatives): • She doesnt have any money. • They didnt have any milk. • Dont you have any money?
  • 13. The word "any" is not strictly necessary in the negative,and it may often be omitted: Quantifiers • I never have accidents. Using Some, Any, and No • They didnt have milk. We use both some and any with plural countable nouns and with uncountable nouns.Related topics They tasted some delicious wines in Italy. Do you have any Seville oranges? • Definite articles I don’t have any tea, but I have some coffee. • Indefinite articles Did you get any brown bread? We use some in affirmative sentences and in questions when we think the answer will be “yes.” I bought some bread and some eggs today. Would you like some more wine? We use any in most general questions and in negative sentences, . Are there any dragons on Lombok? There aren’t any snakes in Ireland. Much, Many and a Lot of We use many and a lot of with countable nouns in the plural. They saw many stars in the sky. They grow a lot of bananas in Ecuador. We use much and a lot of with uncountable nouns. They eat a lot of rice in Malaysia. My family doesn’t eat much red meat. We prefer to use a lot of and lots of in affirmative sentences and much and many in negative sentences and questions.
  • 14. A Little and a Few In Sweden they eat a lot of fish.A few means the same as “some, but not many.” A little means the same as “some, but not much.” They don’t have much sunshine in winter.I eat a few apples each week. There’s a little cheese left. If the noun is countable, we use many or a lot (for a big difference), and a few for a small difference,Much, many, a lot, a little, and a bit except when using fewer.Much or a lot can be used before the comparative form to show that there is a big difference betweentwo people or things. Many Saabs are driven in Sweden. There are a lot of university students in Boston.A little or a bit can be used to show a small difference. There are fewer hours of daylight in an Alaskan winter than in a Mexican winter.We can use these words with adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. You’ve gained a few pounds.With adjectives: Most/SomeAustrians are much more formal than Swedes, and they are much less direct. Austrian food is a lot Look at these sentences. They all contain the words most and some. Not all the sentences contain of.heavier than Swedish food. When you are talking more generally, don’t use of.Austria is a bit cheaper than Sweden. Most people would rather be young than old.Biology is a little easier than Chemistry. If we are referring to a specific time period or area, or if we are talking about part of a larger whole, weRemember that we cannot use a double comparative. would use of (the).(right) Austrian food is much heavier. During the flood of 1994, most of the rain fell within a two-day period.(wrong) Austrian food is much more heavier. Some of my friends don’t eat pizza.With adverbs:She speaks a little more quietly than I do.She speaks a bit more quietly than I do.He drives a lot more slowly than you do.With nouns:If the noun is uncountable, we use much or a lot (for a big difference), and a little or a bit (for a smalldifference).
  • 15. AdjectivesA few and few • FormsA little and little • Usage • Related topicsLittle and few (without a) mean “not a lot.” They often have a negative meaning. FormsWe have little time before our guests arrive for dinner. We must hurry to finish the cooking.There are few vegetables that he likes. He almost never eats them. Adjectives are generally invariable in English and do not agree with nouns in number and gender; nor do they take case endings:Note: Use little with non-countable nouns like bread, rice, fruit, patience.Use few with countable plural nouns like bananas, pieces, and meals. • a blue car • the great outdoorsYou can use very with few as well as with little. • a group of young womenHe has very little patience with people who drink too much alcohol. However, a few adjectives have a connotation which is slightly masculine or feminine. Thus, one saysVery few bananas grow in Scotland. that a woman is beautiful while a man would be called handsome.A little and a few mean “some” or “a small amount.” They have a more positive meaning than little and Adjectives indicating religion or nationality (or a region, state or province) generally begin with a capitalfew. letter, whether they refer to people or objects:We have a little time for coffee before our flight. Let’s stop in at that cafe. • She is an American student.He makes a few dishes that everyone likes. For example, everyone loves his spaghetti. • They go to a Catholic school. • They enjoy Breton music.If you use only with a few or a little, the meaning can become more negative. Usage:She ate almost all the chocolates her boyfriend gave her. There are only a few left.Only a few meals at the university cafeteria were strictly vegetarian. Most of the time, meat was In a noun cluster an adjective will be placed, with very few exceptions, in front of the noun it modifies.served. When two adjectives precede a noun, they can be connected by a comma (,) or by the conjunction"and." In a series of three or more adjectives, one usually uses "and" before the last adjective in the list.
  • 16. Examples: Adjective Order • I like short novels. When two or more adjectives are used to describe something they are put in a certain order. For • That fellow will be a competent worker. example, opinions come before facts. • She writes long and flowery letters. • He works long, hard hours. • Beautiful long black hair • She had a mean, old and overbearing step-mother. • A handsome young man • A nice new shirtAn adjective may follow the noun when it is in a predicate (after the verb) or in a relative clause. (Inrelative clauses the relative pronoun may be implicit.) Nice, beautiful and handsome are opinions. Young, new, long and black are facts. Opinions come first. Size comes before age. Age comes before color. The following chart show the basic order ofExamples: adjectives, but you should know that sometimes this order is not followed. • He was a man (who was) always happy to help others. • She is a woman (who is) true to herself. • They were entirely satisfied.Related topics • Possessive adjectives • Demonstrative adjectives • Comparisons • Superlatives
  • 17. Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns Demonstrative adjectives Demonstrative adjectives have two singular forms (this, that) and two plural forms (these, those). These adjectives are used to designate proximity to an object, or to distinguish between an object that is close (in time or space) and one that is more remote. Usually "this" and "these" signal proximity, while "that" and "those" suggest distance: • These books are too expensive. • This car is responsive. • That man irritates me! • This hotel is more expensive than that one. Demonstrative pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns have the same form as the demonstrative adjectives, but are used without the nouns to which they refer. In the singular, when designating a specific object, the pronoun "one" is often added: • These tomatoes are fresher than those. • These are better than those. • Would you like a little of this? • That strikes me as really weird! • The book is more interesting than that one.[NOTE IN THE ABOVE CHART “shape” (round, square) should be put between “age” and “color”, and In front of a relative pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun becomes "the one" or "the the “noun” column should be separated from the other columns, with a + inserted.] ones" (when speaking of things), or "he / she who", "they who" (when speaking of people):Example: • This film is the one that you hated so much.We rented a nice little brown log cabin by a lake. • He who eats well works well. • This pen is the one with which the President signed the new law.Note: We usually limit the number of adjectives preceding a noun to three.
  • 18. Related topics Possession • Relative pronouns • Possessive adjectives • Subject pronouns • Possessive pronouns • Reflexive pronouns • "To belong" • Object pronouns • The "s" of possession • Reciprocal pronouns • "Whose" • Possessive pronouns In English possession may be expressed in five different ways: Possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives agree with the person to whom they refer: • I --> my • you --> your • he, her, it --> his (masculine), her (feminine), its (impersonal) • we --> our • they --> their So, • I have lost my keys. • They are coming in their car. • I met your grandparents. • This car has lost its power. Note: In English the possessive adjective is used to refer to parts of the body: • She brushes her teeth twice a day. • He broke his arm playing soccer. • His stomach aches.
  • 19. Possessive pronouns • The front doors lock is broken. • Many of the worlds countries are poor.Possessive pronouns, like the adjectives, agree with the person to whom they refer. Singular andplural share the same form: Note: Do not confuse the "s" of possession with the contraction of the verb "is": • I --> mine • Freds going to fetch it. (= Fred is going to fetch it.) • your --> yours • The trains late again. (=The train is late again.) • he, she, it --> his (masculine), hers (feminine), its (impersonal) "Whose" for indicating possession • we --> ours • they --> theirs "Whose" will be placed before the possession (the object possessed), and will refer ownership to the preceding noun: So, • The man whose dog bit me said he was sorry. (The dog belongs to the man.) • Here is the woman whose daughter I intend to marry.(The woman is the mother of the • I have my likes, and she has hers. daughter.) • If you give me one of yours, Ill give you one of mine. • I like our house, but frankly, I am jealous of theirs! • Thats mine!The verb "to belong to"The verb "to belong to" indicates ownership or possession: • That poodle belongs to Louise. • The world belongs to you.The "s" of possessionOne may add "--s" to any noun in order to indicate possession: • I just read Gustaves book.
  • 20. Comparatives Adjectives • General principles Adjectival comparisons follow these models: • Adjectives • Adverbs • Jean is taller than Catherine. • Nouns • Philippe is less tall than Jean. • Verbs • Leïla is as tall as Jean. • Related topics Note: Monosyllabic adjectives, and several common two-syllable adjectives, take the ending "--er"General principles and do not include the adverb "more":Comparatives are used to compare two things and to highlight the superiority, inferiority, or equality • young --> youngerof one term compared to another. The comparative can apply to adjectives, adverbs, nouns, or even • tall --> tallerverbs. Whatever the part of speech concerned, the structure of the comparison remains the same: • old --> older If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i" : • heavy --> heavier • early --> earlier • busy --> busier • healthy --> healthier • chilly --> chillier If the adjective ends in "--e" only an "r" is needed:Examples for adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs follow: • wise --> wiser • large --> larger • simple --> simpler • late --> later
  • 21. If the adjective ends with "single vowel + consonant" the consonant is doubled and one And some adverbs have irregular comparative forms : adds "--er" : • well --> better • red --> redder • badly --> worse • big --> bigger • far --> farther • thin --> thinner Nouns • hot --> hotter Some very common adjectives have irregular comparatives: Noun comparisons follow these patterns: • good --> better • I have more work than you. • bad --> worse • He has less homework than the rest of us. • far --> farther • If only I had as much talent as she!Adverbs The comparative can signal quantities of nouns:Adverbial comparisons follow these models: • I have less than five francs in my pocket. • She has more than five hours worth of work to do. • The students are working more diligently than the professor. However, in comparisons of inferiority, and when the quantity represents a "countable" noun, • This fellow speaks less eloquently than a schoolboy. one should use the term "fewer" rather than "less" : • They are all working as hard as possible!Note: In comparisons indicating superiority, adverbs ending in "--ly" do not take the adverb "more," • He works fewer than ten hours per week.but only the ending "--er". (However, these adverbs will function normally in comparisons using "less" • Sam has fewer students than I do.or "as.") Verbs • fast --> faster "More," "less," and "as" can be used as adverbs to modify verbs: • hard --> harder • He eats more than he used to. • That boy reads less than his friends. • You ought to listen as much as you talk.
  • 22. Related topics Superlatives • Superlatives • General principles • Irregular forms o Adjectives o Adverbs • Related topics General principles When comparing two things one uses the comparative; however, for comparisons in larger groups, it is the superlative which must be used. The superlative designates extremes: the best, the first, the worst, the last, etc. The superlative operates like the comparative, with these exceptions: A. While the word "more" or the ending "--er" signals the comparative, it is the word "most" or the ending "--est" that designates the superlative. (See irregular forms, below): • He is the most efficient worker we have. • That is the poorest family in the neighborhood. B. The compared term (adjective or adverb) will be preceded by the definite article: • He works the fastest of any student I know. • She is the tallest woman in town. B. Unlike the comparative, the superlative is not followed by "than": instead, one uses "of," followed by the context of the comparison (although this context is sometimes implicit): • Its the best day of my life! • She works the best of the whole class.
