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The Structure of Matter
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The Structure of Matter



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  • 1. Section 4.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonds
    • _Bonds_ form when two or more atoms join together.
    •  Many _substances_ mean many ways to bond.
    •  Three Main Types of Bonds
    • _Ionic_ Bonds
    • _Metallic_ Bonds
    • 3. _Covalent_ Bonds
  • 2. The Goal of Bonding
        • The goal of bonding is to get a full __Valence__ _Shell_.
        • This is accomplished by either _sharing_ a pair of electrons or by _transferring_ them from one atom to another.
  • 3. Bonds are Springy!
        • Bonds can _Bend__ and _stretch_ without breaking.
        • Some bonds are __stronger__ and more _rigid_.
        •  Other bonds are _weaker_ and more _flexible_.
        •  Both types are more like _Springs_ than sticks (from the ball-and-stick model).
  • 4. IONIC BONDS!!
        •  Form between _ions_ with opposite charges.
        •  __Metals__ like sodium and calcium form positive ions, or ___cations___.
        •  ___Nonmetals____ like chlorine and oxygen form negative ions, or __anions___.
        •  Ionic bonds form by the __transfer__ of ___electrons___.
        •  One positive ion attracts several __negative__ ions. One negative ion attracts several __positive__ ions. These many attractions form strong __networks__ like NaCl (table salt). (Remember we said that network structures have very high melting points.)
  • 5. The Formula Unit
        •  Ionic compounds form _____________, NOT ________________.
        •  The goal of ionic bonding is to get a _neutral__ charge, so we can determine the number of ions by __balancing__ our charges.
          • o Na + and Cl -  NaCl
          • o Ca +2 and F -  CaF 2
    •  The smallest unit of an ionic compound is called a ___Formula__ __Unit__, NOT a “molecule”.
    Networks molecules
  • 6. Conducting Electricity!
        •  Ionic Compounds conduct __Electricity___ when dissolved in water.
        •  Electricity is just moving charges, and as solids, ionic compounds are __strong__ and can’t __move__, which means their solid form cannot conduct electricity. (Remember the high melting points-It takes a lot to melt these network structures because it takes a lot of energy to break those strong ionic bonds!!)
        •  Ions will __split__ apart in water and can _move_ freely, meaning an electric charge can also move through, or be “__Conducted__”.
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