Section 4.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonds <ul><li>_Bonds_ form when two or more atoms join together. </li></ul><ul><li> Many...
The Goal of Bonding <ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of bonding is to get a full __Valence__  _Shell_. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Bonds are Springy! <ul><ul><ul><li>Bonds can _Bend__ and _stretch_ without breaking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S...
IONIC BONDS!! <ul><ul><ul><li> Form between _ions_ with opposite charges. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> __Metal...
The Formula Unit <ul><ul><ul><li> Ionic compounds form _____________, NOT ________________. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Conducting Electricity! <ul><ul><ul><li> Ionic Compounds conduct __Electricity___ when dissolved in water. </li></ul></u...
 
 
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The Structure of Matter

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The Structure of Matter

  1. 1. Section 4.2 Ionic and Covalent Bonds <ul><li>_Bonds_ form when two or more atoms join together. </li></ul><ul><li> Many _substances_ mean many ways to bond. </li></ul><ul><li> Three Main Types of Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>_Ionic_ Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>_Metallic_ Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>3. _Covalent_ Bonds </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Goal of Bonding <ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of bonding is to get a full __Valence__ _Shell_. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is accomplished by either _sharing_ a pair of electrons or by _transferring_ them from one atom to another. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Bonds are Springy! <ul><ul><ul><li>Bonds can _Bend__ and _stretch_ without breaking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some bonds are __stronger__ and more _rigid_. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Other bonds are _weaker_ and more _flexible_. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Both types are more like _Springs_ than sticks (from the ball-and-stick model). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. IONIC BONDS!! <ul><ul><ul><li> Form between _ions_ with opposite charges. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> __Metals__ like sodium and calcium form positive ions, or ___cations___. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> ___Nonmetals____ like chlorine and oxygen form negative ions, or __anions___. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Ionic bonds form by the __transfer__ of ___electrons___. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> One positive ion attracts several __negative__ ions. One negative ion attracts several __positive__ ions. These many attractions form strong __networks__ like NaCl (table salt). (Remember we said that network structures have very high melting points.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Formula Unit <ul><ul><ul><li> Ionic compounds form _____________, NOT ________________. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> The goal of ionic bonding is to get a _neutral__ charge, so we can determine the number of ions by __balancing__ our charges. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Na + and Cl -  NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>o Ca +2 and F -  CaF 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> The smallest unit of an ionic compound is called a ___Formula__ __Unit__, NOT a “molecule”. </li></ul>Networks molecules
  6. 6. Conducting Electricity! <ul><ul><ul><li> Ionic Compounds conduct __Electricity___ when dissolved in water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Electricity is just moving charges, and as solids, ionic compounds are __strong__ and can’t __move__, which means their solid form cannot conduct electricity. (Remember the high melting points-It takes a lot to melt these network structures because it takes a lot of energy to break those strong ionic bonds!!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Ions will __split__ apart in water and can _move_ freely, meaning an electric charge can also move through, or be “__Conducted__”. </li></ul></ul></ul>
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