  • 23. Irregular forms • thin --> thinnest • hot --> hottestAdjectives Some very common superlatives have irregular forms:Monosyllabic adjectives (and several common two-syllable adjectives) take the ending "--est" insuperlatives of superiority, and thus will not use the adverb "most." However, these same adjectives • good --> bestwill use "less," like other adjectives, in superlatives of inferiority: • bad --> worst • far --> farthest • young --> youngest • tall --> tallest Some adjectives exist only in superlative form: • old --> oldest • first If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i": • last • heavy --> heaviest Adverbs • early --> earliest Adverbs not ending in "--ly" do not use the adverb "--most" in the formation of superlatives of • busy --> busiest superiority, but use instead the ending "--est." However, these same adverbs will use "less," like other • healthy --> healthiest adverbs, in superlatives of inferiority: • chilly --> chilliest If the adjective ends in "--e" one adds only "--st" : • fast --> fastest • hard --> hardest • wise --> wisest And some adverbs have irregular forms: • large --> largest • simple --> simplest • well --> best • late --> latest • badly --> worst If the adjective ends in "single vowel + consonant," the consonant is doubled and • far --> farthest one adds "--est": Related topics • red --> reddest • Comparatives • big --> biggest
  • 24. Adverbs D. In general, adverbs of time and space have no corresponding adjective; the same can be said of adverbs of quantity: • Formation • Position • yesterday • Related topics • today • tomorrowFormation • early • soon1. Most adverbs are formed from the adjective. One adds the ending "--ly" to the adjectival form: • late • here • intelligent --> intelligently • there • slow --> slowly • less • precise --> precisely • moreSome adverbs are irregular: • as • veryA. If the adjective ends with "--le," simply replace the "e" with "y": • much • a lot of • simple --> simply • little of • subtle --> subtly PositionB. The adverb corresponding to the adjective "good" is irregular: When an adverb modifies a verb, it generally comes at the end of the clause (but before any • good --> well prepositional phrases or subordinated clauses):C. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: • He writes poorly. • She pronounced that word well.. • high • Joseph worked diligently. • low • They worked hard before coming home. • hard • better • fast
  • 25. Exceptions: certain adverbs signaling the speakers opinion, such as "probably," Prepositions "undoubtedly," "surely," "certainly," etc., come at the beginning of the sentence, or else between the modal verb (or auxiliary) and the principal verb: • Space • Geography o We are probably going to spend the summer in Corsica. • Means of transportation o Certainly we would never do that! • Time o We will undoubtedly see a dirty political campaign this year. • "To" with indirect objects • Related topicsAdverbs of time and space generally come at the end of the sentence; however, they may be placedat the beginning of the sentence if the predicate clause is long and complicated: Space • I saw her yesterday. In their simplest form, prepositions are used to indicate position (in time or space) of one thing with • Were going to the beach today. respect to another: • She went to bed very early. • Tomorrow we will try to get up early to prepare for our trip. • I put the book on the table. • She arrived before the others.Adverbs modifying adjectives or an other adverb are placed before the adjective or adverb they • He came toward me.modify: There are many prepositions. Here is a partial list, with examples: • She was really very happy to see you. • It was a brilliantly staged performance. • to -- He gave the book to his friend. • at -- They arrived at his house at 5 oclock.Related topics • of -- It was the third day of the month. • from -- That young women comes from Thailand. • Comparatives • on -- She put the plate on the table. • Superlatives • under -- The cat crawled under the bed. • over -- The boy threw the rock over the tree. • underneath -- The rabbit escaped underneath the fence. • before -- (time) She arrived before the movie started. • after -- He called his mother after he finished shopping. • in front of -- His mother parked her car in front of his apartment.
  • 26. • behind -- The dog ran behind the house. Transportation • for -- He went to the store for more milk. As a general rule, the preposition "by" is used to describe how one has traveled. The prepositions "in" • toward -- The criminal walked toward him with a gun. and "on" describe ones presence inside a vehicle. In the case of small vehicles (a car, a helicopter...), • against -- Everyone was against that idea. the preposition "in" is required: • around -- The athletes ran around the track six times. • close to -- He placed the food close to the squirrel. • I came by bike. • far from -- He placed the food far from the lion. • Traveling by plane is my favorite. • next to -- He was hot, so he sat down next to the air conditioning. • I was already on (in) the train when he arrived. • facing -- She sat down on the other side of the table, facing him. • She is waiting for me in the car. • in the midst of -- I dont know where to find any free time in the midst of these emergencies. Time To designate an hour the preposition "at" is used:Usage of prepositions • Lets meet at six oclock.The use of prepositions is one of the most complex aspects of English, and it is impossible to cover all • They arrived at 4:45.cases. Some general guidelines, however, may be helpful. For dates and days of the week, one uses "on":Geography • His birthday is on Monday.Movement toward a town, country, state, or continent is generally expressed by the preposition "to"; • It happened on March 3, 1997.presence in a city, state, etc. is expressed by "in"; movement away from a city, state, etc., isexpressed by "from" (if the verb requires a pronoun): For months one uses "in": • When are you going to Canada. • My birthday is in September. • He went to Asia last year. • We will begin work in August. • I spent three years in London. • She was born in Normandy. • He comes from Mexico.
  • 27. To express duration, the preposition "for" is used; "in" can be used to express the time it will take to Related topicscomplete a task: • Verbs with prepositions • I am going away for a few days. • Prepositional verbs • He worked with them for three years. Verbs with prepositions • I can read that book in a day. Certain verbs and verbal expressions are generally followed by a preposition before their object (and this preposition will generally be shown in the dictionary).Indirect objects However, the meaning of these verbs is not dramatically changed by the addition of the preposition.The preposition "to", which generally precedes an indirect object, will disappear before a noun (or The same cannot be said of the prepositional verbs, dealt with in another section.pronoun) when the indirect object precedes a direct object. ("To" will be retained when the indirectobject follows a direct object.) Examples:Examples : • to wait for • to look for • She gave John the ticket. • to look at • Mais : She gave the ticket to John. • to listen to • to pay foror: • to ask for • to be happy with something • He sent her a letter. • to be mad at (or: with) someone • Mais : He sent a letter to her. • to depend on • Ou : He sent it to her. • to be interested inThis can also be seen in certain phrases in which the direct object is implicit. • to thank fort • to be busy with • I already told it to him. • Mais : I already told him (the news).
  • 28. Sample sentences: Notice that in the second example the verb in the present simple has a future meaning. • Shes the one who paid for our dinner! Not … until means the same as not … before. • Im not asking for anything! I didn’t leave home until I got married. • Im busy with my own stuff. After and before can be followed by a subject-verb clause or by a gerund. • That depends on you. After I had eaten five ice cream cones, I felt a little sick. Before coming back to Britain, I travelled all over Eastern Europe.See also While can be used to show two events happening at the same time. While you’re getting lunch ready, I’ll wash the car. • Prepositions I studied judo while I was in Japan. • Prepositional verbs While and During While and during are both used to show that two things happen at the same time. While is a conjunction and is used before a subject-verb clause. During is a preposition and is used before a noun phrase.Time Clauses / Conjunctions What should you do during an earthquake? Don’t run downstairs while the building is shaking.Conjunctions of TimeWe can join two sentences using a conjunction. A conjunction of time gives us information about when He arrived while I was eating breakfast.two events happen, relative to each other. He arrived during breakfast.Common conjunctions of time are when, while, as soon as, until, after and before.When can be used to show that one event is before, or at the same time as, another. When can beused to convey a past or a future meaning.I studied abroad for a year when I was at university.When she finishes this course, she’ll go abroad for a year.As soon as means that the second event happened, or will happen, immediately after the first.As soon as I finished lunch, I went out for a walk. I’ll go out for a walk as soon as I finish lunch.
  • 29. Too, Very and Enough transitions are listed in the chart below.We use too and very to modify the meaning of adjectives and adverbs. Too and very come before theadjective and adverb. Enough usually comes after the adjective.Too means “more than necessary” or “more than you want.” Very intensifies an adjective or adverband means “to a large extent.” Enough means “what is adequate or necessary.”Mt. Everest is very high. It’s more than 8,000 meters high.Mt. Everest is too high to climb in one day.Magda is only two years old. She’s not old enough to climb Mt. Everest.TransitionA transition is a word or phrase that allows for fluid movement between ideas, sentences, orparagraphs. A transition expression helps the speaker or writer to construct coherent sentences. Inwriting, a transition expression is typically set off with punctuation. Transitions include but are notlimited to the following kinds: comparison, contrast, summary, and order of importance. Many common Examples: • We’re too tired to go jogging tonight. Besides, it’s very cold outside. • Brittany doesn’t dance very well. On the other hand, she sings beautifully. • Sally just got a job in San Francisco. Therefore, she won’t be moving to London.
  • 30. So and neither with be and do Or Adverbial + be + subjectWe use so and neither (or not…either) when we want to agree that something that is true for someperson is true for us, too. Examples:We use so (or …too) with positive sentences and neither (or not…either) with negative sentences.If the main verb is be, use be in the response. If the main verb is other than be, use do in the response. • Never have I seen so many cats in one place! • Seldom do we feel sad while we are swimming in the ocean.Response form: • Rarely can one hear such beautiful music. So + verb + subject (agreement with positive sentence) • At no time was I late for class. Neither + verb + subject (agreement with negative sentence) • No sooner had I wished to see my lost dog than she appeared before me.Examples, if the same is true for the respondent : Note that, in this last example, the second part (than) of the two-part adverbial is positioned at the start of a new subject-verb clause. • I’m very sociable. So am I. (Or: I am, too.) • I’m not very tall. Neither am I. (Or: I’m not, either.) Verbs • We like parties. So do we. (Or: We do, too.) Verb conjugations reflect three elements: the subject, the tense, and the mood. The subject may be • She doesn’t like snakes. Neither does he. (Or: He doesn’t, either.) singular or plural and may be in the first person ("I" or "we"), in the second person ("you"), or in theWe use the verb be or the auxiliary verb do without so or neither when we want to say that what is true third person "he," she," "it," or "they"). Verb tenses include different forms of the past, present andfor some person is not true for us. Examples, if the same is not true for the respondent: future. The term "mood" refers, generally, to the attitude of the speaker toward his subject. The different moods include the indicative, the subjunctive (rare in English), the conditional, and the • They’re tired. We’re not. imperative. • I’m not sleepy. I am. • He likes mushrooms. She doesn’t. • Auxiliaries ("to be", "to have") • We don’t like art. We do. • Past conditional ("I would have worked...") • Present conditional ("I would work...")Split adverbials • Future perfect ("We will have finished...") • Near future ("We are going to finish...")hardly... when, barely...when, no sooner...than, not only...but also, so...that, such...that • Future progressive ("I will be calling you...")Form: • Simple future ("We will leave....")Adverbial + auxiliary or modal verb + subject + main verb • Imperative ("Lets go!")
