Comparison between the Yunque Rainforest and the Guanica Dry Forest On this report we are going to talk about two major biomes. A biome is a majorlife zone characterized by vegetation type or by physical environment. Factors asmean temperature and precipitation play a major role in determining where biomesexist. Each biome is also characterized by microorganisms, fungi, and animalsadapted to that particular environment. Vertical layering is an important feature ofterrestrial biomes, and the shapes and sizes of plants largely define that layering. Thespecies composition of each kind of biome varies from one location to another.Biomes are dynamic, and disturbance rather than stability tends to be the rule. The two major biomes that we are going to work on are the Tropical rain forestand the tropical dry forest. Tropical rain forests across the world are very diverse andtheir precipitation is relatively constant, about 200-400 cm annually. Among its plantsit includes emergent trees that grow above a closed canopy. Broadleaf evergreen treesare dominant in tropical rain forests as are epiphytes such as bromeliads and orchids.Tropical dry forests precipitation is highly seasonal, about 150-200 cm annually, witha six to seven month dry season. Many tropical dry forest trees drop their leavesduring the dry season. Thorny shrubs and succulent plants are common in type offorest.The Tropical Rain Forest, el Yunque El Yunque national Rain Forest is a reserve located on the eastern side of theisland and has over 200 different species of plant and over 120 species of animals.For a forest to be categorized as a tropical rain forests it must have principally twoenvironmental factors: the location should be on the tropical equatorial zone and thequantity of rain that it receives a year that it should be 4 to 8 meters. In the national rain forest el Yunque they are 240 species that been seen and which26 are endemic and only found in el Yunque. In addiction they have been reports of47 species that have been introduced, 88 species of wear trees, 50 species of natives’orchids and 150 species of ferns. The characteristic of the forest may vary fromelevation. The national rain forest is divided on four types of forest which are: the
“tabonuco” forest, red tree forest, sierra palm forest and the cloud forest or dwarfforest.The plants that we found on the rain forest were: • Cadan Tree: Produces a fruit the size of a soursop, has a relationship with mycorrhizae to grow. • Yagrumo: Cecropia peltata. It is dioecious, meaning it has male and female flowers on different trees of the same species. The flowers of the female are tiny and are grouped in inflorescences up to 4 inches long, The male flowers are much thinner. The female flowers produce thousands of fruits that are eaten by birds and bats. This keeps flowering and fruiting throughout the year. This species grows rapidly and their roots are shallow. • Magohaby (Caboa): Is a valuable wood, light and attractive. Does not have moth. Mahogany has a generally straight grain and it has a reddish-brown color, which darkens over time, and displays a reddish sheen when polished. It has excellent workability and is very durable. It can be Cuban mahogaby or Dominican mahogaby, although the Dominican magohaby has smaller leafs. • Bamboo: Grass, stem free of branches, it doesn’t have growth under its branches. Bamboos are some of the fastest growing plants in the world and depend on local soil and climatic conditions. • Guava tree: It was used in coffee plantations for shadow and produces a very sweet fruit. The spread of the guavas is because the animals will eat the fruit and disperse the seeds in their droppings The ants that live in this tree are called “abayarde”. • Guaraguao Tree: Guarea guara. It is made of light wood like mahogany. • Tree Fern (Helecho arbóreo): Cibotium spp. They are very primitive plants, lively ferns and often in danger of extinction in the regions of origin.The plants and trees that live on El Yunque have big leaves, long and strong roots andtall stems.
MethodologyThe objective of The Yunque Rain Forest visit was to take soil samples to see if wecould find phages. 1. Take the soil sample 2. Coordinates 3. Wind Velocity 4. Soil Temperature 5. PhResults from el Yunque:Altitude Coordinates Humidity PH Temp. Wind Muestra? Who? Velocity706 18 ̊ 20.298N 73% 5 80 ̊F Yes NCC 065 ̊45.732W2,483 18 ̊18.1989N 84% 6 73F Yes LBR 065 ̊ 47.394W56 18 ̊ 21.985N 80% 5.5 80F 206F/M No 065 ̊46.225W2,622 18 ̊298N 75% 4.2 71F Yes LAPS 065 ̊47.394W1,605 18 ̊18.65N 80% 4.5 78F Yes CMM 065 ̊46.227W3,425 18 ̊18.633N 78% 5.5 73F Yes LRV 065 ̊47.546W2,153 18 ̊18.136N 80% 5 72F Yes YCR 065 ̊47.047WThe Tropical Dry Forest, Guánica Dry Forest Flora in this area is limited due to its climate. In this area dry soils are relativelyunproductive because plants need sufficient quantities of liquid to live. This plantneed to go to some adaptations due to the extremely dry climate. Rain comesinfrequently but when it comes the vegetation is transformed. Many plants have
highly reduced leaves that resist excessive water loss. Other adaptation is the Cam(caarssulacean acid metabolism) in which the plant takes CO2 at night and thestomata remain close in the day. (Campbell biology) The most common one are thebutton mangrove, “uva de playa”, Acacia, Melocatus and Agave.Plants in Guánica:●Button mangrove: it’s an introduce plant, located far away from the cost. Theseplants extract salts from soli. This inhibits the plant growth creating a hypertonicsolution.●Uva de playa: scientific name coccoloba. It’s an introduced tree, are located close tothe cost.●Acacia: plant native from Puerto Rico, this plants contain thorns that protect themfrom predators.●Melocactus: native from Puerto Rico●Agave: live close to limestone, product of ph of rain (5.5 acidic).Thorns: In this forest the plant have a commonly adaptation which are the thorns.The thorns are a transformation that has different purposes. The purposes of thethorns are: 1. Reduce the transpiration of the leaves, which prevent the tree from drying. 2. The photosynthesis is develop on the shaft 3. Prevent that some predators eat the plant. 4. Obligate the animal to eat the fruit which benefits the dispersion of the plantResults from Guánica:Quadrants Group 1
Line Transects Group 1Quadrants Group 2
Line Transept Group 2Quadrants Group 3
Line Transept Group 3Conclusion
The methodologies that we used on both ecosystems helped us understand somedifferences between them. The Yunque soil is more moist and cooler than theGuánica Dry Forest which soil was mostly dry and arid. The Guánica’s resultsshowed how rocks were an important part of this forest. Rocks make a barrier againstfire to protect the forest. The barriers of rocks helps protect the plants from fire sothey can reproduce. The plant adaptations that these both ecosystems have got to gothrough are totally different.These different ecosystems have gone through so many different adaptations that havehelped them evolve through time. The differences between the rain forest el Yunqueand the Guanica dry forest are their distribution patterns, the precipitation, theirplants, animals, temperature and their human interact within these ecosystems. Theyare the total opposite, one has a great diversity among species and the other has anarrower scale of species. Both of them make great contributions to this island, byhelping us study their different adaptations it has helped us identify how evolutionand natural selection are an important aspect of nature.