  • 31. • Irregular participles Gerunds and Infinitives• Past progressive ("I was working...") Gerunds as Subjects• Habitual past ("I used to work...") The gerund is the –ing form of the verb when it is used as a noun. We can use a gerund as a subject• Pluperfect ("I had worked...") or as an object.• Present perfect ("I have finished...") Walking is good for your health.• Present perfect progressive ("I have been finishing...") Too much dieting can be dangerous.• Present progressive (: "I am finishing...") Terry quit smoking.• Simple present (: "I finish...") We go dancing every Saturday night.• Preterit ("I worked...") He’s very good at listening to other people’s problems.• Subjunctive ("If I were you...") I am tired of worrying about money.• Modal verbs ("would", "should", etc.)• Prepositional verbs ("to put down, to put up with..." etc.) Verbs followed by gerunds Here are some verbs that can be followed by a gerund but not an infinitve. stop keep postpone dislike recommend avoiddetest feel like give up put off practice finish What would you recommend trying? I dislike watching violence on television.
  • 32. Here are some verbs that can be followed directly by an infinitive but not a gerund. continuehope can’t standexpectintend I like eating in fancy restaurants.agree Annie likes to eat fast food.refuseappearmanage The imperativepromiseafford Imperatives are used to issue commands. They use the infinitive of verbs (dropping the word "to"); indecide the first person plural ("we"), the infinitive is preceded by "lets" (or: "let us"):choose • Speak!fail • Finish your homework!wait • Lets eat!volunteer • Close the door!Susan refuses to try new food. The negative imperative is formed by placing "dont" (or "do not") before the imperative form; in theWe intend to ask for a raise. first person plural one uses "lets not" (or "let us not") :Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive. Be careful! In some cases the meaning • Lets not forget who helped us.changes. • Dont leave me!try • Dont walk on the grass!remember • Please dont eat the daisies!likeforget The imperative has no effect on the word order of the rest of the sentence.lovepreferstartbegin
  • 33. The subjunctive Present participlesThe subjunctive is used only in select phrases or situations in English. One finds vestiges of it in Formationcertain hypothetical expressions (using "if + to be") and in certain set phrases. (In many cases thesubjunctive -- considered archaic or literary -- is replaced by the modal "would," used to express the The present participle is formed by adding the ending"--ing" to the infinitive (dropping any silent "e"atconditional.) Other meanings often communicated by the subjunctive in other languages will be the end of the infinitive):expressed by modal verbs in English. • to sing --> singingIn constructions using "if + to be" the subjunctive will amount to using the form "were" (instead of • to talk --> taking"was") with the first and third persons singular ("I" and "he," "she," or "it"). (In spoken English, and in • to bake --> bakingmuch informal writing, "was" will still be used.) • to be --> being • to have --> having • If I were Muriel, Id never go back there. Use • If she were alone, Id stop by to see her. • He acts as if he were crazy. A. The present participle may often function as an adjective:Set phrases and proverbs: • Thats an interesting book. • God help us! • That tree is a weeping willow. • Long live the king! B. The present participle can be used as a noun denoting an activity (this form is also called a gerund): • Would that I were free! • Swimming is good exercise. • Traveling is fun. C. The present participle can indicate an action that is taking place, although it cannot stand by itself as a verb. In these cases it generally modifies a noun (or pronoun), an adverb, or a past participle: • Thinking myself lost, I gave up all hope. • Washing clothes is not my idea of a job. • Looking ahead is important.
  • 34. D. The present participle is used in progressive verb tenses, which indicate continuing actions or Irregular preterits and past participlesactions in progress (the present progressive, the future progressive, the present perfect progressive) : This alphabetical list shows the irregular forms of the most common verbs. Each entry includes the • I am eating my dinner. infinitive, the preterit, and the past participle. In cases where variant forms exist, they will be shown at • He was walking across the park. the end of the entry. Literary or archaic forms are flagged by a cross: Ý. The past participle is used in • We will be calling you tomorrow. many conjugations, including the present perfect, the pluperfect,the past conditional, and the future perfect.E. The present participle may be used with "while"or "by" to express an idea of simultaneity ("while")or causality ("by") : can = could [pret.], been able [p.p.] may = might [pret.] • He finished dinner while watching television. to abide = abode [pret., p.p.] • By using a dictionary he could find all the words. to arise = arose [pret.], arisen [p.p.] • While speaking on the phone, she doodled. to awake = awoke [pret.], awakened [p.p.] • By calling the police you saved my life! to be = was, were [pret.], been [p.p.] to bear = bore [pret.], borne [p.p.]F. The present participle of the auxiliary "have"may be used with the past participle to describe a past to beat = beat [pret.], beaten [p.p.]condition resulting in another action: to become = became [pret.], become [p.p.] to befall = befell [pret.], befallen [p.p.] • Having spent all his money, he returned home. to begin = began [pret.], begun [p.p.] • Having told herself that she would be too late, she accelerated. to bend = bent [pret., p.p.]Inversion to beseech = besought [pret., p.p.] to bet = bet [pret., p.p.]Inversion occurs when we change the order of the subject and the verb in a declarative sentence after to bid = bid [pret., p.p.]; bade [pret.]Ýan adverbial in initial position. It is used for emphasis, in more formal or poetic discourse, and in some to bind = bound [pret., p.p.]day-to-day fixed expressions. Inversion only occurs if the sentence contains an auxiliary verb, modal to bite = bit [pret.], bitten [p.p.]verb, or the verb be. to bleed = bled [pret., p.p.] to blow = blew [pret.], blown [p.p.]The following are some common adverbials that can be used with inversion. to break = broke [pret.], broken [p.p.] to breed = bred [pret., p.p.]at no time, little, never, not until, nowhere, only after, only then, only later, rarely, seldom, scarcely, to bring = brought [pret., p.p.]under no circumstances
  • 35. to build = built [pret., p.p.] to forget = forgot [pret.]; forgotten [p.p.]to burn = burned [pret., p.p.]; burnt [pret., p.p.]Ý to forsake = forsook [pret.]; forsaken [p.p.]to burst = burst [pret., p.p.] to freeze = froze [pret.]; frozen [p.p.]to buy = bought [pret., p.p.] to get = got [pret., p.p.]; gotten [p.p.]to cast = cast [pret., p.p.] to gild = gild [p.p.]to catch = caught [pret., p.p.] to give = gave [pret.], given [p.p.]to choose = chose [pret.], chosen [p.p.] to go = went [pret.], gone [p.p.]to cleave = cleaved [pret., p.p.]; cleft [pret., p.p.]Ý to grind = ground [pret., p.p.]to cling = clung [pret., p.p.] to grow = grew [pret.], grown [p.p.]to come = came [pret.], come [p.p.] to hang = hung [pret., p.p.]; hanged (•éxécution•) [pret., p.p.]to cost = cost [pret., p.p.] to have = had [pret., p.p.]to creep = crept [pret., p.p.]; creeped [pret.] to hear = heard [pret., p.p.]to cut = cut [pret., p.p.] to hew = hewn [p.p.]to deal = dealt [pret., p.p.] to hide = hid [pret.]; hidden [p.p.]to dig = dug [pret., p.p.] to hit = hit [pret., p.p.]to do = did [pret.], done [p.p.] to hold = held [pret., p.p.]to draw = drew [pret.], drawn [p.p.] to hurt = hurt [pret., p.p.]to dream = dreamed [pret., p.p.]; dreamt [pret., p.p.]Ý to keep = kept [pret., p.p.]to drink = drank [pret.], drunk [p.p.] to kneel = kneeled [pret., p.p.]to drive = drove [pret.], driven [p.p.] to kneel = knelt [pret., p.p.]to dwell = dwelled [pret., p.p.]; dwelt [pret., p.p.]Ý to know = knew [pret.], known [p.p.]to eat = ate [pret.]; eaten [p.p.] to lay = laid [pret., p.p.]to fall = fell [pret.], fallen [p.p.] to lead = led [pret., p.p.]to feed = fed [pret., p.p.] to lean = leaned [pret., p.p.]to fight = fought [pret., p.p.] to lean = leant [pret., p.p.]to find = found [pret., p.p.] to leap = leaped [pret., p.p.]to flee = fled [pret., p.p.] to leap = leapt [pret., p.p.]to fling = flung [pret., p.p.] to learn = learned [pret., p.p.]to fly = flew [pret.]; flown [p.p.] to learn = learnt [pret., p.p.]to forbid = forbad [pret.]; forbidden [p.p.] to leave = left [pret., p.p.]
  • 36. to lend = lent [pret., p.p.] to rid = rid [pret., p.p.]to let = let [pret., p.p.] to ride = rode [pret.], ridden [p.p.]to lie = lay [pret.], lain [p.p.] to ring = rang [pret.], rung [p.p.]to light = lit [pret., p.p.] to rise = rose [pret.], risen [p.p.]to lose = lost [pret., p.p.] to run = ran [pret.], run [p.p.]to make = made [pret., p.p.] to saw = sawed [pret., p.p.]; sawn [p.p.]Ýto mean = meant [pret., p.p.] to say = said [pret., p.p.]to meet = met [pret., p.p.] to see = saw [pret.], seen [p.p.]to mow = mowed [pret.], mown [p.p.] to seek = sought [pret., p.p.]to pay = paid [pret., p.p.] to sell = sold [pret., p.p.]to put = put [pret., p.p.] to send = sent [pret., p.p.]to quit = quit [pret., p.p.] to set = set [pret., p.p.]to read = read [pret., p.p.] to sew = sewed [pret., p.p.]; sewn [p.p.]to rebuild = rebuilt [pret., p.p.] to shake = shook [pret.], shaken [p.p.]to recut = recut [pret., p.p.] to shave = shaved [pret., p.p.]; shaven [p.p.]to redeal = redealt [pret., p.p.] to shear = sheared [pret., p.p.]; shorn [p.p.]to redo = redid [pret.], redone [p.p.] to shed = shed [pret., p.p.]to relay = relaid [pret., p.p.] to shine = shone [pret., p.p.]; shined [pret.]to remake = remade [pret., p.p.] to shoe = shod [pret., p.p.]to rend = rent [pret., p.p.] to shoot = shot [pret., p.p.]to repay = repaid [pret., p.p.] to show = showed [pret., p.p.]; shown [p.p.]to reread = reread [pret., p.p.] to shrink = shrank [pret.], shrunk [p.p.]to rerun = reran [pret.], rerun [p.p.] to shut = shut [pret., p.p.]to resend = resent [pret., p.p.] to sing = sang [pret.], sung [p.p.]to reset = reset [pret., p.p.] to sink = sank [pret.], sunk [p.p.]to retake = retook [pret.], retaken [p.p.] to sit = sat [pret., p.p.]to reteach = retaught [pret., p.p.] to slay = slew [pret.], slain [p.p.]to retell = retold [pret., p.p.] to sleep = slept [pret., p.p.]to rethink = rethought [pret., p.p.] to slide = slid [pret., p.p.]to rewrite = rewrote [pret.], rewritten [p.p.] to sling = slung [pret., p.p.]
  • 37. to slink = slunk [pret., p.p.] to swell = swelled [pret.], swollen [p.p.]to slit = slit [pret., p.p.] to swim = swam [pret.], swum [p.p.]to smell = smelled [pret., p.p.] to swing = swung [pret., p.p.]to smell = smelt [pret., p.p.] to take = took [pret.], taken [p.p.]to smite = smote [pret.], smitten [p.p.] to teach = taught [pret., p.p.]to sow = sowed [pret., p.p.]; sown [p.p.] to tear = tore [pret.], torn [p.p.]to speak = spoke [pret.], spoken [p.p.] to tell = told [pret., p.p.]to speed = sped [pret., p.p.] to think = thought [pret., p.p.]to spell = spelled [pret., p.p.] to thrive = thrived [pret., p.p.]to spell = spelt [pret., p.p.] to throw = threw [pret.], thrown [p.p.]to spend = spent [pret., p.p.] to thrust = thrust [pret., p.p.]to spill = spilled [pret., p.p.] to tread = trod [pret.], trodden [p.p.]to spill = spilt [pret., p.p.] to undo = undid [pret.], undone [p.p.]to spin = spun [pret., p.p.] to unlearn = unlearned [pret., p.p.]; unlearnt [pret., p.p.]Ýto spit = spat [pret., p.p.] to unwind = unwound [pret., p.p.]to split = split [pret., p.p.]to spoil = spoiled [pret., p.p.]; spoilt [pret., p.p.]to spread = spread [pret., p.p.] to wake = woke [pret.], woken [p.p.]to spring = sprang [pret.]; sprung [p.p.] to wear = wore [pret.], worn [p.p.]to stand = stood [pret., p.p.] to weave = wove [pret.], woven [p.p.]; weaved [pret.]to steal = stole [pret.], stolen [p.p.] to weep = wept [pret., p.p.]to stick = stuck [pret., p.p.] to win = won [pret., p.p.]to sting = stung [pret., p.p.] to wind = wound [pret., p.p.]to stink = stank [pret.], stunk [p.p.] to withdraw = withdrew [pret.], withdrawn [p.p.]to stride = strode [pret.], stridden [p.p.] to wring = wrung [pret., p.p.]to strike = struck [pret., p.p.]; stricken [p.p.] to write = wrote [pret.], written [p.p.]to string = strung [pret., p.p.]to strive = strove [pret.], striven [p.p.]to swear = swore [pret.], sworn [p.p.]to sweep = swept [pret., p.p.]
  • 38. Auxiliary verbs • Well have a monument erected on this site. • I had my hair cut.An auxiliary verb ("helping" verb) is combined with the principal verb to form certain tenses or moods.(See also the modal verbs, which nuance the meaning of the verbs they accompany.) The only true When one wishes to designate the agent of the action (the person who has carried out the describedauxiliary verbs in English are "to be," "to have," and "to do." action), there are two possibilities:"To be" is an auxiliary verb for the progressive teneses (See the present progressive, the past 1. -- "to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its past participleprogressive, the future progressive): form) + "by" + agent (usually not as a pronoun): • I am going home. • The professor had the work done by his lab assistants. • She was fishing with her father. • I had it done by my employees. • We will be calling on you later. 2. -- "to have" (conjugated) + agent (as a direct object noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its"To have" is an auxiliary verb for the perfect tenses, including the present perfect, the present perfect infinitive form) + the object (also in the form of a direct object noun or pronoun)progressive, the pluperfect, the future perfect, the past conditional: • The professor had his students write an essay. • We have finished. • I had him do it. • They hadnt waited for us. Note: Especially in spoken English, the verb "to get" often replaces "to have," in which case "to" is"To do" is an auxiliary verb for making questions and negations in both the present simple and the added to the infinitive (but not before past participles). This construction also suggests that it may bepreterit : (or have been) difficult to produce a certain reaction on the part of the agent: • Do you have any money? • Well get a monument erected on this site. • Did you hear me? • The professor got his students to write an essay. • He doesnt want to help us. When one wishes to express a change in temperament or in general conditions, it is the constructionCausative constructions "to make + adjective" which is used:When one does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by someone else, this is • That letter made her sad.expressed by a causative construction. In English it is the verb "to have" that introduces the causative. • He makes me furious!The model will generally be: "to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal • That new problem made negotiations really hard!verb (in its past participle form):
  • 39. Do and Make Present progressiveWe often use do followed by words for work or indefinite activities. • General principlesDo your homework. • Near futureCan you do the dishes tonight? • In negative constructionsStan did the grocery shopping every Saturday morning. • Related topicsYou must do something about the mice in the basement! General principles: The present progressive is a version of the present which emphasizes the factWe often use make with the meaning of . that an action is still unfolding (or is continuing) at the time one speaks. It is formed by using theLet’s make some travel plans. auxilary "to be" with the present participle:Mom made a cake for Zachary’s birthday.Do you want me to make breakfast for you? • I am working. • He is eating his dinner.There are also many idiomatic expressions that use the verbs do or make. • The cat is meowing.To do one’s best, to make progress, to do one’s duty, to make a fortune Usually, the present progressive indicates that one is "in the process of" or "in the midst of" doing something. If this is the idea one wishes to communicate, the present progressive will be preferable to the simple present. If you cannot replace the verb by a form of "to be in the process of," the present progressive should probably not be used. Indications of emotion, belief, and possession are rarely conjugated in the present progressive: • I think that is right. ["I am in the process of thinking" would be awkward.] • Cheryl owns her own house. ["Cheryl is in the process of owning" would be awkward.] In certain situations the present progressive can indicate an action which will take place in the immediate future: • I am going to the movies this evening. • They are leaving tomorrow.
  • 40. Near future: To emphasize the idea of future action while using the present tense, one may use the The appropriate form of the verb "to do" will also be used for the negative:verb "to go"; it indicates what one is going to do. In this case the principle verb remains in the infinitive: • I do not (dont) work at home. • I know he is going to yell at me! • No, he does not (doesnt) like to cook. • They are going to regret that decision. After the conjunctions "when," "as soon as," etc., the present is used, even though actions expressed Note: The near future can also be used in past constructions, in which case the verb "to go" may refer to the future: is conjugated in the past progressive: • Shell come when she can. o She was going to leave, but the telephone rang. • Hell pay us as soon as we finish.Present progressive in the negative Forming the simple present: The present is extremely regular in its conjugation. As a general rule, one uses the base form of the infinitive (minus the preposition "to"). For the third person singular ("he,"The word "not" comes after the auxiliary "to be": "she," "it"), an "-s" is added if the verb ends in a consonant, or "-es" if the verb ends with a vowel: • He is not working very hard. To work • You are not driving fast enough. • I workSimple present (indicative) • you work • he / she / it worksThe simple present is used to express actions which take place in the present or which occur regularly. • we workIt also serves to express general or absolute statements not anchored in a particular time frame. • they work • I work at home. To go • Politics are a dirty business. • Jill speaks four languages fluently. • I go • On Sundays, we like to fish. • you go • he / she / it goesIn the interrogative, the present is generally introduced by a form of the verb "to do" ("do / does"): • we go • they go • Does your father like to cook? • Do you have time to stop by my place?
  • 41. However: verbs ending with "consonant + y" (for example, "to try," "to cry," "to bury," etc.) will end in Related topics"-ies" in the third person singular: • NegativesTo bury • Questions • Near future • I bury • Prepositional verbs • you bury • he / she buries • we bury • they bury"To have", "to be"The only irregular verbs in the present are "to have," "to be," and the modal verbs.To have • I have • you have • he / she has • we have • they haveTo be • I am • you are • he / she is • we are • they are •
  • 42. The simple future One can also conjugate these forms in the past progressive in order to express a "future within the past":The simple future uses the modal "will" followed by the infinitive (dropping the presposition "to"). Itserves to express actions which will take place at a specified time, or to signal the beginning of an • He said he was going to do it.action. (If, on the other hand, one wishes to describe an action which is in the process of occurring, it is • She was going to buy a new car, but she never did.the future progressive which will be used to express it.) • When I saw them, they were about to make a decision. • I will meet you at five oclock. Questions • She will go to the library this evening. • We will dance all night long. • Simple questions o "Do"One sometimes find the modal "shall" in place of "will." This usage, generally reserved for the first o Inversionperson, is considered archaic: What shall I do ? o Modal verbs ("will", "would", etc.) • Interrogative adverbs ("how?", "when", "why?", etc.)Note: this usage of "shall" to indicate the future is different from the commonplace usage of "shall" to • Interrogative pronouns ("who", "whom", "what", etc.)indicate desire or wishes. See modal verbs. • "Which", "which one"Near future Simple questionsEspecially in spoken English one finds the near future used as a way of describing imminent events. Simple questions (that is, questions to which one can respond by a simple "yes" or "no") may beStrictly speaking, the near future is not a future tense, for it is formed by combining the present tense formed in three different ways:of the verb "to go," conjugated in the present progressive, with the infinitive of the principal verb. 1. "Do": one precedes an assertion with "do" or "does" (or "dont" or "doesnt" for a negative • We are going to leave soon. expression, or "did", "didnt" for the past): • Im going to give her a call. • Do you want to go to the movies?Also used to express imminent actions is the construction "to be about to do something," also • Does she work at IBM?conjugated in the present. • Dont you travel quite a bit? • Do they answer questions quickly? • I am about to lose my temper! • Didnt they want to eat? • The detective is about to stop the criminal.
  • 43. But: One never places "do" or "does" before the verb "to be" or before modal verbs in In the case of a negative question, the modal phrase would be in the affirmative: questions; in this case it is preferable to invert the subject and verb: • You wouldnt want to try it, would you? o Are you coming to the reception? • She wont be back, will she? o Was the meeting boring? o Werent you hungry? (See also: negations) Interrogative adverbs2. Inversion: with certain verbs (especially the verbs "to be", "to do", "to have", and modal verbs) Simple questions solicit a "yes" or "no" answer. More precise questions may be formed by using thequestions are formed by inverting the subject and object. (In the case of the verb "to have," which is interrogative adverbs: when, why, how, how much, where. Generally, the interrogative adverbusually combined with "do" in interrogatives, inversion signals a literary style.) precedes the rest of the question; then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". • Is Jack home? • Have you nothing to declare? • Where are you going? • Would you like to go to the movies? • Why do you want to take this class? • Will they ever come to visit? • How much do you earn a month? • Can the employees talk to the boss? • How do these machines work? (Où vont ces étudiants ?) • Wont you sit down? • When do you expect to get home? (A quelle heure penses-tu rentrer ?)3. Modal phrases: If a modal verb is used in a sentence, or if it is strongly implied, a modal phrase See also: Questions, Interrogative pronouns.can be used to make an interrogative form. The modal phrase is typically an inversion of the subjectand verb, in the negative, repeated at the end of the sentence: • Its time to go, isnt it? • Hed like to come with us, wouldnt he? • You would like to go with us, wouldnt you? • You can understand that, cant you?
  • 44. Interrogative pronouns direct objet (thing) : what + questionInterrogative pronouns are used to ask who has done what, to whom, why, with what, etc. Normally • What do you want to do this evening?these pronouns are placed at the beginning of the sentence; hen the order of the sentence follows the • What are you preparing?rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". object of a preposition (person) : preposition + whom + questionOne chooses the pronoun based on its function, according to the following table: • About whom are you thinking? • With whom did you go out? Note: In spoken English, one often places the preposition at the end of the sentence, in which case one uses "who" instead of "whom" o Who are you thinking about? o Who did you go out with? object of a preposition (thing) : preposition + what + question • With what did you open it?subject (person) : who + question • In what way does that concern you? • Who did this painting? Note: In spoken English, the preposition is often put at the end of the sentence: • Who wants to get an ice cream? • What did you open it with?subject (thing) : what + question • What did did they base their opinion on? • What interests you? Which, which one, which ones. • What is good in this restaurant? The adjective "which" and its pronominal forms ("which", "which one", "which ones") ask that adirect object (person) : whom + question person make a choice. Usually these pronouns will be placed at the beginning of the sentence; Normalement, ces pronoms se trouveront au début de la phrase ; then the order of the sentence • Whom did you see in France? follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". • Whom are you going to meet at this reception?
  • 45. • Which film do you want to see? A falling intonation on a tag question means you feel certain about what you are saying. A rising • Which date did you choose? intonation means you are not sure and need confirmation. • Here are two pizzas. Which one do you prefer? If the first part of the sentence is affirmative, the tag question is generally negative. If the first part of • There are many different Burgundy wines. Which ones do you like? the sentence is negative, the tag question is generally affirmative. You are French, aren’t you? You aren’t French, are you? Carly can swim, can’t she? Carly can’t swim,Question tag phrases ("isnt it," "wasnt it," etc.) can she?Modals can be used in a negative interrogative form after an affirmative expression. The function of Tag questions with dosuch an expression is to prompt the listener to reassert or reaffirm what has been stated: When there is no verb be or modal verb other than do in the statement, we use do in the tag question. • You would like to go with us, wouldnt you? You like your work, don’t you? • You can understand that, cant you? He did his homework, didn’t he?The modal verb used in the interrogative tag is generally the same as the modal found in the main We did lock the door, didn’t we?clause; the subject pronoun is also repeated. You don’t eat much, do you?After a negative sentence, the modal tag phrase is in the affirmative: • You wouldnt want to try it, would you? (Je suppose que tu ne voudrais pas lessayer.) • She wont be back, will she?Tag questionsWe often use tag questions in spoken English to check information and to ask for confirmation. Weform tag questions with auxiliary or modal verbs or the main verb be, followed by a pronoun.You’re Tom Cruise, aren’t you? She speaks Russian, doesn’t she? That’s not Julia Roberts, is it? Thisdoesn’t cost much, does it?
  • 46. Negation o has not --> hasnt o will not --> wont • "Not" • Negative questions Questions • Negative constructions ("never", "no one", "nothing", etc.) The same structure (placing "not" after the verb) will hold for questions: • Isnt it time to leave?"Not" • Wouldnt you care for a drink?The most common way to put a phrase in the negative is by using "not." Generally, "not" must followan auxiliary verb ("to be", "to do") or a modal ("shall", "must", "might", "will", etc.), even if this verbadds no meaning to the sentence. When no other modal is present or appropriate, the verb "to do" isused.Here are some sample phrases in both affirmative and negative form: Note: If one chooses not contract "not" to "--nt", the adverb "not" will be placed after the subject in the question. This style is considered literary: • I want to play the piano. --> I do not want to play the piano. o Is it not time to leave. • He will arrive on time. o Would you not care for a drink? --> He will not arrive on time. • They should go out together. Using "not" instead of the contraction can produce certain stylistic effects: --> They should not go out together. To stress the negative meaning of the sentence: Note: Most often, the adverb "not" will be contracted to "--nt" after an auxiliary or modal verb: • "He will not come to your house" is stronger than "He wont come to your house" o is not --> isnt To affect a literary style, especially in the formation of a questions: o should not --> shouldnt o does not --> doesnt • Will you not come by and see us? o must not --> mustnt
  • 47. Negative constructions Not a single / not... a singleOther negative constructions are possible. Because English does not allow double or triple negatives, • Not a single letter arrived today.it is important to avoid using "not" with other negative constructions. When "not" is included, use the • He doesnt have a single idea what were doing.affirmative forms of other adverbs: Neither... nor...No more / not... any more • We neither ate nor drank during the ceremony. • I want no more of your money • I like neither tomatoes nor zucchini. • I dont want any more of your money. Only (always placed before the element one whichs to limit):No one / not... anyone • She only has seven dollars. • No one called tonight. • We were only playing. • I dont want to see anyone tonight. • They were the only ones to come.Never / not... ever • She never wants to see him again. • She doesnt ever want to see him again.Nothing / not... anything • He does nothing at all. • Cant you do anything right?Nowhere / not... anywhere • Where are you going? -- Nowhere. • I dont want to go anywhere.
  • 48. The preterit UsageAs a general rule, the preterit is formed by adding the ending "--ed" to the infinitive (dropping any The preterit expresses actions which were completed in the past. Unlike those described by theunpronounced "e" in final position, and changing any final "y" to "i"): present perfect, these actions do not continue in the present. Unlike the past progressive, the preterit does not describe the process or duration of actions: it states them only as completed actions: • to walk --> walked • to answer --> answered • She went to the store this afternoon. • to want --> wanted • They called the police. • to smile --> smiled • He came, he saw, he conquered. • to cry --> cried The duration of the action is of no importance: the preterit may describe an action lasting an instant orThe preterit forms of many common verbs are irregular: many years. Thus verbs indicating belief, emotion, possession, location, etc. will often be expressed in the preterit: • to be --> was (singular), were (plural) • to have --> had • I lived in London for three years. • to do --> did • She owned three dogs throughout her childhood. • to make --> made • I never trusted what they told me. • to eat --> ate In the negative and interrogative, the auxiliary verb "to do" -- conjugated in the preterit -- will be used • to go --> went with the infinitive to express the past: • to drink --> drank • to think --> thought • Did you arrive in time? • to bring --> brought • Didnt you eat yet? • to drive --> drove • We didnt go to the movies after all. • to write --> wrote • to sing --> sang Related topics • to build --> built • The past progressive(For a complete list of this irregular forms, see Irregular preterits and past participles). • Habitual actions in the past
  • 49. Habitual actions in the past Past progressiveTo describe habitual, repeated actions in the past, one generally uses the construction "used to + The past progressive is a past tense which emphasizes the ongoing nature of the action described. Itverb." Thus: is formed by using the auxiliary "to be" with the present participle: • When I was little, we used to go camping a lot. • I was working. • When my father was in school, they used to slap children who didnt behave. • He was eating his dinner when the phone rang. • I used to work days, but now I work the night shift. • The cat was meowing last night while we tried to sleep.In spoken English, one often uses the common construction with the modal "would," followed by the Normally, if an idea could be expressed with the expression "was in the process of doing" or with "wasmain verb: in the midst of doing," the past progressive will be more appropriate than the simple past. Consequently, verbs indicating belief, emotion, possession, etc., are rarely conjugated in the past • When we were kids, we would haze each other quite a bit. progressive: • When I was little, we would go camping a lot. • When my father was in school, they would slap children who didnt behave. • I thought that was right. ["I was in the process of thinking..." would be awkward.] • Cheryl owned her own house. ["Cheryl was in the midst of owning..." would be awkward.]See also: Note: Do not use the past progressive in order to describe habitual actions in the past. • The preterit • The past progressive
  • 50. Present perfect • The film has just come out [or: The film just came out]. • General principles Note: do not confuse this use of "just" (which indicates the recent past) with "just about," which • Recent past indicates, to the contrary, something which will happen in the near future:General principles • I have just about finished. (= I have almost finished; I will finish soon.)The present perfect describes an action or emotion which began in the past and which continues inthe present. It is formed by using the auxilary "to have" with the past participle: Pluperfect • I have always wanted to visit Israel. The pluperfect is formed with the preterit of the auxiliary "to have," followed by the past participle of • Money has always been the problem and not the solution. the principle verb: • I have discovered the answer.After such expressions as "since," "for," "how long," etc., one generally uses the present perfect or • He had always wanted to travel in Africa.even the present perfect progressive: • She had already left when Philippe arrived. • I bought the book that Corinne had recommended to me. • I have been in Paris for three weeks Usage • He has been telling that story for years! • How long have you lived in Quebec? The pluperfect expresses the precedence of one action compared to another. The earlier action will beIn the negative, the present perfect expresses and action which has not yet occurred: described by the pluperfect; the later will generally be described by the preterit. When one action precedes another, the pluperfect is not absolutely necessary. Witness this sentence, which provides a • I havent finished yet. list of actions in chronological order (all expressed by the preterit): • She said she would call, but she hasnt called. • The alarm rang, I got up, and I ate breakfast.Recent past It is usually only when one seeks to emphasize the precedence of one action that the pluperfect will beIn conjunction with the word "just", the present perfect or the preterit can be used to express the used. Often one finds such adverbs as "already," which reinforces the impression of precedence.recent past: • She learned to love the dog that had bitten her the week before. • I (have) just arrived. • When I got home, I had already heard the bad news.
  • 51. • The children ate all the cookies that their father had bought. Future perfectIn certain phrases one action may be left implicit: Relatively rare in English, the future perfect serves to express one future action which precedes a future moment or another future action. Moreover, it asserts that these actions will be completed • She had already thought of that. before the principal action. It is formed by adding the modal "will" to the auxiliary "have," preceding the past participle:The pluperfect is often used in in hypothetical expressions with "if," in conjunction with the pastconditional: • She will have finished before eight oclock. • Tomorrow morning they will all have left. • I would not have come if I had known he was ill. • They will already have finished eating by the time we get there.Withe the adverb "just" the pluperfect indicates the immediate past in a past context: One can often use the simple future instead of the future perfect, but a nuance is lost: the simple future does not emphasize the completion of the first action: • He had just eaten lunch when I arrived. • Tomorrow morning they will all leave. (The future perfect would emphasize that they will already have departed before tomorrow morning.)Present perfect progressive • They will finish eating by the time we get there. (They may finish just as we arrive; the future perfect would emphasize that they will have finished before we arrive.)A close relative of the present perfect, the present perfect progressive, emphasizes the continuation ofa single action: it indicates that the action is ongoing or continuing at the moment one is speaking. The Future progressiveform -- relatively complicated -- consists of the past auxiliary "to have" + "been" (the past participle of The future progressive serves to express an action which will be in the process of occurring. It is"to be") + the present participle of the principal verb. For example: formed by putting the present progressive into the future: will be + present participle. • I have been trying to reach you all afternoon. • I will be waiting for you at six oclock. • They have been working hard to finish their project. • He will be eating by the time you arrive. Hint for usage: How to choose between the future progressive and the simple future? If it is possible to use the expression "will be in the process of," it is the future progressive that best expresses the action. The future progressive indicates that an action will be continuing at a given moment; the simple
  • 52. future suggests that the action will be complete. Thus the verb tense can nuance meaning. Consider Modal verbsthese sentences, both of which are grammatically correct: • General principles • I will be finishing my homework at 10:00. (This suggests that I may finish my homework at • Contractions 10:05 or 10:15; I will be nearing completion, in the process of completion.) • Question tag phrases: "isnt it," "wasnt it," etc. • I will finish my homework at 10:00. (This suggests that I will finish at 10:00 sharp.) • Related topicsPassive voiceEvents may be related in the active or the passive voice. In the passive, the person or thing receiving General principlesthe action becomes the grammatical subject. The auxiliary modals "would," may," "might," "should," "must," "ought to," "can," "could," "will,"For example (the entity receiving the action is in boldface): "shall" are invariable. They exist only in the present, and unlike most verbs in the simple present, their form does not change in the third person singular. • active voice: Eric Rohmer made this film. • passive voice: This film was made by Eric Rohmer. Modal verbs are auxiliaries, or "helping" verbs: they are used in conjunction with another verb (in infinitive form) as a way to modify its meaning. Modals can nuance the meaning of the principal verb inOne forms the passive by conjugating the verb "to be" before the past participle of the principal verb. a number of ways:the tense of the verb "to be" will determine the tense of action. When an agent of the action (that is,the person or entity performing the action) must be described, one does so by using the preposition -- Possibility or ability, by "can" or "could""by": • I can do this job. • This industry will soon be developed in the third world. • Could you please do the dishes? • Sorry, but this car has been purchased by another customer. -- Possibility or permission by "may" or "might" (often translated in other languages by a differentEnglish uses the passive voice frequently, although it is best to avoid it when possible. An option is to mood, such as the subjonctif).use an impersonal subject, such as "one" or "someone" • I may finish my paper tonight. • (passive voice): This job needs to be done. • You may come with us, if you wish. • (active voice): Someone needs to do this job. • It might be helpful to have a map. -- Obligation, or moral obligation, by "must," "ought to," or "should":
  • 53. • Students must hand in their work on time. • Theyll (they will) never believe it! • You ought to see a doctor. • She wont (will not) bother you anymore. • You should never play with fire. ConditionalNote that "must" can also indicate probability: The conditional is formed using the modal "would" in front of an infinitive (dropping the word "to"). The • You must be exhausted! conditional is used especially in three contexts: • He must play tennis pretty well. 1) PolitenessThe modal verb "would" is used to express the conditional: • I would like the menu, please. • If he had time, he would pick up some groceries. • Would you have a couple of minutes for me?The modal verb "will" expresses the future: 2) To indicate the "future within the past": • The train will arrive in an hour. • She said she would come to the party. • I thought he would arrive before me.Contractions 3) In hypothetical constructions with "if." When "if" is followed by the preterit or the subjunctive, theAfter a pronoun subject, "would" is often contracted into "--d" ("Id", "wed", "shed", etc.), while "will" conditional is expected in the second clause:is contracted into "--ll" ("Ill", "youll", "theyll", etc.). After all modal verbs, the word"not" of thenegative can be contracted into "--nt" ("wouldnt", "shouldnt", etc.). • If I had the time, I would do my homework. • If you told me the truth, I would believe you.Exceptions : "will not" becomes "wont". "Can not" can also be written "cannot"; in its contractedform, the "n" is not doubled: "cant". The "if" of hypothetical expressions can be implicit:Note: The contraction of the modal verbs "shall," "ought," and "may," is considered slightly archaic or • In your position (= if I were you), I wouldnt have stayed.literary. See related topics:examples of contractions: • Past conditional • I wouldnt (would not) do that, if I were you! • Modal verbs
  • 54. Past conditional ConditionalsThe past conditional is expressed using the modal "would" before a past infinitive (= "have" + past There are four common conditional forms. The zero and first conditionals are also called ‘real’participle). This construction serves to express missed opportunities and past hypotheses: conditionals. The second and third conditionals are also called ‘unreal’ conditionals. • She told me that she would have liked to come and see us. Zero Conditional • In your position, I would have done the same thing. The zero conditional is an if/then statement that is used to express a scientific fact or something that is generally true.One finds it often in hypothetical constructions with "if." When "if" is followed by the pluperfect, theconditional past is expected in the second clause: Form: If + subject +present simple verb, subject + present simple verb. Or • If I had had the time, I would have done my homework. Subject + present simple verb + if + subject + present simple verb. • If you had told me the truth, I would have believed you. • If he had worked harder, hed have received a better grade. Examples: If you put sugar in your tea, it becomes sweet.Note: In certain regions (principally in the United States) one hears the conditional past in both The trip takes 35 minutes if you take the express train.clauses of hypothetical expressions: First Conditional • If you would have told me he was going to win, I wouldnt have believed you. The first conditional is an if/then statement that expresses the consequence of a probable or possible situation in the future.See related topics: Form: If + subject + present simple verb, subject + will + verb • Conditional Or • Modal verbs Subject + will + verb + if + subject + present simple verb Examples: If you call before 11 p.m., I will pick you up from the station. I’ll burst if I eat any more food!
  • 55. Second Conditional ObjectsThe second conditional is an if/then statement that expresses the consequence of a hypothetical,imaginary, impossible, or improbable situation in the future. Direct Object: A direct object will most often be a noun (thing or idea) that receives the action of the transitive (action) verb. I threw the ball.Form: If + subject + simple past verb, subject + would + verbOr Indirect Object: An indirect object will most often be the person or persons expressed as the recipientSubject + would+ verb + if + subject + simple past verb of the direct object and will be found immediately after the transitive verb and before the direct object. I threw him the ball.Examples:If I had a million dollars, I would buy a mansion in Florida. Phrase: A phrase adds to the meaning of a sentence but does not contain a subject or a verb.I would wear a coat if I were you. (It’s really cold outside.) The yellow house is at the bottom of the driveway.Third Conditional Clause: A clause will contain a subject and a verb and function as either a dependent or anThe third conditional is an if/then statement that expresses what would have happened if events in the independent clause.past were different. It is often used to express regret about actions in the past the speaker would like See Dependent Clauseto change. Adjective Clause: An adjective clause will begin with a relative pronoun and give us more informationForm: If + subject + past perfect, subject + would + have + past participle about a noun or pronoun within a sentence. See Dependent Clause.Or Adverb Clause: An adverb clause will begin with a subordinating conjunction and offer readers moreSubject + would + have + past participle + if + subject +past perfect information about the verb (usually giving us information about time, place, or why somethingExamples: happened). See Dependent Clause.If I had known about the divorce, I wouldn’t have asked him about his wife. Noun Clause: A noun clause also begins with a relative pronoun but functions differently from an(I didn’t know about the divorce and I asked him about this wife. I regret that I asked him and would adjective clause. The noun clause operates in the subject position of a sentence, in the object positionchange the past if possible.) of a sentence, or in the subject complement position of a sentence.Sally would have bought a new car if she had received a raise at her job. (Sally didn’t buy the new car That I studied the assignment was evident to the teacher. (Noun Clause as Subject)but would have under different circumstances in the past.) I forgot that I needed my passport. (Noun Clause as Direct Object) Pedro was looking for whatever he needed for the baseball game. (Noun Clause as Object of the Preposition)
  • 56. Prepositional Phrase: A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and ends with a noun Single preposition verbs(the object of the preposition). In some cases, the object of the preposition will be a noun clause. Theprepositional phrase functions either as an adjective, telling us more about a noun or pronoun, or an A great number of verbs in English can be modified by the addition of a preposition. Often theadverb, providing us more information about the verb. (May be as short as two words or as many as preposition will nuance, or even dramatically change, the meaning of the base verb. The meanings areseveral words) often idiomatic, and the meaning expressed by any given preposition may be very different from one verb to another.The student in the purple dress walked down the hallway. (Adjective and Adverb PrepositionalPhrases, respectively) It would be impossible to list all such verbs here (but you will find them in the dictionary itself). These examples will suffice to provide an illustration of the principle:Participial Phrase: A participial phrase joins together a participle and its corresponding words,functioning, always, as an adjective. The participle may be present (ending in -ing) or past (ending in • to speak -- to say words-ed or its irregular form). • to speak up -- to speak loudlyThe school, aged and bent from years of harsh weather, fell from its state of grace. (Past Participial • to speak down (to someone) -- to be condescending toward someonePhrase) • to speak for (someone) -- to speak in someones placeSwimming in a sea of grammar, the students splashed each other with verbs and nouns. (PresentParticipial Phrase)The singing bird trilled high notes in the early morning. (Participle) • to put -- to set down • to put up -- to place up highPrepositional Verbs • to put up -- to put in jars or cans • Single preposition verbs • to put away -- to put something back where it belongs o Sentence structure • to put down -- to release ones grasp of something • Mulitple preposition verbs • to put out -- to place outside, or to take outside o Sentence structure • to put on -- to wear • Related topics • to turn -- to twist • to turn on -- to make something function (a light, a motor) • to turn off -- to remove the power to (a light, a motor) • to turn around -- to turn to face the opposite direction
  • 57. • to turn up -- to augment the sound, the light Related topics • to turn down -- to diminish the sound, the light • to turn out -- to become • Prepositions • to turn red, white, etc. -- to change colors • Verbs with prepositionsSentence structure Sentence TypesWhen the sentence includes a noun object, the object will follow the preposition; if the object is Simple Sentence: A sentence that contains one and only one independent clauses and no dependentreplaced by a pronoun, the pronoun precedes the preposition: clauses. The young boy smiled at the big dog. • He turned on the television. Compound Sentence: A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses and no dependent • He turned it on. clauses. Essential to the compound sentence is its punctuation, as it must contain either a comma and • She put away her books. a coordinating conjunction (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So) or a semi-colon that conjoins the two • She put them away. independent clauses. Joseph taught the students about delivering speeches, and Sarah taught them composition skills.Multiple preposition verbs Complex Sentence: A sentence that contains one and only one independent clause and at least oneThere are many prepositional verbs that take two prepositions: dependent clause. Because the weather forecaster announced the threat of an impending hurricane, the students • to put up with (something, someone) -- to tolerate someone canceled their luxurious boat cruise to the Azores. • to go out with -- to accompany someone • to go off on (a digression, an adventure) -- to begin, to start Compound-Complex Sentence: A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses and at • to run away from -- to flee least one dependent clause. Because the weather forecaster announced the threat of an impending hurricane, the students canceled their luxurious boat cruise to the Azores, but the cruise line would notSentence structure refund the students’ money.When the verb is followed by two prepositions, the object follows the two prepositions, whether the Independent/dependent clausesobject is a noun or a pronoun: Independent Clause: Typically thought of as a sentence, offering its readers a complete thought and containing a subject, verb, and its complement (Prepositional Phrase, Direct Object, Adjectival, or • How can you put up with him? Adverbial). The grammar book was thick. • Bill should not go out with Monica.
  • 58. Dependent Clause: A clause that cannot stand alone and does not offer its reader a complete thought. Both of these sentences have the same subject (Troy).A dependent clause will typically be an Adjective, Adverb, or Noun clause. Starring Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom, Troy is a very exciting film.When the frost is on the pumpkin, farmers often know that the harvest season is almost over. (AdverbClause and Noun Clause, respectively) Another example:The book that was on the table was thick. (Adjective Clause) Johnny Depp appeared in Pirates of the Caribbean, Chocolat, and many other films. Hes one of the most talented actors of his generation.Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses Appearing in Pirates of the Caribbean, Chocolat, and many other films, Johnny Depp is one of the most talented actors of his generation.A relative clause gives us information about the noun it modifies. A defining relative clause givesessential information about the noun it modifies. The sentence would not make sense if the clause Participle clauses use a past participle if the main verb is passive.were removed. Defining relative clauses often come right after the nouns that they modify, without a Troy was filmed in North Africa.comma. It stars Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom. Filmed in North Africa, Troy stars Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom.People who eat healthy foods live longer.What’s the name of the hotel that you stayed at?A non-defining relative clause gives us additional but non-essential information about the noun it Relative Clausesmodifies. The sentence would still make sense if the non-defining clause were removed. In writing,non-defining relative clauses are usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas before Relative clauses give you information about something or someone. We start relative clauses withand after the clause. which if we are referring to a thing or an idea, and with who if we are referring to a person.Isabel Allende, who wrote Daughter of Fortune, lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. A diary is a book which you write in every day.Watership Down, which is my favorite novel, is a story about rabbits. He’s the person who lives next door. In these examples, both which and who can be replaced by that.Participle ClausesParticiple clauses use a present participle (-ing) to join together sentences, whether in the present or We can also form relative clauses with where and when. We start clauses with when if we are referringthe past, that have the same subject. to a time, and with where if we are referring to a place. July is a month when many people go on vacation.Troy stars Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom. A registry office is a place where a couple can get married.It is a very exciting film.
  • 59. We use whose in place of his, her or their in relative clauses. Say/tellThe best man is the person whose job it is to help the groom.They are the people whose car was stolen. The verbs say and tell are used in both direct and indirect speech. We use say to refer to any kind of speech. It can be used interchangeably with tell in indirect speech, but not in direct speech. We useIf who, which, or that is the subject of the relative clause, it must remain in the sentence. If it is the tell to refer to situations where instructions or information are given.object, it can be omitted. Whose is always followed by a noun and cannot be omitted from its clause.She’s the friend who likes to go to the theater with me. Mary said that the restaurant was closed.She’s the friend (who) I like to go to the theater with. Mary told us that the restaurant was closed. Caleb said “Good morning.”Phrasal Verbs It is incorrect to use tell in this sentence.Phrasal verbs are made up of two parts, a verb plus a particle. A particle is a preposition that hasbecome linked to a verb. Together the verb and particle have a fixed meaning. Phrasal verbs can takeobjects or not. Phrasal verbs that take objects can be inseparable or separable. Dont forget: phrasalverbs have tenses too!Inseparable phrasal verbs always remain together. Examples:The brothers set off to seek their fortunes.The girls get up early every morning.The burglar almost got away.Alice is looking after her baby sister.In separable phrasal verbs, the object can often go between the verb and its particle: He took off his jacket or He took his jacket offBut if the object has been replaced by a pronoun, the pronoun must go between the verb and particle: He took it offIf the object is particularly long, dont use it to separate the verb and particle: He took off the jacket hed bought last week at Harrods.
  • 60. Direct and indirect discourse D. When a quotation is put in indirect discourse, care must be taken to verify that verb tenses reflect the change in temporal context:When one reports what others have said word for word, this is called "direct discourse." It is generallysignaled by the presence of quoation marks: direct discourse: She said, "I will be on time." indirect discourse: She said she would be on time. • Philippe said, "Ill come if I have the time." • My roommate said, "Clean the place up, or get out of here!" direct discourse: When he called he said, "I am at the airport" indirect discourse: When he called he said he was at the airport.When one paraphrases the words of others, writing them so as to avoid direct quotation, this is called"indirect discourse." Indirect discourse entails certain changes:A. Quotation marks are not used: Indirect Speechdirect discourse: He told me, "Youre stupid" Direct and Indirect Speechindirect discourse: He told me that I was stupid. Direct speech can also be called "quoted" speech. We use direct speech when we want to reproduceB. When the verb in the reported discourse is conjugated, is it generally preceded by "that"; however, someones words exactly. We always use quotation marks.the inclusion of "that" is optional Elizabeth said, "Im tired.” Jessie said, "I want a new job." • She said that she would be late. Indirect speech can also be called "reported" speech. We use indirect speech when we want to • OR: She said she would be late. reproduce the idea of someones words without using their exact words. The verb forms and pronouns • They informed us that the plane was delayed. may change, and quotation marks are not used. • OR: They informed us the plane was delayed.C. Imperative forms, when recounted in indirect discourse, generally become infinitive constructions: Elizabeth said that she was tired. Jessie said that she wanted a new job.direct discourse: He told me, "Write to me." Notice that the verbs in the examples changed to the past in the indirect speech statements toindirect discourse: He told me to write him. coordinate with the past tense verb "said". Look at these verb changes:direct discourse: I told them, "Get out of here!" Sam says, "I drive to work."indirect discourse: I told them to get out of here. Sam says that he drives to work. Sam said, <I drive to work.>
  • 61. Sam said (that) he drove to work. Reporting questions without question wordsSam said, <I am driving to work.> We use if or whether to report a yes-no question that doesn’t use a question word. Sam said (that) he was driving to work. <Do you want an ATM card?> arrow She asked me if I wanted an ATM card.Sam said, <I have driven to work.> <Is life expensive in Brazil?> arrow He asked me whether life was expensive in Brazil. Sam said (that) he had driven to work. <Can I open an account?> arrow She asked whether she could open an account.Sam said, <I drove to work.> Sam said (that) he had driven to work. Remember! You need to coordinate the tense of the verb in the reported question with the verb thatSam said, <I will drive to work.> introduces the reported question. Sam said (that) he would drive to work.Sam said, <I can drive to work.> Sam said (that) he could drive to work.Sam said, <I may drive to work.> Sam said (that) he might drive to work.Reporting questions in indirect speechReporting questions using the question words what, where, when, why, how, etc.When we want to report a question that starts with a question word, we include the question word inthe reported speech.<What’s the time?> arrow He asked me what the time was.<Where do you live?> arrow He asked me where I lived.When we report a question, we do not put the verb in the interrogative form.They asked me where I lived.NotThey asked me where did I live.
  • 62. ANNEX I am a student.El Verbo To Be Laura is a lawyer. We are friends.En esta lección aprenderemos cuándo utilizar el verbo to be.Cuando queremos expresar condiciones y características físicas, como por ejemplo edad, peso, talla, sujeto + to be + preposicióncolor, y ocupación, entre otras, utilizamos el verbo to be. Es uno de los verbos más comunes en el idiomainglés, así que lo verás utilizado muchas veces, de varias formas. I am at the table. It is on the sofa.Utilizamos diferentes formas de to be con diferentes sujetos de oración. They are in the bedroom.Cuando el sujeto es I usa am: Contracciones son formas cortas de sujeto y verbo combinadas en una sola palabra.I am a teacher. I am a student. = Im a student.Cuando el sujeto es he, she, it, usa is:My hair is brown. He is married. = Hes married.She is tall. They are hungry. = Theyre hungry.Cuando el sujeto es you, we, o they, usa are:We are parents. My name is Sarah. = My names Sarah.They are beautiful.Cuando el verbo to be es el principal en una oración, puede ser seguido por un adjetivo, un nombre, ouna preposición.sujeto + to be + adjetivoI am hungry.You are beautiful.Sarah and Collin are sad.sujeto + to be + nombre
  • 63. Presente SimpleForma Completa del Verbo To Be Contracción En esta lección aprenderemos cuándo utilizar el tiempo presente simple.I am Im El tiempo presente simple se usa en las siguientes situaciones: 1. Long-lasting situations (Situaciones de larga duración)you are youre Meghan lives in Seattle.he is, she is, it is hes, shes, its Ella vivió allí en el pasado y seguirá viviendo allí en el futuro. Esta situación es de larga duración ywe are were posiblemente permanente, por eso utilizamos el presente simple. Más ejemplos:you are youre She often plays tennis on Mondays.they are theyre She cooks dinner once a week. 2. Facts (Hechos) Megan speaks three languages. Hechos generales y verdades sin tiempo también se expresan en presente simple. Es un hecho que Meghan habla tres idiomas, y esto no cambiará prontamente. Más ejemplos: She is an American. She has two sisters.
  • 64. 3. Habits (Hábitos) 5. Feelings (Sentimientos)She usually goes shopping on the weekend. Meghan loves strawberries.Ir de compras durante los fines de semana es un hábito regular para Meghan. Usamos el presente Sentimientos como el amor y el odio también son expresados en el tiempo presente simple.simple para hablar acerca de hábitos y lo que hacemos en la vida diaria. Más ejemplos:Utilizamos palabras como usually, often, sometimes, in the evening, in the morning para mostrar quela acción es habitual. She hates onions. She feels sad when it rains.Más ejemplos: 6. Schedules (planes)She is an American.She has two sisters. Her yoga class begins at 6 p.m.4. Opinions (Opiniones) Detalles acerca de agendas y calendarios también son expresados en el tiempo presente simple. En este caso, la clase de Meghan está planeada para comenzar a las 6 p.m.She thinks riding a bike is fun. Más ejemplos:Frecuentemente expresamos opiniones y estados de ánimo en presente simple. En vista de que elciclismo es su deporte favorito, la opinión de Meghan es que montar en bicicleta es divertido. Classes at Seattle University begin on September 1. The flight to Madrid leaves at 5 p.m.Más ejemplos:She considers it good exercise.I agree with Meghan.
  • 65. Grados de ComparaciónSituación Ejemplo En esta lección aprenderemos cuándo usar las formas comparativa y superlativa de los adjetivos.Long-lasting situations My address is 123 Main St. Cuando queremos evaluar o hacer un paralelo entre las cualidades o características de dos cosas entre sí en inglés, usamos la forma comparativa.Facts The sky is blue. Los gatos son pequeños pero los leones son muy grandes:Habits I rarely eat breakfast. Cats are smaller than lions.Opinions He thinks its beautiful. Los osos son muy peligrosos, pero los perros no: Bears are more dangerous than dogs.Feelings I love dogs. Los delfines son muy inteligentes pero los sapos no: Dolphins are smarter than frogs.Schedules My plane leaves at 2:30 p.m. Fíjate en que la palabra more o la terminación -er son usadas frecuentemente para formar el adjetivo. Para comparar tres o más personas o cosas, usamos la forma superlativa del adjetivo, no la comparativa. Comparativo: Dr. Louis is taller than Dr. Lam. Superlativo: Dr. Louis is the tallest doctor. Comparativo: Dr. Lam is more skillful than Dr. Hall.
  • 66. Superlativo:Dr. Lam is the most skillful doctor. Formando el Pasado SimpleNota que para formar el superlativo normalmente se usa la palabra most o la terminación –est. En esta lección aprenderemos reglas para formar el tiempo Pasado Simple. Formamos el tiempo pasado simple usando el tiempo pasado del verbo. El tiempo pasado se forma de otra manera, dependiendo de si el verbo es regular o Uso Forma Ejemplo irregular. comparación de dos usar "more" o terminar en Cheetahs are faster than Los verbos regulares siempre siguen los mismos patrones de conjugación. En el tiempo personas o cosas "er" snails. pasado adoptan la terminación ed. Los verbos irregulares no siguen patrón alguno y pueden tener varias terminaciones comparación de tres o usar "most" o terminar en Dr. Louis is the tallest diferentes. más personas o cosas "est" doctor. Por ejemplo, teach - taught, swim - swam. Primero demos una mirada a los verbos regulares. 1. Si el verbo termina en e... por ejemplo dance, smile, like, practice ...entonces agregamos d para formar el tiempo pasado. Por ejemplo, danced, smiled, liked, smoked, practiced
  • 67. 2. Si el verbo termina en una consonante + y... Ten cuidado cuando la palabra termina en y: si la y es precedida por una vocal (porpor ejemplo, cry, marry, study, rely ejemplo, play, stay, annoy, delay) entonces no reemplazamos la y con i. (Por ejemplo, play - played, stay - stayed, annoy - annoyed, delay - delayed)....entonces quitamos la y y agregamos ied para formar el tiempo pasado. Los verbos irregulares no siguen patrón alguno, y desafortunadamente la única forma de aprenderlos es memorizarlos.Por ejemplo, cried, married, studied3. Si el verbo termina en una vocal + una consonante... Verbos Regulares Regla Ejemplopor ejemplo stop, rub, hop, hug, drag...entonces doblamos la consonante y agregamos ed para formar el tiempo pasado. terminados en e agregar d store - storedPor ejemplo stopped, rubbed, banned terminados en retirar y y agregar ied try - tried consonante + yTen en cuenta que no doblamos la consonante si el verbo termina en x.Por ejemplo fix -> fixed, mix -> mixed terminados en 1 vocal + doblar la consonante y stop - stopped 1 consonante agregar ed4. En todos los otros casos agregamos ed al verbo para formar el tiempo pasado. con otras terminaciones agregar ed walk - walkedPor ejemplo, want –wantedlaugh – laughedtrain – trainedstay – stayed
  • 68. Artículos Definidos e Indefinidos Hemos aprendido cómo decidir si debemos usar a o an, pero ¿cómo saber si debesA, an y the son artículos: palabras pequeñas que preceden y modifican a los usar un artículo definido (the) o un artículo indefinido (a/an)?nombres. Son muy comunes en inglés, y es importante saber utilizarlas correctamente. Los artículos indefinidos se usan en los siguientes casos:En esta lección, aprenderemos acerca de los artículos definidos e indefinidos, ycómo usarlos. para identificar cargo o función, por ejemplo, Its an ashtray. He is a manager.A y an son llamados artículos indefinidos. Se usan antes de los nombres para dar un ejemplo general, por ejemplo, A cat has a long tail.singulares contables. para referirse a una persona/cosa en particular por primera vez, por ejemplo, I saw a man in the street. He was buying a newspaper.Por ejemplo, He is a teacher. She is a sales manager describiendo algo, por ejemplo, He has a beard and a loud voice.A se usa antes de palabras que empiecen con consonantes como b, c, d, f. Por También utilizamos artículos indefinidos con:ejemplo, banana, camera, womanAn se usa antes de palabras iniciadas con vocales como a, e, o. Por ejemplo, apple, exclamaciones usando what (por ejemplo what a pity, what a nice man)egg, olive expresiones usando quite, rather, such (por ejemplo, quite a few people)Ten en cuenta que esta regla aplica más al sonido de la palabra que a su escritura en sí: NO utilizamos artículos indefinidos con:Cuando una vocal suena más como una consonante (como cuando u suena como y, u la forma posesivao suena como w), usamos a, no an. nombres no contablesPor ejemplo, a union, a European, a one-sided argument por ejemplo, a my friend (incorrecto) - my friend (correcto)Cuando la consonante suena como una vocal, por ejemplo cuando se deletrea F, L, M, a water (incorrecto) - water / some waterN, S, X ( ef, el, em, en, es, ex, etc.), o con la h silenciosa, entonces usamos an, no a.Por ejemplo, an FBI agent, an X-ray, an honor
  • 69. Los artículos definidos se usan con: items específicos, por ejemplo, Yes, hes the one. cosas que ya han sido mencionadas o insinuadas, por ejemplo, Please open the window. (tú sabes de cuál estoy hablando) cosas que son únicas, por ejemplo, the world,the sky, the sun, the US president en algunas generalizaciones, por ejemplo, I cant playthe piano. (No estoy hablando de un piano en particular, quiero decir que no soy capaz de sacar melodías de ningún piano.) Uso de los Artículos Indefinidos Uso de Artículos Definidos para identificar empleo o función objetos específicos para dar un ejemplo general cosas que ya han sido mencionadas o insinuadas para referirse a una persona o cosa en cosas que son únicas particular por primera vez describiendo algo algunas generalizaciones
  • 70. Prepositions of Place (A) On is also used to show that something is attached to or in contact with something else:Prepositions of place are small words that tell us about position and location. They e.g. The writing is on the wall.describe where an object is in relation to something else. There is a stain on his shirt. The coat is hanging on the door.In this lesson, were going to learn how to use the prepositions in, at and on to describe Theres a fly on the ceiling.location. Put the mat on the floor.In AtThe preposition in is used to describe an object that is inside an enclosed space or container, The preposition at is used to describe an object that is nearby something else, or located at afor example: specific place.Mother is in the kitchen. e.g. at the bus stopThe flowers are in the vase. at the cinemaThey are swimming in the water. at the doorThe tea is in the cup. at the stationOn It is used when we talk about buildings and places, especially when we are mainly interested in the function of a place and not the inside of the building.The preposition on is used to describe a position on top of a surface or above something. e.g. Shes at the cinema. (She watching a film)e.g. on the table BUT Its too cold in the cinema. (The room is too cold)on a bikeon a horseon the mountainon the carpet
  • 71. 1. The Verb To Be If there is one verb and the verb is a form of be, simply move the verb to the beginning of the sentence. In other words, the subject and the verb change position. In At On They are in the office. -> Are they in the office? Hes in the kitchen. Im sitting on the chair. I saw him at the station. She is sick. -> Is she sick? She lives in Japan. Theres a rug on the floor. Hes at work. The pen is in my pocket. Whats that mark on your Ill meet you at the corner We are on holiday. -> Are we on holiday? shirt? of the street. 2. Auxiliary VerbsYes/No Questions In English, some verbs have two or more parts and require an auxiliary verb.In this grammar lesson we will learn how to form different types of yes/no questions. e.g. I can speak German.The basic structure of yes/no questions depends on the verb in the sentence. He was living in Turkey last year. You have been working here since April.As you can see, there are three different types of yes/no questions: To form a yes/no question from these statements, we change the position of the first 1. questions with be auxiliary verb and the subject of the sentence. 2. questions with auxiliary verbs 3. questions with do You have been to America. -> Have you been to America? They are going to leave the office soon. -> Are they going to leave the office soon?The easiest way to form yes/no questions is to look at the statement first.
  • 72. 3. Other VerbsThe last group of sentences has a one-part verb which is not a form of be.e.g. He works harder than her.They live in Paris.To change these sentences to yes/no questions, simply add the correct form of theauxiliary verb do (do, does, did) to the beginning of the sentence. Finally, remember tochange the verb to the infinitive form (eg. drives = drive).Jane drives a car. -> Does Jane drive a car?You travel often. -> Do you travel often? Verb Type Rule Example be change the position of the You are from China. subject and the verb Are you from China? auxiliaries and modals change the position of the We can come tomorrow. (e.g. can, have, be) subject and the auxiliary Can we come tomorrow? other verbs (e.g. play, add do/does/did to the He works from home.
  • 73. Talking about Grammar Parts of SpeechIn this lesson we will learn how to talk about grammar in English, and find out why it isimportant to learn grammar when studying a language. It is very important to know how to classify words in English, and what name to give different groups of words.Why Study Grammar? In English, we divide words into parts of speech. This shows how the words are used, not whatAlthough grammar is not the MOST important part of learning a language, it should not be they are. It is important to know that the same word can belong to different parts of speechignored. It can help you in many ways, such as: depending on the sentence. by showing you the rules and patterns of English, you can learn more quickly e.g. I walk to work every day. (walk = verb) it helps you think about and talk about English I take my dog for a walk every evening. (walk = noun) it can show you where to find information and how to ask for help it shows you that although English has exceptions, most of it follows regular patterns There are eight main parts of speech in English: noun, verb, adjective, adverb , pronoun, it helps you organize your learning effectively preposition, conjunction and interjection. correct grammar makes it easier for others to understand you We can also go further and divide each part of speech into smaller groups.How to Study Grammar For example:Learning grammar should be done in stages: Nouns can be countable (cup) or uncountable (water), singular (child) or plural (children).1. Read examples2. Identify patterns Verbs can have different tense (present, past, future), voice (active or passive) and aspect3. Make rules (perfect or progressive).4. Do practice activities Adjectives can be ordinary (good), comparative (better) or superlative (best).All these steps are important, for example dont just try to learn rules without doing practiceactivities. Pronouns can be personal (I, me), possessive (yours, mine), relative (which, who), demonstrative (that, those), etc.
  • 74. Parts of a SentenceIf you want to talk about grammar, we need to look at more than words: we have to put words Part of Speech Function Exampletogether to form phrases, clauses and sentences.A complete sentence always has a subject and a predicate. The subject tells us who or what noun name of a person, animal, place, thing, Who is that woman?the sentence is about. The predicate is everything in the sentence apart from the subject. abstract ideae.g. My sister (subject) is a doctor. (predicate) verb describes actions, events, or states of She works for Microsoft.An object may follow the verb to complete its meaning. It can be direct or indirect. beinge.g. He gave the pen (direct object) to me . (indirect object).A complement follows verbs like be, seem, feel and become. pronoun replaces nouns or other pronouns He doesnt believe her.e.g. She is a teacher. I feel tired. adjective used to describe, identify, or quantify Ill have a large, cold Coke. nouns and pronouns adverb shows manner, time, place, cause, or He works quickly and carefully. degree preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to The pen fell off the desk. other words in a sentence conjunction links words, phrases and clauses together He is clever but modest. interjection used to show emotion or get attention Wow! Did you see that?